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Individual differences and assessment in the early childhood setting © McLachlan, Edwards, Margrain & McLean 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Individual differences and assessment in the early childhood setting © McLachlan, Edwards, Margrain & McLean 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Individual differences and assessment in the early childhood setting © McLachlan, Edwards, Margrain & McLean 2013

2 Exceptionality What is the best time for early intervention? As soon as, and as quickly as possible However, misdiagnosis and unnecessary labelling can have negative consequences Diversity demands differentiation Exceptional does not mean exclusive

3 Normalisation Scandinavian concept of ‘normalisation’ involves the acceptance of people with disabilities. Citizens are offered the same conditions as are offered to other citizens (Bank Mikkelson 1969; Nirje 1970) Normalisation focuses on ‘dignity of risk’ rather than ‘protection’ Normalisation has been misinterpreted and applied as making people ‘normal’, forcing them to conform to social norms, with normalising measures ‘offered’ or ‘imposed’ (Wolfensberger 1980)

4 Subjectivity Both disabled and gifted individuals are marginalised and negatively misunderstood Teachers and communities implicitly share their values and beliefs about what is significant within the curriculum Learning stories are an assessment approach that is deliberately subjective and documents values, beliefs and teacher practice as part of pedagogical documentation

5 Family-professional partnership Full and respectful relationships between parents and professionals Families recognised for their ‘constancy’ in a child’s life role as children’s ‘first teachers’ particular expertise and assessment information

6 Model of professional practice Role of professionals Role of families Professional-centredExperts, decision makers, knowledge- holders Reliant and dependent on professionals Family-alliedResponsible for identification, access and implementation Able to implement intervention Family-focusedHelping, supporting, assisting Consumers who choose options, need assistance and advice Family-centredEqual partners; individualised, flexible and responsive, strengthening and supportive; mutually respectful; shared decision-making

7 Cross-disciplinary collaborative practice Early intervention support teams could potentially include Parents Extended family Early childhood teacher Early intervention teacher Teacher’s aide Physiotherapist Occupational therapist Speech-language therapist/pathologist Psychologist Social worker Other specialists, family or support people

8 Cultural competence Bevan-Brown (2003, p. 1) states that children’s learning is maximised when educational experiences: incorporate cultural content reflect cultural values, attitudes and practices utilise culturally preferred ways of learning include culturally appropriate support

9 Multicultural and Bicultural Multicultural respect and cultural competence is especially important as society becomes increasingly culturally diverse Bicultural practice and commitment requires particular commitment, and acknowledgement of indigenous Australian Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and New Zealand Māori

10 Summary of effective approaches to inclusive assessment Inclusive assessment is most effective when: Family-centred Cross-disciplinary Culturally competent Developmentally/chronologically age-appropriate Differentiated/adapted

11 Key terms Cross-disciplinary collaborative practices – an approach to teaching and learning that involves all people with a role in supporting children’s learning Developmentally/chronologically age-appropriate assessment – assessment that is matched to the child’s current level of knowledge, skills and competencies, regardless of chronological age Exceptionality – deviating widely from a norm of physical or mental ability Family-based practice – approaches to teaching and learning that include families in decision-making about how to support children’s learning Inclusive practice – approach to teaching and learning that involves both philosophical commitment and specific inclusive action Indigenous and multicultural assessment – approaches to assessment that affirm cultural strengths, acknowledge Indigenous values and are relevant to Indigenous children and their families Normalisation – the acceptance of children with disabilities, with their disabilities, offering them the same conditions as are offered to other children

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