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A wave approaches a boundary between two media at an angle. The angle of incidence is i . Medium 1 A B Medium 2 C D i t seconds later, the wave has completely moved into the new medium. The angle of refraction is r . r In medium 1, the velocity of the wave is v 1. Velocity is defined by the equation 90-i i Using geometry, CDA = r 90-rr v1tv1t Using geometry, BAD = i Therefore, the distance BD is given by Also, the velocity of the wave in medium 2 is v 2. Therefore, the distance AC is given by v2tv2t

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Medium 1 A B Medium 2 C D i r The sine ratio gives v1tv1t v2tv2t Similarly, Making AC the subject gives Therefore, This is Snell’s Law

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The frequency of a wave does not change as it moves from one medium to another. Therefore, in medium 1, Substituting into Snell’s Law gives Similarly, in medium 2

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Similarly, for medium 2, The refractive index (n) of a medium is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum (v v ) to the speed of light in that medium. Therefore, for medium 1 Therefore

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REFRACTION Physics Chapter 18b. Refraction Bending rays of light as it passes from one medium to another Caused by change in speed of wave Amount of refraction.

REFRACTION Physics Chapter 18b. Refraction Bending rays of light as it passes from one medium to another Caused by change in speed of wave Amount of refraction.

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