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Introduction to Basil Bernstein Ian Robertson August 2008.

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1 Introduction to Basil Bernstein Ian Robertson August 2008

2

3 Who is Basil Bernstein? British sociologist University of London 1924 – –New sociology of education

4 At the Beginning … Concern –educational failure amongst working class Sociolinguistic research (1950s/1960s) –Public and formal language –Elaborated and restricted speech codes

5 Development of a Theory Pedagogic codes (1970s) –Classification and framing Pedagogic identity (1970s) –Retrospective identity, prospective identity –Decentered market, decentered therapeutic Pedagogic device (1980s) Horizontal and vertical discourse (1990s) Totally pedagogised society (1990s)

6 Applications Policy, policy reform and education Pedagogy and social diversity Curriculum reform in specific subject areas Pedagogic practice in specific contexts Technology and education

7 Classification & Framing Power relations Relates to strength of –Borders –Insulation Control Relates to –Locus of control Selection Sequence Pacing Evaluation (assessment)

8 ESSA: Framing of Evaluation DESCRIPTOR Strong framing (F++) The teacher systematically points out what is correct/incorrect in a clear and detailed way. Moderately strong framing (F+) The teacher points out, in general, what is correct/incorrect in a generic way. Moderately weak framing (F-) The teacher points out what is incorrect but does not correct the error. Weak framing (F--) The teacher accepts the learners production, questions are only intended to clarify the meaning of those productions

9 Strong framing (F++) Teacher control without consultation with the learners. The teacher determines how learning will occur in terms of the selection of content, communication mode, site, pacing, sequencing and evaluation criteria. The nature of the relationships between teacher-learner, learner-learner and the rules for engagement are explicit and determined by the teacher. Moderately strong framing (F+) Teacher control following consultation with the learners. The teacher ultimately determines how learning will occur and the nature of the relationships. The rules for engagement are known to all. Moderately weak framing (F-) Learner control within defined boundaries following consultation with the teacher. The learner is able to select how learning will occur and the nature of the relationships. The rules for engagement within boundaries that are defined by the teacher are known to all. Weak framing (F--) Learner control without consultation with the teacher. The learner is able to select how learning will occur, and, the nature of the relationships. The rules for engagement are implicit there is no requirement to accept guidance from the teacher.

10 Recognition & Realisation Rules Recognition –Able to understand meaning in an appropriate way Passive Realisation –Able to answer questions in an appropriate way Active Realisation –Able to make knowledge public in an appropriate way

11 Figure 1: Source Morais and Neves (2001, p.198)

12 Pedagogic Device Distribution Rules Recontextualisation Rules –Official recontextualising field –Pedagogic recontextualising field Evaluation Rules

13 Pedagogic Device Enables legitimate pedagogic discourse Three rules –Distribution rule –Recontextualisation rule –Evaluation rule Recontextualising fields –Official recontextualising filed (ORF) –Pedagogic recontextualising field (PRF)

14 Examples Power relations –Tensions –Change Schooling in South Africa School policy in the USA Teacher training E-learning

15 External Agencies Curriculum National/State Policy Organisational Policy & Support Vocational Discipline Norms Regional/Local Policies & Issues Pedagogic Pool Specific Instructional Practice Preferred Teaching Principles Variable 1.Use 2.Application 3.Integration Feedback DispositionDisposition Endorsed Software

16 Conclusion Establishes a dynamic between theory, empirical research and practice, and fosters an openness and transparency in presentation of the analysis of data that facilitates both induction into the practices of analysis and critical engagement with processes and products of research. It also accommodates a wide range of forms of research and allows for the integration of diverse methods, forms of data and modes of analysis, including the integration of qualitative and quantitative research. (Brown, 2006, p.144)

17 References Bernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity: Theory, research, critique (Rev. ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. Brown, A. (2006). Languages of description and the education of researchers. In R. Moore, M. Arnot, J. Beck & H. Daniels (Eds.), Knowledge, power and educational reform. Applying the sociology of Basil Bernstein (pp ). London: Routledge. Ensor, P. (2004, July). Legitimating school knowledge: The pedagogic device and the remaking of the South African school-leaving certificate Paper presented at the Third International Basil Bernstein Symposium, Cambridge. Morais, A., & Neves, I. (2001). Pedagogic social contexts: Studies for a sociology of learning. In A. Morais, I. Neves, B. Davies & H. Daniels (Eds.), Towards a sociology of pedagogy. The contribution of Basil Bernstein to research (pp ). New York: Peter Lang. Robertson, I. (2006). Teachers integrating online technology in TAFE. Unpublished Doctor of Education, Monash University, Melbourne. Sadovnic, A. R. (2004, July). Towards a sociology of educational change: An application of Bernstein to the U.S. No Child Left Behind. Paper presented at the Third International Basil Bernstein Symposium, Cambridge.


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