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Amateur Radio Foundation Licence Presentation

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1 Amateur Radio Foundation Licence Presentation
HAM COLLEGE Amateur Radio Foundation Licence Presentation Good Morning, I’m Neil Husk VK6BDO and your other presenters are …………………………………………………………. The object of this presentation is to give you the necessary theory information required for the foundation licence and where possible it will be related back to your manuals by page number. Please don’t go chasing the page for each slide but if there is something that you are not sure of note the page number for future reading. There is paper on the table – feel free to use it. As you are all aware there is a practical assessment in using the radios and some oral questions as part of the exam and we will be going through the required practical skills during the weekend. We intend doing theory and practical sessions alternately. Is there anyone who cannot stay the whole weekend. (work program to suit) Produced by Neil Husk VK6BDO

2 There are nine sections in the syllabus:
Nature of Amateur Radio. Licence Conditions Technical basics Transmitters and Receivers Transmission lines and Antennas Propagation There are nine sections in the syllabus: Nature of Amateur Radio. ▼ Licence Conditions ▼ Technical basics Transmitters and Receivers ▼ Transmission lines and Antennas Propagation Interference Safety Operating practices and Procedures Interference Safety Operating practices and Procedures p87-92

3 Examination The written exam consists of 25 multi choice type questions which are to be completed in 30 minutes. With the exam paper is an information sheet which will contain formula, graphs, charts and diagrams to assist you in answering the questions. You must obtain 70% (18 correct) to pass the theory and progress to the practical Examinations The written exam consists of 25 multi choice type questions which are to be completed in 30 minutes. Some questions will have formula, a graph or a diagram printed with it. You must obtain 70% (18 correct) to pass the theory. The practical exam includes several oral questions and will require you to do several demonstrations. During the weekend we will cover all aspectsof the written and practical To correlate the theory and practical. Once the theory is passed there is no need to ever resit the exam (provided you keep the pass letter) regardless of the result of the practical. However if the practical is passed and the theory failed then the theory must be completed within twelve months or both must be redone. The practical exam includes several oral questions and will require you to do several demonstrations. p 92

4 Nature of Amateur Radio
Amateur radio is intended to facilitate the hobby of radio communications. Amateur radio as a hobby has many aspects: Technical Innovation Emergency communications Contesting Nature of Amateur Radio Amateur radio is intended to facilitate the hobby of radio communications. Amateur radio as a hobby has many aspects: Technical Innovation first entertainment in aust; first radio pictures, first TV digital systems used on internet are direct descendants of packet radio; yag iantennas Emergency communications; Asian Tsunami;; Darwin Tracey; Newcastle earthquake; New Orleans ▼ Contesting; ▼ Satellite communications; ▼ Digital Modes; ▼ Fox Hunting And many more Satellite Communications Digital Modes Fox Hunting And many more p 55

5 Types of Licences Amateur radio activities are authorised under an amateur licence. Other forms of licences authorise other types of radio communication such as Citizens Band (CB); Land Mobile; Point to Point links; Broadcasting. Types of Licences Amateur radio activities are authorised under an amateur licence. Other forms of licences authorise other types of radio communication such as Citizens Band (CB); a class licence allows specific frequencies and specific equipment Land Mobile; Point to Point links; Broadcasting. p 55

6 Licence Conditions Operation of an amateur station is subject to the conditions in the: Radiocommunications Act 1992 Radiocommunications Regulations 1993 Radiocommunications Licence Conditions (Amateur Licence) Determination No1 of 1997 Licence Conditions Operation of an amateur station is subject to the conditions in the: Radiocommunications Act ▼ Radiocommunications Regulations 1993 These two give the legal aspects for all radio comms in Aust Radiocommunications Licence Conditions (Amateur Licence) Determination No1 of 1997 Radiocommunications licence conditions (Apparatus Licence) Determination 2003 (as amended) The latest amendment was released in 2005. Handout LCD Radiocommunications Licence Conditions (Apparatus Licence) Determination 2003 (as amended) The latest amendment was released in 2005. p 56

7 Allocation of Frequency Bands
The Amateur Service operates on frequency bands allocated for Amateur use. Other services such as broadcasting, aeronautical and maritime are allocated their own frequency bands. The amateur service shares some frequency bands with other services Allocation of Frequency Bands The Amateur Service operates on frequency bands allocated for Amateur use. Each band covers a range of frequencies and as long as an amateur stays within the range they have access to a wide range of frequencies Other services such as broadcasting, aeronautical and maritime are allocated their own frequency bands. The amateur service shares some frequency bands with other services Three levels Exclusive – only user; Primary shares but has priority; secondary shares and must avoid interfering. The allocated bands are laid down in the LCD The allocated bands are laid down in the LCD P 55

8 Purpose of the Amateur Service
An Amateur Licence primarily authorises the operation of an amateur station for: Self training in radio communications; Intercommunications between amateurs Technical investigations into radio communications Purpose of the amateur Service An Amateur Licence primarily authorises the operation of an amateur station for: Self Training in radio communications; Intercommunications between amateurs Technical investigations into radio communications Remember FL’s are not to modify or use modified equipment. p 55

9 Communications by Amateur Stations
Except in a distress or emergency situation the amateur licence only authorises amateur to amateur communications. A Radio Inspector may authorise out of band operations for a specific reason. Amateurs may transmit messages on behalf of a third party with in Australia provided it is not for gain, commercial purposes, an advertisement or entertainment. Communications by amateur Stations Except in a distress or emergency situation the amateur licence only authorises amateur to amateur communications. A Radio Inspector may authorise out of band operations for a specific reason. Amateurs may transmit messages on behalf of a third party with in Australia provided it is not for gain, commercial purposes, an advertisement or entertainment. A third party is defined as a non amateur Third party messages to other countries have depend on the other countries laws. Third party messages to other countries depends on that countries (the other country) laws. p 55

10 Distress Signals Distress signals are used where “imminent danger exists to human life” Distress communications are indicated by the use of the word ‘Mayday’. Distress communications have priority over all other communications. Distress Signals Distress signals are used where “imminent danger exists to human life” Many cruising yachts use AR and so distress calls may come on amateur bands Distress communications are indicated by the use of the word ‘Mayday’. Distress communications have priority over all other communications Any person hearing a ‘Mayday’ communication are responsible for passing the information to an appropriate authority. An appropriate authority would depend on the situation. Local situations – local authorities – small boat off Hilllaries marine ops Fremantle Volunteer Sea rescue or police but a cruising yacht 400 miles away - AUSSAR Canberra. Whereas a situation involving a 4WDt on the canning stock route would be the state police. When in doubt ring the police. Any person hearing a ‘Mayday’ communication are responsible for passing the information to an appropriate authority. p 57

11 Urgency Signals Urgency signals are used where human life is not in imminent danger but assistance is urgently required. Urgency signals are indicated by the use of ‘Pan Pan’ Urgency signals receive priority of all communications except distress signals. Urgency Signals Urgency signals are indicated by the use of ‘Pan Pan’ Urgency signals receive priority of all communications except distress signals. Urgency signals should be reported to an appropriate authority. The same as for mayday – common sense but report it. Urgency signals should be reported to an appropriate authority. p 57

12 Question 1 An amateur licence allows the holder to transmit on:
A. Marine Bands B. Aeronautical Bands C. Amateur Bands D. Any HF Band Question 1 An amateur licence allows the holder to transmit on: A. Marine Bands B. Aeronautical Bands C. Amateur Bands D. Any HF Band ANSWER: C - Amateur Bands ANSWER: C - Amateur Bands

13 Question 2 Amateur radio is intended to facilitate:
A. Commercial gain in radio communications B. A way of saving on phone bills C. A way of using unwanted commercial radio equipment D. A hobby in radio communications Question2 Amateur radio is intended to facilitate: A. Commercial gain in radio communications B. A way of saving on phone bills C. A way of using unwanted commercial radio equipment D. A hobby in radio communications ANSWER: D - A hobby in radio communications ANSWER: D - A hobby in radio communications

14 Question 3 You hear an urgency message, you should:
A. Switch off your radio B. Tell everyone on the frequency C. Ring emergency services D. Give the message priority Question 3 You hear an urgency message, you should: A. Switch off your radio B. Tell everyone on the frequency C. Ring emergency services D. Give the message priority ANSWER: D - Give the message priority ANSWER: D - Give the message priority

15 Amateur Call Signs Australian amateur call signs consist of two letters, followed by one numeral and two, three or four letters. VK6NT VK6KTS VK6FNBX Australian call signs normally commence with the letters ‘VK’. This is an international allocation to Australia. Amateur Call Signs Australian amateur call signs consist of two letters, followed by one numeral and two, three or four letters. Australian call signs normally commence with the letters ‘VK’. Amateur call signs use VK – aircraft use VH This is an international allocation to Australia. Aust allocation includes AXA-AXZ; VHA – VNZ; VZA-VZZ Other countries use other prefix’s Britain GAA- GZZ & MAA-MZZ USA NAA-NZZ; KAA-KZZ Other allocations which may be issued to Aust amateurs are ‘VI and ‘AX’. These are only issued for special events on a temporary basis Other allocations which may be issued to Aust amateurs are ‘VI and ‘AX’. These are only issued for special events on a temporary basis. p 58, 69-70

16 Amateur Call Signs The numeral identifies the State or Territory in which the amateur is licensed to operate. 1 Australian Capital Territory 2 New south Wales 3 Victoria 4 Queensland 5 South Australia 6 Western Australia 7 Tasmania 8 Northern Territory 9 External Territories 0 Antarctica Amateur Call Signs The numeral identifies the State or Territory in which the amateur is licensed to operate. 1 Australian Capital Territory 2 New south Wales 3 Victoria 4 Queensland 5 South Australia 6 Western Australia 7 Tasmania 8 Northern Territory 9 External Territories 0 Antarctica Not all countries run a system like this. p 69

17 Amateur Call Signs The remaining two, three or four letters identify the type of licence held by the operator. Any two letter suffix, or three letter suffix that begin with A, B, C, D, E, F, G, J, K, T, U, W, X, Y & Z indicate an advanced licence. A three letter suffix beginning with H, L, M, N, P & V indicate a Standard licence. Amateur Call Signs The remaining two, three or four letters identify the type of licence held by the operator. Any two letter suffix or three letter suffix that begin with A, B, C, D, E, F, G, J, K, T, U, W, X, Y & Z indicate an advanced licence. A three letter suffix beginning with H, L, M, N, P & V indicate a Standard licence. Four letter suffix’s are Foundation licences. Three letter suffix beginning with R are repeaters or beacons I Q and O are generally NOT used. There are always exceptions Four letter suffix’s are Foundation licences. Three letter suffix beginning with R are repeaters or beacons. p 70

18 Station Identification
The correct identification for an amateur station is the call sign allocated to that station. Station identification must be transmitted at the beginning of a transmission or series of transmissions, at least every ten minutes during the series of transmissions and at the end of the series. A series of transmissions is a continual conversation between two or more stations. Station Identification The correct identification for an amateur station is the call sign allocated to that station. Station identification must be transmitted at the beginning of a transmission or series of transmissions, at least every ten minutes during the series of transmissions and at the end of the series. A series of transmissions is a continual conversation between two or more stations. Any transmission must be contain station identification. At the start and end of a series of transmissions and for individual transmissions the call letters should be given (not a word) On HF phonetised letters should be used Any transmission must be contain station identification. p 57

19 Q Codes Three letter groups commencing with Q were originally introduced to shorten commonly used phrases particularly when using morse code. They can be used to clarify common messages when conditions are not good or there is a language difficulty. When using voice communications under good conditions it is not necessary to use Q codes. Q Codes Three letter groups commencing with Q were originally introduced to shorten commonly used phrases particularly when using morse code. They can be used to clarify common messages when conditions are not good or there is a language difficulty. When using voice communications under good conditions it is not necessary to use Q codes. As foundation licensees you are not required to know any of the Q code but do need a knowledge of what it is for. As foundation licensees you are not required to know any of the Q code but do need a knowledge of what it is for. p 81

20 Secret Messages The transmission of secret coded or encrypted messages is generally not permitted. Secret messages The transmission of secret coded or encrypted messages is generally not permitted. The only allowable use of coded or encrypted signals is for the control of satellites, repeaters, beacons etc. The only allowable use of coded or encrypted signals is for the control of satellites, repeaters, beacons etc. p 55, 58

21 Transmission of Entertainment
The transmission of any form of entertainment is not permitted The transmission of any form of entertainment is not permitted. p 55

22 General Do Not’s An amateur station may not be used for commercial gain. An amateur station may not be used to advertise any item or service. Subjects on which many people have very strong opinions can easily cause heated arguments or can cause individual offence, such as Religion, Politics or Sex should be avoided. General Do Not’s An amateur station may not be used for commercial gain. An amateur station may not be used to advertise any item or service. Subjects on which many people have very strong opinions or can easily cause heated arguments or individual offence, such as Religion, Politics or Sex should be avoided. p 55

23 Question 4 An amateur call sign VK2BH would belong to:
A. An American licensed technician in Boston B. An Australian licensed amateur in NSW C. A foreign amateur operating in Australia D. An Amateur licensed in Venezuela Question 4 An amateur call sign VK2BH would belong to: A. An American licensed technician in Boston B. An Australian licensed amateur in NSW C. A foreign amateur operating in Australia D. An Amateur licensed in Venezuela ANSWER: B - An Australian amateur in NSW ANSWER: B - An Australian amateur in NSW

24 Question 5 All amateur transmissions must include: A. Your name
B. Your location C. The power being used D. Your call sign Question 5 All amateur transmissions must include: A. Your name B. Your location C. The power being used D. Your call sign ANSWER: D - Your Call sign ANSWER: D - Your Call sign

25 Question 6 An amateur must produce their licence for:
A. Anyone who asks for it B. Local government inspectors C. ACMA inspectors D. A person claiming interference from your station Question 6 An amateur must produce their licence for: A. Anyone who asks for it B. Local government inspectors C. ACMA inspectors D. A person claiming interference from your station ANSWER: C - ACMA inspectors ANSWER: C - ACMA inspectors

26 Radiotelephony Procedures
Before looking at the actual procedures, Radio telephony is voice and radio telegraphy is morse code. Before transmitting always listen to ensure you will not interfere with another transmission already in progress. Remember that you may not be able to hear both sides of another conversation. If in doubt – ask “is the frequency in use”. Radio Telephony Procedures Before looking at the actual procedures a couple of general points Radio telephony is voice and radio telegraphy is morse code. Before transmitting always listen to ensure you will not interfere with another transmission already in progress Remember that you may not be able to hear both sides of another conversation. On VHF the far station may be out of your range but the nearer station will hear you and the station you cant hear. On HF it is even more pronounced. It is really annoying to be listening to a station who is fairly weak but you are having an interesting conversation with only to have some other station come up on the same frequency and blot your contact out compoletely. If in doubt – ask “is the frequency in use”. Be prepared for a short “frequency is in use’ or even just ‘YES’ – this isnt being rude it indicates that the station who has answered doesn’t want his conversation interrupted. Avoid using Slang or big words. For many overseas ops english is a second language and they learnt it in school. ‘Yes I understand’ would be fine but ‘yeeaah I no wot ya meen’ would leave them confused. Many foreign operators often are using AR to improve their language skills. Try and determine what level their skills are at early. Remember you never know who listening. For every one person who actually talks on air there are ten or so listening to see what is going on. There are people who don’t have a licence to transmit and their hobby is listening to see who they can hear - SWL’s The ACMA inspectors do at times listen around and there have been instances of warning letters arriving with no warning. Avoid using Slang or big words. Remember you never know who listening. p 60, 61

27 Radiotelephony Procedures
Radio telephony is voice and radio telegraphy is morse code. The call in telephony consists of: The call sign of the called station not more than three times; The words “This is”; The call sign of the calling station not more than three times The word “Over” Radio Telephony Procedures Radio telephony is voice and radio telegraphy is morse code. The call in telephony consists of: The call sign of the called station not more than three times; The words “This is”; The call sign of the calling station not more than three times The word “Over” VK6KTS VK6KTS VK6KTS THIS IS VK6BDO VK6BDO VK6BDO OVER Note Not more than 3 times. In good conditions less is fine. On VHF 3 are rarely used. On HF (particularly when calling CQ) three are usual until good comms have been established.. VK6KTS VK6KTS VK6KTS THIS IS VK6BDO VK6BDO VK6BDO OVER p 61

28 Radio Telephony Procedures
A general call to any station may be made by substituting the signal ‘CQ’ for the called station. CQ CQ CQ THIS IS VK6BDO VK6BDO VK6BDO OVER On certain occasions a station may modify a CQ call with an additional designation. CQ DX - calling CQ but wants a distant station. CQ JOTA - Any JOTA station. CQ Contest - Any contest station Radio Telephony Procedures A general call to any station may be made by substituting the signal ‘CQ’ for the called station. CQ CQ CQ THIS IS VK6BDO VK6BDO VK6BDO OVER On certain occasions a station may modify a CQ call with an additional designation. CQ DX - calling CQ but wants a distant station. CQ JOTA - Any JOTA station. CQ Contest - Any contest station When calling CQ on HF 3 call signs allow a station to tune properly. A CQ call is not usually used on U/VHF it is more common to just announce a call sign and say listening. p 62

29 Radio Telephony Procedures
A reply to a call should consist of: The call sign of the calling station not more than three times; The words “This is” The call sign of the replying station not more than three times The word “Over” Radio Telephony Procedures A reply to a call should consist of: The call sign of the calling station not more than three times; The words “This is” The call sign of the replying station not more than three times The word “Over” VK6BDO VK6BDO VK6BDO THIS IS VK6KTS VK6KTS VK6KTS OVER Again when responding to a call on HF 3 call signs to give the other station time to tune. On U/VHF 1 from 1 is enough. VK6BDO VK6BDO VK6BDO THIS IS VK6KTS VK6KTS VK6KTS OVER p 62

30 Authorised Frequency Bands and Emission Modes
Each grade of amateur licence allows the use of different frequency bands and emission modes that may be used on each band. The permitted frequency bands and the modes permitted on that band, for each grade of licence are shown in the LCD. Authorised Frequency Bands and Emission Modes Each grade of amateur licence allows the use of different frequency bands and emission modes that may be used on each band. The permitted frequency bands and the modes permitted on that band, for each grade of licence are shown in the LCD. Remember that all transmissions have band width and all of the transmission must be within the allocated band Demo p 59 & LCD

31 Authorised Frequency Bands and Emission Modes
Table Note that the table is in two sections only emissions in section one can be used on frequencies in section one. LCD

32 Permitted Output Power
The Amateur Foundation Licence allows a maximum power output of 10 Watts when using Single Side Band (SSB), Amplitude Modulation (AM), Frequency Modulation (FM) or Carrier Wave (CW) emissions. Permitted Output Power The Amateur Foundation Licence allows a maximum power output of 10 Watts when using Single Side Band and only 3 Watts when using Amplitude Modulation, Frequency Modulation or Carrier Wave emissions. The ACMA have said that this will change to be 10 Watts on any emission in the near future. This is not law yet p 58

33 Type of Equipment Allowed
The Foundation Licence only authorises the use of unmodified, commercially manufactured transmitting equipment. Type of Equipment Allowed The Foundation Licence only authorises the use of unmodified, commercially manufactured transmitting equipment. Technically this includes second hand equipment which has been modified or home brewed (amateur made). p 58

34 Equipment Must Not Be Modified
The Foundation licensee must not make any modifications to any amateur radio transmitting equipment. Equipment must not be Modified The Foundation licensee must not make any modifications to any amateur radio transmitting equipment. Note the radio transmitting equipment this does not include antennas power supplies etc. p 58

35 Harmful Interference A licensee must not operate a Amateur station if operation causes harmful interference to other radio services. Harmful Interference A licensee must not operate a Amateur station if operation causes harmful interference to other radio services. Radio services means radio communication services not broadcast. p 54

36 Restriction of Operation
The ACMA has the right to restricted the operation of an amateur station to avoid interference. Restriction of Operation The ACMA has the right to restricted the operation of an amateur station to avoid interference. If a complaint is received regarding a communication service – expect to be shut down until you prove the problem is fixed. If it relates to a broadcast service the amateur station may be inspected but will not automatically be shut down unless your station is proved to at fault. p 58

37 Inspection of Amateur Licences
ACMA inspectors have the right to require an amateur to produce his/her licence. ACMA inspectors have the right to inspect stations. Inspectors also have the right to confiscate any unlawful equipment or equipment that is capable of being used in an unlawful manner. Inspection of Amateur Licences ACMA inspectors have the right to require an amateur to produce his/her licence. ACMA inspectors have the right to inspect stations. Inspectors also have the right to confiscate any unlawful equipment or equipment that is capable of being used in an unlawful manner. In this respect RI’s have greater search and seizure powers than state police. No warrant is needed and siezure of unlicenced or illegally used equipment is at their discretion. p 58 & Radio Regs

38 Notification of Change of Address
An amateur licence is issued to operate from a specific address. The ACMA must be notified of any permanent change of address within 7 days of the change. Operation from a temporary address may be continued for up to four months. Notification of change of Address An amateur licence is issued to operate from a specific address. The ACMA will not issue a licence to a postal address only to residential address. The ACMA must be notified of any permanent change of address within 7 days of the change. Operation from a temporary address may be continued for up to four months. p 58

39 Authorised use of Amateur Stations
A Foundation licensee may authorise a suitably Qualified person to operate the licensee’s Amateur Station. To operate a station is to control the transmitting equipment. A qualified person is a person who has a certificate of proficiency – not necessarily a licence. Authorised use of Amateur Stations A Foundation licensee may authorise a suitably Qualified person to operate the licensee’s Amateur Station. To operate a station is to control the transmitting equipment. A qualified person is a person who has a certificate of proficiency – not necessarily a licence. Regardless of the grade of certificate of Proficiency a person authorised to operate another persons station must operate IAW the station licence. You can only authorised a person to your licence level.

40 Third Party Traffic Do Not Confuse this with Authorised Station Use
To operate a station is to control the transmitting equipment. If the licensee is in control of the station anyone may use the microphone and talk. You may also pass messages, within Australia, for a person other than the amateur you are talking to. This is termed “Third Party Traffic” Third party Traffic DO NOT CONFUSE THIS WITH AUTHORISED STATION USE To operate a station is to control the transmitting equipment. If the licensee is in control of the station anyone may use the microphone and talk. Note that in control means there and supervising at all times. You may also pass messages, within Australia, for a person other than the amateur you are talking to. Give example. This is termed “Third Party Traffic” Other countries may not allow this and it is subject to the other countries laws. If you are talking within Australia there is no restriction but if talking to an overseas station it depends on that countries regulations. Question Other countries may not allow this and it is subject to the other countries laws. p 56

41 Question 7 Foundation licence holders must use equipment that is:
A. A specified brand. B. Unmodified transmitting equipment C. Modified transmitting equipment D. Second hand equipment Question 7 Foundation licence holders must use equipment that is: A. A specified brand. B. Unmodified transmitting equipment C. Modified transmitting equipment D. Second hand equipment ANSWER: B. Unmodified transmitting equipment ANSWER: B. Unmodified transmitting equipment

42 Question 8 A message on behalf of a third party is subject to:
A. The number of words B. Where the third party is located C. OK on some frequencies D. Regulatory Conditions Question 8 A message on behalfd of a third party is subject to: A. The number of words B. Where the third party is located C. OK on some frequencies D. Regulatory Conditions ANSWER: D. Regulatory Conditions ANSWER: D. Regulatory Conditions

43 Question 9 Specified bands and emissions for amateur operators are contained in: A. Transceiver user manuals B. Amateur radio journals C. Foundation manual D. Licence conditions determination Question 9 Specified bands and emissions for amateur operators are contained in: A. Transceiver user manuals B. Amateur radio journals C. Foundation manual D. Licence conditions determination ANSWER: D Licence Conditions Determination ANSWER: D Licence Conditions Determination

44 Technical Basics The universe is made up of matter.
All matter is made up of atoms Atoms consist of charged particles called protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons have a positive charge; electrons have a negative charge while neutrons are not charged Technical Basics The universe is made up of matter. All matter is made up of atoms Atoms consist of charged particles called protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons have a positive charge; electrons have a negative charge while neutrons are not charged It is these charged particles that give rise to electricity as we understand and apply it in todays electronic applications. It is these charged particles that give rise to electricity as we understand and apply it in todays electronic applications.

45 Electricity When two charged bodies are placed close together or connected, like charges will repel and unlike charges will attract each other. + Attract Repel Electricity When two charged bodies are placed close together or connected like charges will repel and unlike charges will attract each other. Diag If unlike charges are connected by a material that will allow the charges to move through it the charges will attempt to equal the number of protons (+) and electrons(-) in each body. Or at least to establish an equal number of electrons in each body. If unlike charges are connected by a material that will allow the charges to move through it the charges will attempt to equal the number of protons (+) and electrons(-) in each body.

46 Electricity If a substance allows electrons to move through it easily it is known as a conductor. If it does not allow the passage of electrons it is an insulator. The flow of electrons along a conductor, to equal the charges, is an electric current. Electricity If a substance allows electrons to move through it easily it is known as a conductor. Some are not as good as others – Gold, Copper If it does not allow the passage of electrons it is an insulator. Some not as good as other Glass, Porcelain, Mica pure water The flow of electrons along a conductor, to equal the charges, is an electric current. p 7, 8

47 Electric Current An electric current is the ordered flow of electrons along a conductor. Because the electrons are the particles that can move the flow will be from negative to positive. Electric current is represented in formula and circuit diagrams by the symbol ‘I’. Electric Current An electric current is the ordered flow of electrons along a conductor. Because the electrons are the particles that can move the current will flow from negative to positive. To move a proton requires splitting the nucleus of the atom – a nuclear explosion. Electric current is represented in formula and circuit diagrams by the symbol ‘I’. Current is measured in Amperes (A). Current is measured in Amperes (A). p 10

48 Electrical Pressure For a current to flow there must be a difference in charge between two points. The difference in charge is known as a Voltage, Potential Difference or Electromotive Force. Voltage uses the symbol ‘V’ or ‘E’ for formula. Electrical Pressure For a current to flow there must be a difference in charge between two points. The difference in charge is known as a Voltage, Potential Difference or Electromotive Force. Often referred to as EMF Voltage uses the symbol ‘V’ or ‘E’ for formula. Voltage is measured in Volts (V). Voltage is measured in Volts (V). p 10

49 Resistance For a current to flow there must be a conductor connecting two points of different voltage. Where ever we have movement we have an opposing force. The opposition to current flow is Resistance. Resistance uses the symbol ‘R’ for formula. Resistance For a current to flow there must be a conductor connecting two points of different voltage. Where ever we have movement we have an opposing force. The opposition to current flow is Resistance. Resistance uses the symbol ‘R’ for formula. Resistance is measured in Ohms (Ω). Resistance is measured in Ohms (Ω). p 10

50 Ohms Law In a circuit the Voltage (forward pressure), Current (Electron Flow) and Resistance (opposition to flow) are related. Ohms law states “The current in a circuit is directly proportional to the Voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance”. V As a formula - I = V/R Ohms Law In a circuit the Voltage (forward pressure), Current (Electron Flow) and Resistance (opposition to flow) are related. Ohms law states “The current in a circuit is directly proportional to the Voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance”. As a formula - I = V / R Or V = IR Or R = V / I In formula where two values are multiplied the x is usually left out NOTE: These formula are on the exam information paper Or V = IR I R Or R = V/I NOTE: These formula are on the exam information paper. p 11

51 Power Power is the ability of a force to do work.
In electrics, this can be turning a motor, causing a light bulb to glow or causing an electromagnetic wave to form around an antenna. Electrical power uses the abbreviation ‘P’ for formula. Power Power is the ability of a force to do work. In electrics, this can be turning a motor, causing a light bulb to glow or causing an electromagnetic wave to form around an antenna. Electrical power uses the abbreviation ‘P’ for formula. Electrical power is measured in Watts (W). Electrical power is measured in Watts (W). p 12

52 Power Electrical Power depends upon the Voltage and Current in the circuit. As a formula: P = VI P Or V = P/I V I Or I = P/V Power Electrical Power depends upon the Voltage and Current in the circuit. As a formula: P = VI Or V = P/I Or I = P/V NOTE: These formula are on the exam information sheet. NOTE: These formula are on the exam information sheet. p 12

53 Direct Current Direct Current (DC): Flows in one direction only.
A battery provides a source of DC. + Direct Current Direct Current (DC): Flows in one direction only. A battery provides a source of DC. Diag Provided there is a circuit current will flow from negative to positive. Provided there is a circuit current will flow from negative to positive. p 8

54 Incorrect Polarity Many simple devices, such as light bulbs, will operate on DC regardless of which way the current is flowing. The direction of current flow is known as the polarity of the circuit. More complex electronic devices and/or circuits can be damaged if connected with incorrect polarity. Incorrect Polarity Many simple devices, such as light bulbs, will operate on DC regardless of which way the current is flowing. The direction of current flow is know as the polarity of the circuit. More complex electronic devices and/or circuits can be damaged if connected with incorrect polarity. Excessive voltage can also damage electronic components. Excessive voltage can also damage electronic components.

55 Alternating Current Alternating Current (AC): The direction of current flow changes with time. Voltage Time An alternator produces an AC current. Alternating current Alternating Current (AC): The direction of current flow changes with time. Diag A alternator produces an AC current The term alternator and generator are often mixed up. An alternator produces AC while a generator produces DC AC is easy to generate. AC can be easily transformed to a different voltage. AC is easy to generate. AC can be easily transformed to a different voltage. p 8

56 Alternating Current AC is easier to produce and transform than DC.
1 cycle The AC wave shape is a sine wave. Alternating current AC is easier to produce and transform than DC. Diag The AC wave shape is a sine wave. Note that a sine wave is NOT two half circles. The shape of the wave is determined by the fact that it is normally produced by a circular motion and it is a trigonometrical function One complete wave is one cycle Alternators and oscillators create sine waves (AC). One complete wave is one cycle. Alternators and oscillators create sine waves (AC). p 14

57 Frequency 1 Second Frequency Frequency is the number of complete cycles per second. Frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz). The frequency shown above is 4 Hertz. Mains is 50Hz. Radio waves are at thousands or millions of Hertz. Frequency is the number of complete cycles per second. Frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz). The frequency shown above is 4 Hertz. Mains is 50Hz. p 14

58 Question 10 An electric current is:
A. The voltage applied to a conductor. B. The opposition offered to electrons in a circuit. C. The ordered movement of electrons in a circuit. D The heat generated by moving electrons. Question 10 An electric current is: A. The voltage applied to a conductor. B. The opposition offered to electrons in a circuit. C. The ordered movement of electrons in a circuit. D The heat generated by moving electrons. ANSWER: C The ordered movement of electrons in a circuit. ANSWER: C The ordered movement of electrons in a circuit.

59 Question 11 Electrical Power in measured in: A. Watts B. Ohms C. Volts
D. Hertz Question 11 Electrical Power in measured in: A. Watts B. Ohms C. Volts D. Hertz ANSWER: A. Watts ANSWER: A. Watts

60 Question 12 If 10 Volts is applied to a circuit containing 5 Ohms resistance a current of _______ will result. A Amps B. 2 Amps C Amps I = V/R D. 5 Amps Question 12 If 10 Volts is applied to a circuit containing 5 Ohms resistance a current of _______ will result. A Amps B. 2 Amps C Amps I = V/R D. 5 Amps ANSWER: 2 Amps ANSWER: 2 Amps

61 Wavelength In air, the velocity (v) of radio waves, is 300, 000,000 metres per second. The wave length is the distance the front of the wave has travelled in the time taken for the wave to complete a cycle. Wavelength In air, the velocity (v) of radio waves, is 300, 000,000 metres per second. The wave length is the distance the front of the wave has travelled in the time taken for the wave to complete a cycle. Diag Not the same as frequency. Frequency is measured against time whereas wavelength is measured against distance. Distance travelled at 300,000,000 metres/sec p 14

62 Electrical Units Quantity Indicator Unit Symbol Voltage Current
Resistance Power Frequency Wavelength V I R P f λ Volt Amp Ohm Watt Hertz Metre V A Ω W Hz m Electrical Units Quantity Indicator Unit Symbol Voltage Current Resistance Power Frequency Wavelength V I R P f λ Volt Amp Ohm Watt Hertz Metre A Ω W Hz m NOTE: Voltage is sometimes referred to as Potential Difference or Electromotive Force (EMF), the symbol E may be used. NOTE: Voltage is sometimes referred to as Potential Difference or Electromotive Force (EMF), the symbol E may be used.

63 Unit Prefixes Often the units we have to use are very small or very large. Frequency is usually in thousands or millions of Hertz but current is often in thousandths or millionths of an Amp. To avoid writing f = Hz or A= A, scientific prefixes are used. Unit Prefixes Often the units we have to use are very small or very large. Frequency is usually in thousands or millions of Hertz but current is often in thousandths or millionths of an Amp. To avoid writing f = Hz or A= A, scientific prefixes are used. Some of these are used every day. 1 Kilometre is a 1000 metres 1 millimetre is metres Some of these are used every day. 1 Kilometre is a 1000 metres. 1 millimetre is metres. p 13

64 SI Units Factor Prefix Symbol Millionth micro µ or u
Thousandth milli m Thousands kilo k Millions Mega M SI Units Factor Prefix Symbol ▼ Millionth micro µ or u ▼ Thousandth milli m ▼ Thousands kilo k ▼ Millions Mega M ▼ The prefix can be applied to any Unit. 2MV = 2 Mega volts (2,000,000V) 2mV = 2 milli volts (0.002V) The prefix can be applied to any Unit. p 13 2MV = 2 Mega volts (2,000,000V) 2mV = 2 milli volts (0.002V)

65 Examples of Prefixes 5000V = 5kV
Kilo is So 5000 divided by 1000 = 5 4.7kΩ = 4700Ω Big unit to smaller unit - multiply 1500mA = 1.5 A Little unit to bigger unit - divide 0.6MHz = kHz 600 Big to little - multiply 1A = mA 1000 Big to little - multiply Examples of prefixes 5000V = 5kV ▼ Kilo is So 5000 divided by 1000 = 5 4.7kΩ = 4700Ω ▼ Big unit to smaller unit – multiply 1500mA = 1.5 A ▼ Little unit to bigger unit – divide 0.6MHz = ▼ kHz ▼ 600 ▼ Big to little – multiply 1A = ▼ mA ▼ ▼ Big to little - multiply 50mV = ▼ V ▼ ▼ Little to big – divide 5MΩ = ▼ Ω ▼ 5,000,000 ▼ Big to little - multiply 50mV = V 0.05 Little to big - divide 5MΩ = Ω 5,000,000 Big to little - multiply

66 Frequency and Wavelength
If wavelength is the distance travelled while one wave completes then the frequency must affect the wavelength. f = 1 Hz With a frequency of 1Hz the wavelength will be 300,000kms 1 Second Frequency and Wavelength If wavelength is the distance travelled while one wave completes then the frequency must affect the wavelength. Diag The more times the wave changes direction the less time there is for the wave front to travel. With a frequency of 1Hz the wavelength will be 300,000kms With a frequency of 3Hz the wavelength will be 100,000kms With a frequency of 3Hz the wavelength will be 100,000kms f = 3Hz p 15

67 Frequency and Wavelength
The higher the frequency the shorter the wave length. The lower the frequency the longer the wave length. The conversion chart will be available in the exam. NOTE: The frequency is in Megahertz Frequency and Wvelength The higher the frequency the shorter the wave length. The lower the frequency the longer the wave length. Diag The conversion chart will be available in the exam. Demo use NOTE: The frequency is in Megahertz P 15

68 Question 13 1000 Volts is often represented as A. 1mV B. 1MV C. 1kV
D. 0.1kV Question 13 1000 Volts is often represented as A. 1mV B. 1MV C. 1kV D. 0.1kV ANSWER: C 1kV (kilovolt) ANSWER: C 1kV (kilovolt)

69 Question 14 Wavelength has the symbol ____ and is measured in______.
A. Ω and metres B. µ and ohms C. λ and metres D. λ and Hertz Question 14 Wavelength has the symbol ____ and is measured in______. A. Ω and metres B. µ and ohms C. λ and metres D. λ and Hertz ANSWER: C. λ (lamda) and metres ANSWER: C. λ (lamda) and metres

70 Question 15 AC stands for: A. Ascending Current B. Analysis Current
C. Analogue Current D. Alternating Current Question 15 AC stands for: A. Ascending Current B. Analysis Current C. Analogue Current D. Alternating Current ANSWER: D Alternating Current ANSWER: D Alternating Current

71 Electro-magnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic frequencies range from 0Hz to millions of Exa hertz. (Exa = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000) The area of interest to us is the audio and radio section of the spectrum. The normal hearing range is about 100Hz to 15 kHz. Electro-magnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic frequencies range from 0Hz to millions of Exa hertz. (Exa = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000) (Gamma rays are in the 10^23 range – visible light is 10^14) The area of interest to us is the audio and radio section of the spectrum. The normal hearing range is about 100Hz to 15 kHz. The range for audio communication is 300Hz to 3kHz. This is the approx range of a telephone line. Music down a phone line is not good. The range for audio communication is 300Hz to 3kHz. p 13

72 Radio Frequency Bands Amateurs generally operate in the HF, VHF and UHF bands. HF (High Frequency) to 30MHz Radio Frequency Spectrum Diag Amateurs generally operate in the HF, VHF and UHF bands. HF (High Frequency) to 30MHz VHF (Very High Frequency) to 300MHz UHF (Ultra High Frequency MHz to 3GHz NOTE: These frequency bands will be on the exam information sheets VHF (Very High Frequency) to 300MHz UHF (Ultra High Frequency MHz to 3GHz NOTE: These frequency bands will be on the exam information sheets p 14

73 Component Symbols When drawing circuits, symbols are used to represent components. There are ten that need to be known. In the practical section of your exam you will be shown at least five which must be correctly identified. Component Symbols When drawing circuits symbols are used to represent components. There are ten that need to be known. In the practical section of your exam you will be shown at least five which must be correctly identified. The five must include the earth and antenna symbols The five must include the earth and antenna symbols p 92

74 Component Symbols     - Cell Battery
+ - Cell Battery Component Symbols Diags A battery may consist of one or more cells. The exact number of cells is not always shown, the dotted line indicates more cells. A battery may consist of one or more cells. The exact number of cells is not always shown, the dotted line indicates more cells. p 92

75 Component Symbols Fuse Lamp Occasionally a fuse may be drawn as
Diag Occasionally a fuse may be drawn as Diag A lamp may sometimes be shown as Diag These alternatives will not be shown in the exam. A lamp may sometimes be shown as R These alternatives will not be shown in the exam. p 92

76 Component Symbols Switch (Open) Resistor
A resistor may also be seen as Component Symbols Diag A resistor may also be seen as Diag The switch above is a single pole single throw switch The switch above is a single pole single throw switch. p 92

77 Component Symbols Antenna Earth
These two must be known and correctly identified Component symbols Diag These two must be known and correctly identified p 92

78 Component Symbols Microphone Loudspeaker
Diag The loudspeaker may be seen as diag None of the alternatives will be used in the exam The loudspeaker may be seen as None of the alternatives will be used in the exam. p 92

79 Transmitters A simple voice transmitter consists of: A microphone
Audio amplifier Frequency Generation stage - Oscillator Modulator stage RF Amplifier Transmitters A simple voice transmitter consists of: A microphone Audio amplifier Frequency Generation stage - Oscillator Modulator stage RF Amplifier Feed line and antenna Feed line and antenna P 18

80 Transmitter Block Diagram
Microphone Antenna Transmitter Block diagram Diag This is a simple diagram. This is the diagram from which will be required to identify blocks. This is the diagram from which will be required to identify blocks. p 18

81 Modulation The audio (or data) is combined with the carrier (radio frequency) in the modulation stage of the transmitter. This can be done by amplitude modulation (AM) or frequency modulation (FM). AM (amplitude modulation) can be used as an emission mode or further divided into upper or lower sidebands. Modulation The audio (or data) is combined with the carrier (radio frequency) in the modulation stage of the transmitter. This can be done by amplitude modulation (AM) or frequency modulation (FM). AM (amplitude modulation) can be used as an emission mode or further divided into upper or lower sidebands. Single Side Band (SSB) is a form of Amplitude Modulation (AM) Single Side Band (SSB) is a form of Amplitude Modulation (AM). p 16, 17

82 Amplitude Modulation In AM the audio varies the amplitude of the carrier. Simple AM gives the audio imposed on both sides of the carrier. RF Carrier Audio Input AM Signal SSB is obtained by removing one side of the of the AM signal. Amplitude Modulation In AM the audio varies the amplitude of the carrier. Diag Simple AM gives the audio imposed on both sides of the carrier. SSB is obtained by removing one side of the of the AM signal If the audio is too strong clipping and distortion occurs. Explain and demo with diags p 17

83 Effect of Over Modulation
If the modulating audio has too much amplitude the resulting modulated waveform will be distorted. The audio amplitude is controlled by the ‘ Mic Gain’ or ‘AF Gain’ control on most transceivers. This control adjusts the amount of amplification in the audio amplifier. Effect of over modulation If the modulating audio has too much amplitude the resulting modulated waveform will be distorted. The audio amplitude is controlled by the ‘Mic Gain’ or ‘AF Gain’ control on most transceivers. This control adjusts the amount of amplification in the audio amplifier. Before mixing with the carrier. The distortion, as well as making the transmitted signal hard to understand can cause the transmitter to splatter across adjacent frequencies causing interference. The distortion, as well as making the transmitted signal hard to understand can cause the transmitter to splatter across adjacent frequencies causing interference. p 42

84 Frequency Modulation In FM the frequency of the RF carrier is varied by the audio signal – the amplitude remains constant. The frequency variation is very small and is called the deviation. FM Signal RF Carrier Audio Input Frequency Modulation In FM the frequency of the RF carrier is varied by the audio signal – the amplitude remains constant. Diag The frequency variation is very small and is called the deviation. Signal amplitude is constant and is thus less likely to interference. Most natural interference – lightning and static is generally AM Signal amplitude is constant and is thus less likely to interference. p 19

85 Transmitter Output Matching
The final power amplifier stage of a transmitter must be connected to a correctly matched transmission line and antenna to avoid possible damage to the transmitter/feed line and interference to other radio communications services. The matching can be done by ensuring that all parts of the circuit have the same resistance or by transforming the voltage current ratio to eliminate the mismatch. Transmitter Output Matching The final power amplifier stage of a transmitter must be connected to a correctly matched transmission line and antenna to avoid possible damage to the transmitter/feed line and interference to other radio communications services. The matching can be done by ensuring that all parts of the circuit have the same resistance or by transforming the voltage current ratio to eliminate the mismatch. An antenna matching unit (often called an antenna tuner) can be used to eliminate the mismatch. An antenna matching unit (often called an antenna tuner) can be used to eliminate the mismatch. p 27

86 Balanced Antenna Matching
Dipole antenna BALUN Coax cable Transmitter The coax is an unbalanced line. The dipole is a balanced antenna. To feed a balanced antenna with an unbalanced line without a mismatch a balun must be used. Balanced Antenna Matching Diag The coax is an unbalanced line. The dipole is a balanced antenna. To feed a balanced antenna with an unbalanced line without a mismatch a balun must be used. BALUN stands for BALanced to Unbalanced BALUN stands for BALanced to UNbalanced.

87 Receivers The basic blocks in a receiver are: Antenna
Tuning and RF Amplifier Detection Audio Amplifier Loudspeaker Receivers The basic blocks in a receiver are: Antenna Tuning and RF Amplifier Detection Audio Amplifier Loudspeaker This is the diagram you will be asked to identify blocks from. Note: The tuning is the first stage in the receiver Tuner / RF Amp Detector Audio Amp This is the diagram you will be asked to identify blocks from. p 18, 19 Note: The tuning is the first stage in the receiver.

88 Receivers Terms applicable to receivers
Sensitivity is the ability of a receiver to reproduce weak signals. Selectivity is the ability of a receiver to accept one signal while rejecting signals which are close by, in frequency, and possibly louder than the wanted signal. Receivers Terms applicable to receivers Sensitivity is the ability of a receiver to reproduce weak signals. Selectivity is the ability of a receiver to accept one signal while rejecting signals which are close by, in frequency, and possibly louder than the wanted signal. Stability is the ability of a receiver to remain on frequency through a variety of operating temperatures both external and internal temperatures. Stability is the ability of a receiver to remain on frequency through a variety of operating temperatures both external and internal temperatures. p 19

89 Transceiver Controls AF Gain: Controls the amplification in the AF amplifier in receive mode. Mic Gain: Controls the AF gain in the microphone circuit in transmit mode. RF Gain: Controls the amplification of the RF amp in receive mode. Transceiver controls AF Gain: Controls the amplification in the AF amplifier in receive mode. Mic Gain: Controls the AF gain in the microphone circuit in transmit mode. RF Gain: Controls the amplification of the RF amp in receive mode Carrier or RF Power: Controls the RF amp in transmit and so the transmitter output power. Carrier or RF Power: Controls the RF amp in transmit and so the transmitter output power. Ch 5

90 Transceiver Controls Mode: Control the emission mode (CW, AM, USB, LSB etc) of the transmitter and receiver. Band: Switches between amateur bands. VFO: Variable Frequency Oscillator – Main tuning Control for both transmitter and receiver. Transceiver Controls Mode: Control the emission mode (CW, AM, USB, LSB etc) of the transmitter and receiver. Band: Switches between amateur bands. VFO: Variable Frequency Oscillator – Main tuning Control for both transmitter and receiver. RIT (Receiver Incremental Tuning or Clarifier). Tunes the receiver without affecting the transmitter. Usually within about 2kHz RIT (Receiver Incremental Tuning or Clarifier). Tunes the receiver without affecting the transmitter. Usually within about 2kHz. Ch 5

91 Transceiver Controls XIT (Transmitter incremental Tuning): Tunes the transmitter without affecting the receiver. Usually within about 2kHz. Squelch: Sets the signal volume which will activate the receiver. Transceiver Controls XIT (Transmitter incremental Tuning): Tunes the transmitter without affecting the receiver. Usually within about 2kHz. Squelch: Sets the signal volume which will activate the receiver. Not all transceivers will have all of the above controls. Not all transceivers will have all of the above controls. Ch 5

92 Question 16 The section of a transmitter that generates the RF carrier is: A. Audio Amplifier B. Oscillator C. Modulator D. RF Amplifier Question 16 The section of a transmitter that generates the RF carrier is: A. Audio Amplifier B. Oscillator C. Modulator D. RF Amplifier ANSWER: B Oscillator ANSWER: B Oscillator

93 Question 17 If a transmitter is over modulated it is likely to:
A. Transmit a higher power. B. Overheat C. Generate FM instead of AM D. Generate interference Question 17 If a transmitter is over modulated it is likely to: A. Transmit a higher power. B. Overheat C. Generate FM instead of AM D. Generate interference ANSWER D Generate Interference ANSWER D Generate Interference

94 Question 18 The ability of a receiver to receive very weak signals is known as: A. Stability B. Sensitivity C. Selectivity D. Super ability Question 18 The ability of a receiver to receive very weak signals is known as: A. Stability B. Sensitivity C. Selectivity D. Super ability ANSWER B Sensitivity ANSWER B Sensitivity

95 Feeder Lines There are two basic types of feed line.
Coax Coaxial Cable (Coax) Unbalanced Line Consists of a centre conductor for the signal surrounded by a dielectric (insulator) and an outer screen at earth potential. Twin Feeder (Ladder line or ribbon cable)  Twin Feeder Balanced Line Feeder Lines There are two basic types of feed line. Coaxial Cable (Coax) Unbalanced Line Consists of a centre conductor for the signal surrounded by a dielectric (insulator) and an outer screen at earth potential. Twin Feeder (Ladder line or ribbon cable) Balanced Line Consists of two parallel conductors which are at opposite and equal potential. Consists of two parallel conductors which are at opposite and equal potential. p 22

96 Feeder Lines Coax cable is most widely used for RF signals because of its screening qualities. To maintain these screening qualities all plugs and sockets must be the correct type for the cable and the outer braid must correctly connected to the plug/socket. Feeder Lines Coax cable is most widely used for RF signals because of its screening qualities. Coax is available with different impedance characteristics. 50 ohm & 75 ohm are the most common. 50 for TX; 75 for RX To maintain these screening qualities all plugs and sockets must be the correct type for the cable and the outer braid must correctly connected to the plug/socket. The screen should be earthed. If not correctly connected the outer braid may radiate and cause interference. The screen should be earthed. If not correctly connected the outer braid may radiate and cause interference. p 22

97 Coax Connectors There is a large variety of connectors exist.
Common RF connectors include BNC, PL259, N Type, etc. Ensure both inner conductor and outer braid are correctly assembled. Connectors in bad condition or incorrectly assembled are a major cause of bad SWR and power loss. Coax Connectors There is a large variety of connectors exist. Common RF connectors include BNC, PL259, N Type, etc. Ensure both inner conductor and outer braid are correctly assembled. Connectors in bad condition or incorrectly assembled are a major cause of bad SWR and power loss. Screen must be continuos through all plugs and sockets. Demo testing cables Screen must be continuos through all plugs and sockets. p 23, 24

98 PL259 Connectors PL259 Connectors p 24

99 BNC Connectors BNC Connectors p 24

100 N Type Connectors N Type Connectors p 24

101 Antennas Antennas transform AC signals into propagating radio waves.
Gain is the apparent increase in power by directing it in one (or two) direction(s). Antennas Antennas transform AC signals into propagating radio waves Gain is the apparent increase in power by directing it in one (or two) direction(s) Like a torch beam looks brighter than the same size bulb in a lamp. Antenna size is determined by wavelength. Explain basic antenna resonance Antenna size is determined by wavelength. p 24

102 Antenna Polarisation An antenna radiates both a magnetic and an electrical field. These two fields are at right angles to each other The electrical field is in the same plane as the antenna. It is the electrical field that determines the polarisation of the antenna. Antenna Polarisation An antenna radiates both a magnetic and an electrical field. The electrical field is in the same plane as the antenna. The magnetic field is at right angles to the electric field It is the electrical field that determines the polarisation of the antenna. A vertical antenna is vertically polarised. An antenna that is positioned horizontally is horizontally polarised. A vertical antenna is vertically polarised. An antenna that is positioned horizontally is horizontally polarised. p 31

103 Types of Antenna In the practical session of the exam you will be required to identify several types of antenna, either by diagram or actual examples. You will not be required to estimate the frequency band the antenna is designed to operate on. Types of Antenna In the practical session of the exam you will be required to identify several types of antenna, either by diagram or actual examples. You will not be required to estimate the frequency band the antenna is designed to operate on. There are several antennas outside which we will look at in a moment. There are several antennas outside which we will look at in a moment. p 25

104 Antenna Types DIPOLE The dipole consists of two equal halves.
Dipole Diag The dipole consists of two equal halves. Normally built as a half wave antenna. Overall length is half a wavelength – each side is a quarter Is a balanced antenna and therefore needs either a balun or a twin feed line. Explain radiation pattern Normally built as a half wave antenna. Is a balanced antenna and therefore needs either a balun or a twin feed line. p 25

105 Antenna Types Folded Dipole The folded di-pole is a broadband antenna.
Anntena Types Folded Dipole Diag The folded di-pole is a broadband antenna. Normally fed with a 300 Ohm TV Ribbon. If coax fed a balun must be used Explain radiation Pattern The folded di-pole is a broadband antenna. Normally fed with a 300 Ohm TV Ribbon. If coax fed a balun must be used. p 25

106 Antenna Types QUARTER WAVE VERTICAL
Normally built as a quarter wave length antenna to conserve space but will function if built to half or full wave length. Antenna Types Vertical Diag Normally built as a quarter wave length antenna to conserve space. The vertical (whip) needs a ground plane to operate properly. The ground plane can be the ground, radials or a solid base like a car roof. Explain radiation pattern The vertical (whip) needs a ground plane to operate properly. The ground plane can be the ground, radials or a solid base like a car roof. p 25

107 Antenna Types FIVE-EIGHTHS VERTICAL Common for mobile use.
Anntena Types Five Eighths Vertical Diag Common for mobile use. Identifiable by the coil at the bottom. The radials serve the same purpose as the quarter wave. Better impedance match and gain than a quarter wave. Explain radiation pattern Identifiable by the coil at the bottom. The radials serve the same purpose as the quarter wave. Better impedance match and gain than a quarter wave. p 25

108 Antenna Types YAGI Yagi’s are a directional antennas.
Anntena Types YAGI Diag Yagi’s are a directional antennas. Only the driven element radiates – on its own it is a dipole. The director gives focus to give gain and the reflector(s) gives front/back isolation. More directors may be added to add focus (narrow the beam). Explain radiation pattern Only the driven element radiates – on its own it is a dipole. The director gives focus to give gain and the reflector(s) gives front/back isolation. More directors may be added to add focus (narrow the beam). p 25

109 Antenna Types LONG WIRE or END FED
Station RF Earth Antenna Types LONG WIRE or END FED Diag Common at HF because of the long wavelengths involved. Needs an ATU to match it for multiple bands. Has strong RF near the house which can cause interference (EMC) problems. Explain EMC briefly – to be dealt with later Explain radiation pattern Common at HF because of the long wavelengths involved. Needs an ATU to match it for multiple bands. Has strong RF near the house which can cause interference (EMC) problems. p 82

110 Gain / Effective Radiated Power
Effective Radiated Power (ERP) is the power radiated in the direction of the maximum radiation. Gain/Effective Radiated Power Diag Effective Radiated Power (ERP) is the power radiated in the direction of the maximum radiation. ERP is the product of the power supplied by the transmitter and the gain of the antenna ERP is the product of the power supplied by the transmitter and the gain of the antenna. p 31

111 Antenna Matching - SWR The antenna must be matched, in length, to the frequency being used. This creates a challenge for multi band HF working. SWR – Standing Wave Ratio is a measure of the mismatch of the antenna system to the radio output impedance. A high SWR results in power being reflected back down the feedline to the transmitter. Antenna Matching – SWR The antenna must be matched, in length, to the frequency being used. This creates a challenge for multi band HF working. As soon as band is changed 7 – 14MHz the wavelength is changed dramatically. SWR – Standing Wave Ratio is a measure of the mismatch of the antenna system to the radio output impedance. A high SWR results in power being reflected back down the feedline to the transmitter. This is inefficient and potentially damaging. This is inefficient and potentially damaging. p 27

112 Antenna Matching - SWR SWR meters give a ratio of transmitter power (or forward power) to reflected power. Some meters will also show the actual power levels, forward and reflected. They are valuable for checking power, correct antenna design, installation and operation. A sudden change in SWR will usually indicate a fault in the antenna system. Antenna Matching – SWR SWR meters give a ratio of transmitter power (or forward power) to reflected power. Show example Some meters will also show the actual power levels, forward and reflected They are valuable for checking power, correct antenna design, installation and operation. A sudden change in SWR will usually indicate a fault in the antenna system. Dummy Loads are resistances used in place of antennas for tunning and testing without actually radiating a signal. Dummy Loads are resistances used in place of antennas for tunning and testing without actually radiating a signal. p 27

113 Propagation Radio waves nominally travel in straight lines and get weaker as they travel. Diffraction, the slight bending around buildings, spreading out after passing through a narrow gap, following land contours etc, does occur. Radio waves (especially at UHF & above) will also bounce off solid objects although some absorption, depending on the material, will be present. Propagation Radio waves nominally travel in straight lines and get weaker as they travel. Diffraction, the slight bending around buildings, spreading out after passing through a narrow gap, following land contours etc, does occur. Radio waves (especially at UHF & above) will also bounce off solid objects although some absorption, depending on the material, will be present. Refraction is the bending of radio waves. Other factors that affect propagation are meteor scatter, aurora’s and for microwave ranges rain and tropospheric scatter. Aluminium overcast Refraction is the bending of radio waves. Other factors that affect propagation are meteor scatter, aurora’s and for microwave ranges rain and tropospheric scatter. p 33

114 Propagation at VHF/UHF
VHF/UHF normally has almost line of sight propagation. A clear path is better to increase signal strength than an increase in power of 10 or 100 times. For example a satellite can be reached with only a few watts if there are no obstructions whereas a signal travelling kms through trees and buildings will be almost unreadable. An increase antenna height will beat an increase in power. Propagation at VHF/UHV VHF/UHF normally has almost line of sight propagation. A clear path is better to increase signal strength than an increase in power of 10 or 100 times. For example a satellite can be reached with only a few watts if there are no obstructions whereas a signal travelling kms through trees and buildings will be almost unreadable. An increase antenna height will beat an increase in power. p 36

115 Propagation at VHF/UHF
Diffraction/refraction over the horizon will occur but is limited. Propagation at VHF/UHF Diag Diffraction/refraction over the horizon will occur but is limited. Buildings and hills cause shadows and path loss In towns the reflection and scatter caused by many buildings will improve expected reception. Buildings and hills cause shadows and path loss. In towns the reflection and scatter caused by many buildings will improve expected reception. p 37

116 Propagation at VHF/UHF
Refraction at UHF/VHF can be caused by high/low pressure – often called ducting or lift. Propagation at VHF/HF Diag Refraction at UHF/VHF can be caused by high/low pressure – often called ducting or lift. These ducts can extend the range of U/VHF signal by hundreds of kilometres. These ducts can extend the range of U/VHF signal by hundreds of kilometres. p 37

117 Propagation at HF The main difference between VHF and HF propagation is the effect of the ionosphere. The ionosphere is layers of ionised air 70 – 400kms above the earth. They are created by the suns rays on the upper atmosphere and therefore vary from day to night and season to season. Propagation at HF The main difference between VHF and HF propagation is the effect of the ionosphere. The ionosphere is layers of ionised air 70 – 400kms above the earth. They are created by the suns rays on the upper atmosphere and therefore vary from day to night and season to season. They are also affected by sunspot activity. It is the Ionosphere that makes long distance HF communications possible. They are also affected by sunspot activity. It is the Ionosphere that makes long distance HF communications possible. p 34

118 Propagation at HF The ionised layers refract (bend) HF radio waves but have little or no effect on VHF and above. 400kms 70kms Propagation at HF The ionised layers refract (bend) HF radio waves but have little or no effect on VHF and above. Diag The higher the frequency the less bending effect. At the same time of day different freqs will refract at different rates giving different distances Signals that are returned may make a second hop. The higher the frequency the less bending effect. Signals that are returned may make a second hop. p 35

119 Question 19 The purpose of an antenna is to:
A. Let people know you are an amatuer B. Allow balanced transmission lines to be used. C. Convert electrical signals into radio waves. D. Provide a place for birds to perch. Question 19 The purpose of an antenna is to: A. Let people know you are an amatuer B. Allow balanced transmission lines to be used. C. Convert electrical signals into radio waves. D. Provide a place for birds to perch. ANSWER: C Convert electrical signals into radio waves. ANSWER: C Convert electrical signals into radio waves.

120 Question 20 The longer the antenna:
A. The higher the frequency of operation. B. The lower the frequency of operation. C. The polarisation will be vertical. D. The more power it can produce. Question 20 The longer the antenna: A. The higher the frequency of operation. B. The lower the frequency of operation. C. The polarisation will be vertical. D. The more power it can produce. ANSWER: B The lower the frequency of operation. ANSWER: B The lower the frequency of operation.

121 Question 21 As a radio wave is radiated away from the antenna it becomes: A. Stronger. B Weaker. C. Less polarised. D. Ionised. Question 21 As a radio wave is radiated away from the antenna it becomes: A. Stronger. B Weaker. C. Less polarised. D. Ionised. ANSWER: B Weaker ANSWER: B Weaker

122 Electro Magnetic Compatibility
Electro Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the ability of an electronic device to operate properly, without interference, in the presence of electromagnetic radiation. EMC has two aspects: 1. Avoidance of generating interference. 2. The immunity of your own equipment and appliances from being interfered with. Electro Magnetic Compatibility Electro Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the ability of an electronic device to operate properly, without interference, in the presence of electromagnetic radiation. EMC has two aspects: 1. Avoidance of generating interference 2. The immunity of your own equipment and appliances from being interfered with. p 50

123 Electro Magnetic Compatibility
Factors which will effect the amount of interference generated include: 1. The more power emitted, the greater the likelihood of generating interference. 2. The mode of emission that is being used has a great effect on interference. Electro Magnetic Compatibility Factors which will effect the amount of interference generated include: 1. The more power emitted, the greater the likelihood of generating interference. 2. The mode of emission that is being used has a great effect on interference. 3. The closer the antenna to the other equipment the more likelihood of creating interference. 4. Good earthing of equipment will help prevent interference. 3. The closer the antenna to the other equipment the more likelihood of creating interference. 4. Good earthing of equipment will help prevent interference. p 51

124 Earthing and EMC There are two types of earthing.
The normal mains earth, which is provided by the third pin (normally vertical) on the normal three pin plug. This is designed to cause a fuse to blow if the equipments outside case becomes live due to a fault inside the equipment. It is essential for safety reasons that mains earths are correctly connected. Earthing and EMC There are two types of earthing. The normal mains earth, which is provided by the third pin (normally vertical) on the normal three pin plug. This is designed to cause a fuse to blow if the equipments outside case becomes live due to a fault inside the equipment. It is essential for safety reasons that mains earths are correctly connected. Ensure that equipment is run from a common mains earth to prevent earth loops – use filtered mains boards and ferrite rings correctly Ensure that equipment is run from a common mains earth to prevent earth loops – use filtered mains boards and ferrite rings correctly. p 53

125 Earthing and EMC Radio Frequency (RF) earths are separate to mains earths and the two should not be mixed. Mains earths are NOT designed to conduct Radio Frequencies to ground. Good reception, especially on HF, as well as EMC performance, depends on good RF earthing. Earthing and EMC Radio Frequency (RF) earths are separate to mains earths and the two should not be mixed. Mains earths are NOT designed to conduct Radio Frequencies to ground. Good reception, especially on HF, as well as EMC performance, depends on good RF earthing. If RF enters the mains system it may be conducted through the system and enter other equipment/appliances. If RF enters the mains system it may be conducted through the system and enter other equipment/appliances. p 53

126 RF Earth Connection This provides a path to ground for RF currents which otherwise may enter the mains system and cause interference. A good RF earth should consist of a copper stake well buried into the earth, as close as possible to the equipment, with a thick copper braid connection. RF earths should be a separate earth stake, DO NOT try to use existing water or gas pipes as an earth. RF Earth Connection This provides a path to ground for RF currents which otherwise may enter the mains system and cause interference. A good RF earth should consist of a copper stake well buried into the earth, as close as possible to the equipment, with a thick copper braid connection. RF earths should be a separate earth stake, DO NOT try to use existing water or gas pipes as an earth. AM/SSB can be easily rectified/detected, so is most likely to cause interference to domestic equipment. AM/SSB can be easily rectified/detected, so is most likely to cause interference to domestic equipment. p 53

127 Antennas Systems Antenna siting and type of system can assist in minimising interference. A balanced antenna system is less likely to create problems than an unbalanced system. Maximise distance between transmitting and receiving antennas/equipment. Antenna Systems Antenna siting and type of system can assist in minimising interference. A balanced antenna system is less likely to create problems than an unbalanced system. Maximise distance between transmitting and receiving antennas/equipment. When using directional antennas avoid pointing them at neighbouring equipment/antennas. When using directional antennas avoid pointing them at neighbouring equipment/antennas. P 52

128 Filters Filters can be fitted to transmitting systems to stop unwanted radiation and to receiving systems to stop unwanted signals entering the system. Filters can also be used on power supplies to stop RF entering the mains or interference from mains entering equipment. Filters Filters can be fitted to transmitting systems to stop unwanted radiation and to receiving systems to stop unwanted signals entering the system. Filters can also be used on power supplies to stop RF entering the mains or interference from mains entering equipment. Where used filters should be fitted as close as possible to the effected equipment Where used filters should be fitted as close as possible to the effected equipment. p 52

129 RF Choke A coil, preferably wound on a ferrite rod, makes an effective RF choke or filter. Speaker wire wound as shown will prevent RF signals being fed through speakers. RF Choke Diag A coil, preferably wound on a ferrite rod, makes an effective RF choke or filter. Speaker wire wound as shown will prevent RF signals being fed through speakers. If put into an antenna cable it will prevent weaker signals from interfering with TV or Radio. Demo winding choke If put into an antenna cable it will prevent weaker signals from interfering with TV or Radio. p 52

130 Herringbone patterning on TV
TV Interference A herringbone pattern, with possible loss of colour is generally caused by an FM transmission. Herringbone patterning on TV There is usually no effect on sound but in extreme cases sound may be distorted. TV Interference Diag A herringbone pattern, with possible loss of colour is generally caused by an FM transmission. There is usually no effect on sound but in extreme cases sound may be distorted. The distortion lines often move when the transmission is modulated. The distortion lines often move when the transmission is modulated.

131 AM / SSB Patterning on screen
TV Interference Thick white lines across a screen are known as sound bars. AM / SSB Patterning on screen Caused by AM and SSB transmissions. Distorted sound possibly in time with the visual distortion. TV Interference Diag Thick white lines across a screen are known as sound bars. Caused by AM and SSB transmissions. Distorted sound possibly in time with the visual distortion. This can often be cured with a filter in the antenna line. This can often be cured with a filter in the antenna line.

132 TV Interference Digital TV is effected quite differently.
The picture may become blocked (form squares like a jigsaw), jerky, freeze or disappear completely. TV Interference Diag Digital TV is effected quite differently. These symptoms are the same as a weak signal and the owner may suspect a TV problem rather than interference. These symptoms are the same as a weak signal and the owner may suspect a TV problem rather than interference.

133 Repeaters/Beacons Repeaters are used to extend the normal VHF/UHF range. The repeater has a transmitter of a different frequency to the receiver. Repeaters/Beacons Repeaters are used to extend the normal VHF/UHF range. Diag The repeater has a transmitter of a different frequency to the receiver. Each station receives and transmits on different frequencies. Each station receives and transmits on different frequencies. p 65

134 Repeaters/Beacons Repeaters must have a time out mechanism.
When using a repeater always allow time for the repeater to reset. Beacons are fixed transmitters on certainly frequencies which are used on HF to give an indication of propagation. Repeaters/Beacons Repeaters must have a time out mechanism. When using a repeater always allow time for the repeater to reset. Beacons are fixed transmitters on certainly frequencies which are used on HF to give an indication of propagation. They may be timed to allow of network of world wide stations to transmit on the same frequency. They may be timed to allow of network of world wide stations to transmit on the same frequency. p 65

135 IRLP and Echo Link These systems allow repeaters that are equipped with the system (nodes) to link together throughout the world via the internet. IRLP and Echo Link These systems allow repeaters that are equipped with the system (nodes) to link together throughout the world via the internet. Diag IRLP requires a radio to access the input repeater and receive the output where as Echo Link can be run from a registered computer. IRLP requires a radio to access the input repeater and receive the output where as Echo Link can be run from a registered computer. p 67

136 DTMF Dual Tone Multi Frequency uses the same tones as mobile phones.
They are used to control repeater functions such as switching from high to low power, and for causing an IRLP or Echo Link repeater to link to another node. Each IRLP or Echo Link node is designated a four figure number. When the number of a remote node is entered the local computer links to the called node. DTMF Dual Tone Multi Frequency uses the same tones as mobile phones. Some radios have microphones fitted to Tx DTMF tones or a separate tone generator may be used Demo They are used to control repeater functions such as switching from high to low power, and for causing an IRLP repeater to link to another node. Each IRLP or Echo Link node is designated a four figure number. When the number of a remote node is entered the local computer links to the called node. p 66

137 CTCSS Continuous Tone Coded Squelch System is a system where a sub audible tone is used to break the squelch on a remote receiver. Interference often can cause a repeater to turn on and lock on while the interference is present. By using CTCSS the receiver has to hear the tone before it will open the squelch and allow the receiver to activate. CTCSS Continuous Tone Coded Squelch System is a sytem where a sub audible tone is used to break the squelch on a remote receiver. Interference often can cause a repeater to turn on and lock on while the interference is present. By using CTCSS the receiver has to hear the tone before it will open the squelch and allow the receiver to activate. The tone is present during the entire transmission In Perth all 70cm repeaters are CTCSS equipped. In Perth all 70cm repeaters are CTCSS equipped. p 66

138 Question 22 Interference resulting in EMC problems can be minimised by: A. Only operating from a mobile station. B. Using vertically polarised antennas. C. Careful siting of antennas. D. Using dipole antennas. Question 22 Interference resulting in EMC problems can be minimised by: A. Only operating from a mobile station. B. Using vertically polarised antennas. C. Careful siting of antennas. D. Using dipole antennas. ANSWER: C Careful siting of antennas. ANSWER: C Careful siting of antennas.

139 Question 23 One way that interference can be passed between equipment is: A. By the mains power supply lines. B. Moist atmosphere. C. Gas Pipes. D. RF chokes. Question 23 One way that interference can be passed between equipment is: A. By the mains power supply lines. B. Moist atmosphere. C. Gas Pipes. D. RF chokes ANSWER: A By the mains power supply lines ANSWER: A By the mains power supply lines

140 Question 24 DTMF stands for A. Dual Tone Multi Frequency.
B. Double Tone Multi Frequency. C. Dual Tone Modulated Frequency. D. Double Tone Masking Frequency. Question 24 DTMF stands for A. Dual Tone Multi Frequency. B. Double Tone Multi Frequency. C. Dual Tone Modulated Frequency. D. Double Tone Masking Frequency. ANSWER: A Dual tone Multi Frequency ANSWER: A Dual tone Multi Frequency

141 Safety First High voltage is extremely dangerous – Electrocution is possible with almost any voltage but remember high voltages can and will jump for an earth. High currents as well as shocking, create heat and may melt insulation and cause fires. RF radiation is dangerous as it will heat metal (rings, watches etc). Safety first High voltage is extremely dangerous – Electrocution is possible with almost any voltage but remember high voltages can and will jump for an earth. Personal experience (providing an earth) High currents as well as shocking create heat and may melt insulation and cause fires. RF radiation is dangerous as it will heat metal (rings, watches etc). In addition to heating metal it will heat the human body and cause internal damage and external burns. For this reason antennas must be out of reach of animals/humans. The higher the power being used the greater the area of danger. In addition to heating metal it will heat the human body and cause internal damage and external burns. p 43

142 Safety All items in a radio shack should be earthed and protected by RCD’s (Safety Switch’s). Only items marked as double Insulated may be used with out a mains earth. Have a clearly marked, easily accessible mains switch for the shack. Safety All items in a radio shack should be earthed and protected by RCD’s (Safety Switch’s). Only items marked as double Insulated may be used with out a mains earth. Double insulated items are marked with a square within a square. Be careful of using cords that were provided with these items and are reused. Have a clearly marked, easily accessible mains switch for the shack. Fuses protect equipment from fire not people. Fuses melt and therefore take time – with human electric shock time is the problem. Avoid trip hazards caused by cords etc. Fuses protect equipment from fire not people. Avoid trip hazards caused by cords etc. p 46

143 Outdoor Safety Working at heights, either on a ladder or up a tower, is dangerous not just from the falling aspect but also for people below from falling items. Lightning is extremely high voltage and currents. Disconnect antennas during thunderstorms. It is illegal to use power/telephone poles to support or anchor antennas, towers etc. Outdoor Safety Working at heights, either on a ladder or up a tower, is dangerous not just from the falling aspect but also for people below from falling items. Lightning is extremely high voltage and currents. Disconnect antennas during thunderstorms. It is illegal to use power/telephone poles to support or anchor antennas, towers etc. When setting up antennas be aware of power/telephone lines. When operating mobile stations be aware of your antenna height. When setting up antennas be aware of power/telephone lines. When operating mobile stations be aware of your antenna height. P 48

144 Electric shock Symptoms include loss of consciousness, breathing difficulty, weak ,erratic or no pulse and burns at entry and exit points. NEVER approach a victim of electric shock until you are certain the power has been disconnected. Electric Shock Symptoms include loss of consciousness, breathing difficulty, weak ,erratic or no pulse and burns at entry and exit points. NEVER approach a victim of electric shock until you are certain the power has been disconnected. Be ▼ especially careful if any liquid is present. Be especially careful if any liquid is present.

145 First Aid The first action must always be to ensure power is off.
Check for response, breathing and pulse. Start resuscitating the victim. Get someone else to call 000 and get assistance. If patient is conscious reassure them, cool burns. Never use oils or ointments on burns. First Aid The first action must always be to ensure power is off. Check for response, breathing and pulse. Start resuscitating the victim. Get someone else to call 000 and get assistance. Good idea to have poster in prominent position If patient is conscious reassure them, cool burns. Never use oils or ointments on burns. If a fall has occurred do not move the victim in case of spinal injuries. If a fall has occurred do not move the victim in case of spinal injuries.

146 VK6BDO Ham College PRODUCED FOR With thanks to
Chelmsford Amateur Radio Society Westlakes Amateur Radio Club Inc Fred Swainston VK3DAC The Wireless Institute of Australia VK6BDO


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