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AUSTR(AL)IA Police in Austria were pressed into action to help capture a kangaroo that went walkabout after jumping out of its enclosure near the town.

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Presentation on theme: "AUSTR(AL)IA Police in Austria were pressed into action to help capture a kangaroo that went walkabout after jumping out of its enclosure near the town."— Presentation transcript:

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2 AUSTR(AL)IA

3 Police in Austria were pressed into action to help capture a kangaroo that went walkabout after jumping out of its enclosure near the town of St Veit. Kangaroo on walkabout in Austria

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5 Basic comparative data for Austria and Australia AustriaAustralia GDP €B Population M Area K SqKm Population Growth % Exports €B Industrial Structure S68/P2/I30S71/P12/I16

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7 Comparative STI Data I AustriaAustraliaOECD Investment in knowledge %GDP Investment in mach/eqpt %GDP R&D Intensity Bus R&D Intensity Share of Services BERD %? (EU -15)4728 Health R&D %GDP Doctoral Graduation % of age cohort HRST % empl31(48)38 (59F)

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10 Australian Research Funding and Performance System - II

11 Mechanisms of Government Research Funding Business Tax concession Other Innovation Support (Commercial Ready) ($M) GRAs CSIRO DSTO Other Universities Performance-based block funding ARC NHMRC CRC

12 Major Steering Mechanisms in a Pluralistic System National priorities – environment and sustainability, health, security and frontier technologies, shaping all R&D funding and performing programs The Backing Australia’s Ability program providing an additional investment of € 31b over the 10 years to 2010, supporting research, commercialisation and skill development High-level advice through PMSIEC Coordination of Ministries through the CCST The Cooperative Research Centre Program which requires an equal input from industry to focus R&D on progress towards utilisation and commercialisation. There are currently 56 CRCs The Government Research Agencies (GRAs) Source: Keenan/PREST

13 Government Research Agencies (PROs) CSIRO – broad remit to support industry, economy, environment and society - annual budget €600M Defence S&T Orgn - €250M ANSTO – nuclear research and science, €100M Geosciences Australia - €85M Antarctic Division - €60M Broadly responsible to relevant Minister and accountable for budget through Senate Estimates Committee Triennial funding Autonomous in strategy, programs and management

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15 CSIRO developed a National Flagship Program to be funded from their own budget + industry collaborators/investors Flagships - energy, food, light metals, preventative health, water, oceans, climate change Outcome-oriented – detailed R&D and pathway to market strategy and planning Budget – grew with Govt support to a minimum €10M/Flagship/year University researchers invited to be involved through a collaboration fund GRAs – an illustration of their operation

16 Lessons from STI Policy Research 1.The characteristics of STI policy and the influence of STI research have been essentially determined by the prevailing policy/political perspective. 2.Lessons from STI policy and mechanisms that have (and haven’t) worked. 3.Towards a more strategic positioning of STI research

17 What is EBPM? An approach that helps people make well-informed decisions about policies, programmes and projects by putting the best available evidence from research at the heart of policy development and implementation (CERI/OECD, 2004)

18 But we are faced with different types of problems  Type 1 – responsibility for solving a problem rests solely with government  Type 2 – responsibility for solving a problem rests with both the government and the governed  Type 3 – no feasible solution to a problem exists, so government and governed must work together to deal with a situation that neither can change, at least in the short term

19 Key Issues – I The Nature of Policy-Making  The Interface of Policy-making with Politics  Power/Influence versus Rationality  The Power of Myths

20 Key Issues – I The Nature of Policy-Making  The Interface of Policy-making with Politics  Power/Influence versus Rationality  The Power of Myths

21 Four Periods of STI Research 1.The ‘Humboldtian’ Era ( cf Ben Martin ) 2.The Keynesian Era 3.The neo-liberal era 4.An Emerging New Era?

22 The Keynesian Era – Vannevar Bush model – autonomous, well-funded research; scientists in charge STI Research Focus  Size of GERD  Peer review  Coordination and concentration  Priority-setting  Contribution of research to the economy

23 The Neo-Liberal Era – ?? ‘ New public management’ model – principal-agent theory, moral hazard STI Research Focus  Delegation  Evaluation  Technological Innovation  Commercialisation  New ventures/venture capital  Industrial clusters

24 An Emerging New Era – 20??- “Good Governance” model – strategic, outcome- focused, ‘joined up’, inclusive, horizontal management of interdependencies, adaptive policy- making STI Research Focus?  Productivity of R&D and knowledge  Capturing IP  Systems theory-based approaches  Priority-setting  Generation of broad, flexible knowledge platforms

25 Lessons from STI policy and mechanisms - Wentworth Group’ – Australia Key Determinants of STI Policy Influence - clear, simple language – no qualifiers - focus on solutions, not problems - work within existing political framework - work across existing structures and institutions

26 Lessons from STI policy and mechanisms - II ENSO Forecasting Centers – Pacific & Africa Key Determinants of STI Policy Influence - Convening - Translating - Collaborating - Mediating (Cash, Borck and Pratt, ‘Countering the Loading-Dock Approach to Science and Decision-Making’)

27 Towards a more Strategic Positioning of STI Research 1.More explicit and committed engagement with policy-makers 2.Mechanisms to more purposively shape agenda-setting and the language of debate on key public issues 3.Developing a well-managed ‘STI Collaboration’ database on STI policy interventions and their effectiveness

28 The Recent Review of the Australian Innovation System

29 Recent Review of NIS 1.The Context - change of Govt after 11 years - a series of reviews of education, universities, industrial relations, the federal system of government, the tax system, emissions trading, the auto and TCF industries, and the CRC program - declining investment and performance, particularly in the past 5 years:  A decline by 25% of Govt funding for R&I as % of GDP  Investment in education declined as a % of GDP while other OECD countries were massively increasing theirs  A zero increase in multi-factor productivity 2. Not a system review – no assessment of performance beyond these broad parameters

30 The Review’s Perspective on Innovation Innovation is commonly described as “creating value by doing things differently””. From this viewpoint we can only identify innovation after the event. If we are going to influence innovation outcomes we need an active appreciation of the dynamic processes associated with innovation that lead to change. Thus the focus should be on innovating and being innovative.

31 Areas of Focus Innovation in business People and skills (HR) National research excellence Information and market design (IP, information systems, creative industries) Tax Market facing programs Innovation in government National priorities for innovation Governance of the innovation system

32 Major Recommendations (72 in all) Make innovation central to all policy and programs Foster business innovation Restore Govt funding for S&I to 0.75% of GDP (1993 level) Transform the R&D tax concession into a tax credit Restore full funding for University research Drive innovation within government through an Advocate for Government Innovation Establish a system of national innovation priorities Governance through a National Innovation Council Source: Foresight Nanotech Institute


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