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ELEMENT 3 The Human Body 3.5 The Senses 3.6 The Eye and Vision 3.7 The Ear and Hearing 3.8 The Inner Ear and Balance 3.9 Sensory Inputs and Spatial Disorientation.

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Presentation on theme: "ELEMENT 3 The Human Body 3.5 The Senses 3.6 The Eye and Vision 3.7 The Ear and Hearing 3.8 The Inner Ear and Balance 3.9 Sensory Inputs and Spatial Disorientation."— Presentation transcript:

1 ELEMENT 3 The Human Body 3.5 The Senses 3.6 The Eye and Vision 3.7 The Ear and Hearing 3.8 The Inner Ear and Balance 3.9 Sensory Inputs and Spatial Disorientation

2 AIM & END STATE Aim: –To discuss the senses and how they relate to human performance limitations End state: –A greater understanding of the human body’s strengths and weaknesses References: In the CRM Reference Manual. 3.0

3 SENSES How many senses do we have? –Classic senses are five but perhaps up to 21 –Nine senses are commonly agreed upon and are tested in aircrew medicals A sense is an ability to interpret information about our environment that has been detected through a sensor, eg chemorecptors in the nose. 3.5

4 SENSES The extra senses we shall investigate: –Equilibrioception – balance –Thermoception – ability to detect heat/cold –Proprioception – ability to tell where the body is in relation to the environment –Nocioception – ability to detect pain. Equilibrioception and Proprioception are tested by aviation physicians during aircrew medicals.

5 SENSES Sensory Thresholds –The limit of the ability to detect a change in a stimulus: Absolute, Recognition, Differential, Terminal. Sensory Sensitivity –Detection ability (1 st meaning) or a disorder where a person experiences a debilitating sensory overload from everyday experiences, eg touching fabric or a bad smell. 3.5.2

6 SENSORECEPTORS Stimuli detected through SensoReceptors: 3.5.4

7 THE EYE Most important sensor for humans More than 80% of our sensory information about our environment comes through our eyes. 3.6

8 THE EYE Light passes through the cornea and lens and falls upon the retina, focussing in particular on the fovea centralis Accommodation is the way the lens is bent by ciliary muscles to focus light.

9 THE EYE Rods and Cones are photoreceptors that detect light –Cones detect colour and detail – day/central vision –Rods detect low light levels and movement night/peripheral vision Rhodopsin and Iodopsin are two chemicals that help in light detection.

10 THE EYE Visual Acuity (VA) is the ability to discriminate the fine details of an object thus is a requirement of depth perception VA is measured as a fraction (20/20 imp 6/6 metric) –20/40 or 6/12 is half as good as the average VA can be affected by disorders such as –Myopia (shortsightedness) –Hyperopia (long sightedness). 3.6.3

11 THE EYE Presbyopia –Loss of VA due to age –Becomes very noticeable in a person’s 40s –Reduction in suppleness of the lens and weakness in the ciliary muscles causes a reduction in accommodation –Hard to read fine print; things are a little blurry; hard to focus between distances; eye strain after reading for a long time.

12 THE EYE Visual Field –What a person can see. Depends on light falling on the retina (central and peripheral vision) Binocular Vision –FOV 200 deg both eyes; 160 deg one eye –Uses parallax error for depth perception to approx 12m –Provide Visual Summation: two eyes are 41% more effective at detecting stimuli than one eye. 3.6.4

13 THE EYE Depth Perception: the ability to estimate distances without measuring them –Relative Size –Interposition –Linear Perspective –Aerial Perspective –Light and Shade –Monocular Movement Parallax

14 THE EYE Blind Spots: areas on the retina that do not receive light information –Day Blind Spot: Optic Disc No cones –Night Blind Spot Fovea Centralis No rods Offset vision by 10-20 deg. 3.6.5

15 THE EYE Glaucoma: Pressure build up in the corneal area (anterior and posterior chambers) causes damage to the fovea –Usually gradual –Can easily be checked –Easily fixed if caught early before damage to retina is done. 3.6.6

16 THE EYE Hypoxia and Colour Vision: Vision affected by loss of oxygen, especially at night –10% at 5,000’ and 28% at 10,000’ PA especially during mesopic (dawn/dusk) periods –Breathing oxygen increases visual acuity and colour discrimination. 3.6.7

17 THE EAR The Ear: Primary organ of audition; second most important organ for humans –Detects sounds –Inner ear detects balance –Pressure waves in the air (sound waves) are caught by the pinna, funnelled into the auditory canal to the eardrum which vibrates. 3.7

18 THE EAR –The vibrations are transmitted through the ossicles to the cochlea where they are detected by mechanoreceptors that induce a signal to the brain –Semi-Circular Canals detect movement by detecting radial and linear accelerations. 3.7.1

19 THE EAR Hearing Loss: Two main categories: –Conductive Damage or blockage due to injury or disease to the outer and/or middle ear –Sensorineural Usually caused by damage to the inner ear’s stereocilia cells due to exposure to loud noise. 3.7.3

20 THE EAR Noise Induced Hearing Loss: –Part of the speech range in the audible range is first to go. 3.7.3

21 THE EAR Balance: Equilibrioception is through the organs of the inner ear –Semi-Circular Canals arranged in x,y,z axes –Otoliths arranged in x,y axes in utricle –Detects movement by relative movement of endolymph fluid in SCC or by small crystals in gelatinous mix in utricle. 3.7.3

22 DISORIENTATION Spatial Disorientation (SD) is the inability of the operator (eg pilot) to understand where the apparatus (eg aircraft) is in relation to the earth. Usually due to poor interpretation of, or weak sensory stimuli, especially: –Vision, Equilibrioception and Proprioception ATSB says that the career incidence of SD occurs to 90 to 100% of pilots… (it will happen to you) 3.9

23 DISORIENTATION Types of SD: –Type 1: SD is not recognised by individual Acft usually remains under control but is flown into a dangerous situation (eg terrain) –Type 2: SD is confusing but not incapacitating Operator knows something is wrong. Information does not correlate with what the body/mind is saying –Type 3: SD is incapacitating, potentially fatal Operator is physically/psychologically overwhelmed and is usually unable to recover from the situation. 3.9.1

24 DISORIENTATION Vertigo – usually associated with an abnormality in the vestibular organ. Similar effect to SD –Flicker vertigo: caused by flashing light 1 Hz to 20 Hz –Often in helicopter ops: Front seats occupants or patients lying in rear where the sun can flicker through rotor blades. 3.9.2

25 DISORIENTATION Pressure Vertigo – due to imbalance in pressure between middle ears – often due to imbalanced valsalva attempt Medical Vertigo – usually due to temporary problem in middle ear All types of vertigo will cause dizziness, nausea and disorientation to some degree Can happen to anyone at anytime. 3.9.2

26 DISORIENTATION Categories of SD: –Somatogyral: Dark Night Take Offs –Somatogravic: Graveyard spiral –Visual: Illusions causing SD 3.9.3

27 DISORIENTATION Black Hole Approach: Illusion of excessive altitude when there are no lights below the aircraft during an approach –Often leads to incorrect control inputs Boeing study found that 52% of accidents/fatalities occur during the last 4% of flight (approach/landing phase) –Most of those were due to pilot error when no precision approach aid (glidepath) was used. 3.9.3

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