Presentation on theme: "TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS"— Presentation transcript:
1TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS THE EVIL OF MODERN DAY SLAVERY
2WHAT IS TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS Trafficking in persons is a serious social problem because it poses a very large threat to fundamental human rights - right to life, to free movement, right to be free of torture. .Human trafficking as a phenomenon has complete disregard for any human rights.
3THE SCOPE OF TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS Human trafficking is global. It would be safe to say that all countries are affected.We speak of countries of:origintransitdestinationSome countries could be classified as all three.
4Millions of women, children and men are forced into prostitution, domestic service, work on plantations, in sweat shops, begging and other forms of coercion;Other forms include - organs, adoption, forced marriage, mail order brides and the entertainment industry.
5PEOPLE ARE TRAFFICKED WITHIN THE BORDERS OF ONE COUNTRY (INTERNAL HUMAN TRAFFICKING) BUT ALSO INTER-CONTINENTALLY(TRANSNATIONAL HUMAN TRAFFICKING)
6According to the United Nations, 700,000 women, children and men end up in human trafficking every year.The US State Department estimates that 900,000 women, children and men fall victim to trafficking every year.Other surveys claim that 27 million people today are in servitude, 8 million of whom are children.Human trafficking is one of the 3 most profitable criminal activities (besides trafficking in drugs and arms). Profits gained are estimated at billion US dollars, and according to some estimates, up to 507 billion US dollars a year.
7Trafficking of Persons, Especially Women and Children: Africa Routes
8Trafficking of Persons, Especially Women and Children: South America Routes
9Trafficking of Persons, Especially Women and Children: South East Asia Routes
10Trafficking of Persons, Especially Women and Children: USA Routes
11Trafficking of Persons, Especially Women and Children: Russia Routes
12Trafficking of Persons, Especially Women and Children: Australia Routes
14PUSH AND PULL FACTORS!MOSTLY THE PUSH FACTORS RESULT FROM GREAT POVERTY IN THE COUNTRY OF ORIGIN but IT IS MORE COMPLEX THAN THISTHE PULL FACTOR IS THAT THERE IS A DEMAND IN THE COUNTRY OF DESTINATION
15WHO ARE THE KEY AGENTS? Many persons such as: agents in the trafficking networkstour operators and travel agenciesemployment agenciesforemen and trafficking gangscrime syndicates with bases in many countriesbar madams, local women recruitersparents, relatives and friends
16school teachersvillagers and village headmen“mamasans”, brothel ownerspimps and procurerscustomers, clients, bar ownerscorrupt officials (e.g. police, customs, immigration, peace keepers, border patrollers).
17HOW DOES IT HAPPEN? LOCAL CONTACTS DIRECT SALE DECEIT DEBT BONDAGE KIDNAPFALSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTSBRIBESTRANSPORTATION
18A TERRIBLE STORYNigerian police have found more than 60 children packed into a shipping container in the Nigerian City of Lagos.A police spokesperson said yesterday that it was believed they were to be sold as slaves or servants.A woman accompanying the children was arrested after the discovery of boys and girls aged 5 to 14.
19The children were in a container normally used to carry fish, Nigerian police spokesman Emmanuel Ighodalo said from Abuja, the capital. “We are trying to find out what they would be doing with children aged 5 to 14. We are thinking maybe they are using them for slaves and house boys”.
20WHAT COST HUMAN LIFE?WAGES FOR THE CHILDREN (OR THEIR BUYING PRICE) ARE AS FOLLOWS:6 - 8 years: Rs ($3.50Aust)years: Rs ($6.50 Aust)years: Rs ($12.50 Aust)The most a child can be bought for is 15 Australian dollars. (India)
21It is estimated that 2 million children - mostly girls - are enslaved in the global sex trade Between 60 and 100 million women who should be alive today are “missing” as a result of violence associated with gender discriminationGlobally, one woman dies every minute due to problems related to pregnancy99% of these deaths are in the developing worldWomen earn only 10% of the world’s income, yet they work two out of three of all labour hours worldwideMore than 2.5 million children are at risk each year of contracting HIV from their mothers, even though preventative interventions are inexpensiveEvery year, an estimated 10,000 girls from Myanmar are recruited (many forcibly) to work in Thai brothels
22ABUSES - Trafficked women and children may experience the most horrifying abuses: RapePhysical abuse, including beatings with weaponsThreats and violence against them and their familyVerbal abuseImprisonmentLittle or no access to health careMinimal food, and of poor qualityDirty and cramped living conditionsForced abortionsForced use of drugs & alcoholTrafficked women and children are kept in an environment of fear, and are thus vulnerable to being exploited by pimps, corrupt immigration officials and police, and the men who create the demand for prostitutes.
23WHY ARE PEOPLE VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING? GlobalizationPopulation explosionThe number of people in the world has tripled with most growth in the 3rd world.CorruptionSexism and the objectification of and violence towards women.One of every three women worldwide has been beaten, forced into sex or experienced another form of violent abuse. (John Hopkins Institute for Public Health)
24WHY ARE PEOPLE VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING? Women and children are most vulnerable to poverty due to lack of education and power.70% of the 1.6 billion people living in severe poverty are women and girls. (United Nations Development Project)Two thirds of all those who are illiterate today are women. (US State Dept.)
25WHAT DOES TRAFFICKING LOOK LIKE? Military prostitutionMail order bride sellingSex tourismBrothelsStrip clubsBarsDisco ClubsKaraoke clubsMassage parlorsModeling & talent agenciesEscort servicesFraudulent advertisements/job opportunitiesPornography (including internet porn)
26PROFITHuman trafficking has now surpassed drugs and arms as the most lucrative form of organized crime in the world.It is a multi billion dollar industry.Victims are sold and used over and over again increasing profits.Low risk for getting caught.
27HOW DO TRAFFICKERS CON THEIR VICTIMS? Traffickers entice victims through job offers, advertisements, beauty contests, “modeling” contracts and fraudulent matchmaking agencies. Women are lured through the promise of high pay, good working conditions and the chance to escape oppressive conditions.Traffickers use fraud, deception, false marriage, intimidation, threats, beatings, outright kidnapping, torture, sexual exploitation, rape, starvation, death threats, and threats to family members to acquire and control victims. (Stop Trafficking of People, USCCB)
28FURTHER FORMS OF MANIPULATION Debt bondageConfiscation of passportsShaming victimsTelling victims they will be deported or imprisoned for immigration violations if they contact the policeIsolation from the publicControl of victims money
29THE VICTIMS Blame themselves (don’t think they are victims) Are afraid of deportationDon’t know the language, customs, and laws of the new country
30THE VICTIMS Often have: STDsInjuriesUnwanted pregnanciesChronic infectionsMiscarriagesForced abortionsHepatitis B and CHIV/AIDSDrug or alcohol abuseAnxiety, stress, traumaEating disordersDepressionSuicidal tendenciesActs of Self-mutilation(Migration and Refugee Services, Office of Refugee Programs, United States Conference of Catholic Bishops)
31THE DEMAND Pornography is addictive. #1 role of women in video games is that of a prostitute. (Randall, Common Sense Media)Most male clients of prostitutes are upper middle class white men from the suburbs. (So Deep a Violence)Peacekeepers and military personnel around the globe keep up the demand for sexual services thereby promoting trafficking.
32FARM LABOURFarm labourers, particularly migrant labourers are vulnerable to forced labourPoor working conditions and stagnant wages.Weak legal protections.Little monitoring of work conditions.
33DOMESTIC SERVICEIn the US, visas require the domestic worker to remain with their employer or face deportation. This makes it less likely for workers to report abuses. Is this true in Australia?It is difficult to monitor working conditions of domestic workers because work takes place in private homes.
34SWEATSHOPSMost sweatshops are in the developing world, however, many sweatshops exist in the US. Are there any in Australia?Competition with overseas manufacturing pushes labour costs to a minimum resulting in sweatshops. Do Australians purchase items made by these producers?
35Sweatshops operate within the informal economy making it more difficult to enforce labour laws. The US island territories produce goods marked with “Made in the U.S.A.” labels but workers have fewer labour protections and rights than workers on the mainland. (Hidden Slaves, Forced labor in the US, 2004) Are any of these items on sale in Australia?What hidden slaves are there in Australia? How are they treated?
36DOMESTIC SERVICEAre household workers in Australia defined as “employees”?Can they organize for better working conditions or wages?Can domestic workers be brought to Australia by their employers under an immigration policy which makes them more vulnerable?
37IT IS A HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUE No one shall be held in slavery or servitude, slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forums (ARTICLE 4 UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS 1948)No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (ARTICLE 5 UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS 1948)
38INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS 1. The United Nations Conventions for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others, 1949(for the first time in an international instrument, the Convention declares prostitution and the traffic in persons to be incompatible with the dignity and worth of the human person and to endanger the welfare of the individual, the family and the community.
39The Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) 1979 The provision on trafficking in women goes as follows:Article 6States parties shall take all appropriate measures, including legislation,to suppress all forms of traffic in women and exploitation of prostitution of women.
40The united nations convention on the rights of the child (CRC) 1989 Article 34: States Parties undertake to protect the Child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. For these purposes, States Parties shall in particular take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent:(a) the inducement or coercion of a child to engage in any unlawful sexual activity;(b) The exploitative use of children in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices; the exploitative use of children in pornographic performances and materialsArticle 35: States Parties shall take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent the abduction of, the sale of or traffic in children for any purpose or in any formArticle 39: States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to promote physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration of a child victim of: any form of neglect, exploitation, or abuse; torture or any other form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; or armed conflict. Such recovery and reintegration shall take place in an environment which fosters the health, self-respect and dignity of the child.
41WHAT DOES THE CHURCH SAY? “All human beings…are clothed in the same personal dignity. For this reason they must be respected, and no reason can ever justify their being used at whim, as if they were objects.”Pope Benedict XVI, 1 January 2007“The trade in human persons constitutes a shocking offence against human dignity and a grave violation of fundamental human rights."John Paul II, May 2002
42WHAT CAN I DO?Raise awareness - tell people about the fact that TIP exists and exists in Australia.Become more educated about TIP in Australia and the Asia Pacific region.Lobby for an improved visa framework for victims of trafficking.Support those establishing safe houses for victims.Support Millennium Development Goal (MDG) initiatives to reduce poverty and hence reduce the vulnerability to trafficking in source countries. e.g. Fair Trade; Fair Wear