3 Who is Basil Bernstein? British sociologist University of London 1924 – 20001971New sociology of education
4 At the Beginning … Concern Sociolinguistic research (1950s/1960s) ‘educational failure’ amongst working classSociolinguistic research (1950s/1960s)Public and formal languageElaborated and restricted speech codes
5 Development of a Theory Pedagogic codes (1970s)Classification and framingPedagogic identity (1970s)Retrospective identity, prospective identityDecentered market, decentered therapeuticPedagogic device (1980s)Horizontal and vertical discourse (1990s)Totally pedagogised society (1990s)
6 Applications Policy, policy reform and education Pedagogy and social diversityCurriculum reform in specific subject areasPedagogic practice in specific contextsTechnology and education
7 Classification & Framing Power relationsRelates to strength ofBordersInsulationControlRelates toLocus of controlSelectionSequencePacingEvaluation (assessment)
8 ESSA: Framing of Evaluation DESCRIPTORStrong framing (F++)The teacher systematically points out what is correct/incorrect in a clear and detailed way.Moderately strong framing (F+)The teacher points out, in general, what is correct/incorrect in a generic way.Moderately weak framing (F-)The teacher points out what is incorrect but does not correct the error.Weak framing(F--)The teacher accepts the learner’s production, questions are only intended to clarify the meaning of those productions
9 Strong framing (F++)Teacher control without consultation with the learners. The teacher determines how learning will occur in terms of the selection of content, communication mode, site, pacing, sequencing and evaluation criteria. The nature of the relationships between teacher-learner, learner-learner and the rules for engagement are explicit and determined by the teacher.Moderately strong framing (F+)Teacher control following consultation with the learners. The teacher ultimately determines how learning will occur and the nature of the relationships. The rules for engagement are known to all.Moderately weak framing (F-)Learner control within defined boundaries following consultation with the teacher. The learner is able to select how learning will occur and the nature of the relationships. The rules for engagement within boundaries that are defined by the teacher are known to all.Weak framing(F--)Learner control without consultation with the teacher. The learner is able to select how learning will occur, and, the nature of the relationships. The rules for engagement are implicit there is no requirement to accept guidance from the teacher.
10 Recognition & Realisation Rules Able to understand meaning in an appropriate wayPassive RealisationAble to answer questions in an appropriate wayActive RealisationAble to make knowledge public in an appropriate way
11 Figure 1: Source Morais and Neves (2001, p.198)
12 Pedagogic Device Distribution Rules Recontextualisation Rules Official recontextualising fieldPedagogic recontextualising fieldEvaluation Rules
13 Pedagogic Device Enables legitimate pedagogic discourse Three rules Distribution ruleRecontextualisation ruleEvaluation ruleRecontextualising fieldsOfficial recontextualising filed (ORF)Pedagogic recontextualising field (PRF)
14 Examples Power relations Schooling in South Africa TensionsChangeSchooling in South AfricaSchool policy in the USATeacher trainingE-learning
16 ConclusionEstablishes a dynamic between theory, empirical research and practice, and fosters an openness and transparency in presentation of the analysis of data that facilitates both induction into the practices of analysis and critical engagement with processes and products of research. It also accommodates a wide range of forms of research and allows for the integration of diverse methods, forms of data and modes of analysis, including the integration of qualitative and quantitative research. (Brown, 2006, p.144)
17 ReferencesBernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity: Theory, research, critique (Rev. ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.Brown, A. (2006). Languages of description and the education of researchers. In R. Moore, M. Arnot, J. Beck & H. Daniels (Eds.), Knowledge, power and educational reform. Applying the sociology of Basil Bernstein (pp ). London: Routledge.Ensor, P. (2004, July). Legitimating school knowledge: The pedagogic device and the remaking of the South African school-leaving certificate Paper presented at the Third International Basil Bernstein Symposium, Cambridge.Morais, A., & Neves, I. (2001). Pedagogic social contexts: Studies for a sociology of learning. In A. Morais, I. Neves, B. Davies & H. Daniels (Eds.), Towards a sociology of pedagogy. The contribution of Basil Bernstein to research (pp ). New York: Peter Lang.Robertson, I. (2006). Teachers integrating online technology in TAFE. Unpublished Doctor of Education, Monash University, Melbourne.Sadovnic, A. R. (2004, July). Towards a sociology of educational change: An application of Bernstein to the U.S. No Child Left Behind. Paper presented at the Third International Basil Bernstein Symposium, Cambridge.