Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Human Anatomy & Physiology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Human Anatomy & Physiology 1. Anatomy is the branch of science that deals with the structure(morphology) of body parts– their forms and arrangements.2. Physiology is concerned with the functions of body parts—what theydo and how they do it.3. It is difficult to separate the topics of anatomy and physiology becausethe structures of body parts are so closely associated with theirfunctions.II. CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE1. The traits that humans share with other organisms:a. movement- self initiated change in position (motion)b. responsiveness- ability to sense and react to changec. growth- increase in body size without changing shaped. reproduction- process of making a new individuale. respiration- process of obtaining oxygen
2 f. digestion- process by which various food substances are chemically changed into simpler formsg. absorption- passages of substances through membranesh. circulation- movement of substances from place to place within the bodyi. assimilation- changing of absorbed substancesj. excretion- removal of wastes2. Each of these characteristics of life depends upon physical and chemical changes thatoccur within the body; these changes are referred to as metabolism.III. MAINTENANCE OF LIFEA. Needs of organisms include: water, food, oxygen, heat, and pressure1. Although organisms need the above materials, this alone does not ensure survival.B. Homeostasis is the tendency to maintain a stable internal environment.1. Homeostasis mechanisms help regulate body temperature and blood pressure.2. If an organism is to survive, the conditions within its body fluids must remainrelatively stable.IV. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION1. The body is composed of parts that occupy different levels of organization.a. material substances are composed of atomsb. atoms join together to form moleculesc. organelles contain groups of large moleculesd. cells, which are composed of organelles, are the basic units of structure andfunction within the bodye. cells are organized into tissues
3 f. tissues are organized into organs g. organs that function closely together comprise organ systemsh. organ systems constitute the organism
4 V. ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY 1. The Human Organism is a complex structure composed of manyparts. Its major features include several Body Cavities, layers ofmembranes within these cavities, and a variety of organ systems.
5 A. Body Cavities1. The human organism can be divided into an axial portion, whichincludes the head, neck, and trunk and an appendicular portion,which includes the arms and legs2. The axial portion of the body contains the dorsal and ventral cavitiesa. dorsal includes the cranial and spinal cavitiesb. ventral includes the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities3. Thoracic and abdominopelvic membranesa. Thoracic membranes1. pleural membranes line the thoracic cavity and cover the lungs2. mediastinum separates the thoracic cavity into right and leftcompartments3. pericardial membranes surround the heart and cover itssurfaceb. Abdominopelvic membranes1. peritoneal membranes line the abdominopelvic cavity andcover the organs inside
6 B. Organ Systems1. The human organism consists of several organ systems.2. Body Covering:a. integumentary system include the skin and various accessoryorgans such as the hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands1. protect underlying tissues, help regulate body temperature, housesensory receptors, and synthesize certain products3. Support and Movementa. skeletal system is composed of bones, cartilages, and theligaments that bind bones together1. provides a framework, protective shields, and attachments formuscles; it also produces blood cells and stores inorganic saltsb. muscular system includes the muscles of the body1. responsible for body movements, the maintenance of posture,and production of body heat
7 4. Integration and Coordination a. nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, andsense organs1. functions to receive impulses from sensory parts, interpret theseimpulses, and act on them by causing muscles or glands torespondb. endocrine system consists of glands that secrete hormones1. hormones help regulate metabolism2. includes the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands;the pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, and thymus gland5. Processing and Transportinga. digestive system receives foods, converts food molecules intoforms that can pass through cell membranes, and eliminatesmaterials that are not absorbed; produce hormones1. includes the mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx,esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small andlarge intestines
8 b. respiratory system provides for the intake and output of air and for the exchange of gases between the air and the blood1. includes the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, andlungc. circulatory system transport oxygen, nutrients, hormones, andwastes1. includes the heart, which pumps the blood and blood vessels,which carry blood to and from the body partsd. lymphatic system is composed of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes,thymus, and spleen1. transports lymph from the tissues to the bloodstream and aidsaids in defending the body against disease causing agentse. urinary system includes the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, andurethra1. filters wastes from the blood and helps maintain water andelectrolyte balance
9 f. reproduction systems are concerned with the production of new organisms1. male reproductive system includes the scrotum, testes, urethra,and penis, which produce, maintain, and transport male sex cells2. female reproductive system includes ovaries, uterine tubes,uterus, vagina, clitoris, vulva, which produce, maintain, andtransport female sex cellsVI. ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY1. Terms with precise meanings are used to help investigatorscommunicate effectively.2. The anatomical position is standing erect, the face is forward, and thearms are at the sides, with the palms forward
10 a. relative position terms are used to describe the location of one part with respect to another partb. body sections are planes along which the body may be cut to observe torelative locations and arrangements of internal partsc. body regions are various body regions are designated by special terms
11 Quick Review Answers must be in complete sentences. Read over the Introduction on page 2 in your textbook and answer questions 1 and 2.What factors probably stimulated an early interest in the human body?What idea sparked the beginning of modern science?How are the characteristics of life related to metabolism?Why is homeostasis important to survival?What is meant by visceral organs?What organs occupy the dorsal cavity?Name the cavities of the head.Describe the general function of each organ system.Describe the anatomical position.Describe three types of body sections.
12 Quiz Tomorrow (Tuesday, January 12, 2010) Lecture Notes: You must know the following info~Difference between anatomy and physiology~The characteristics of life~Levels of organization~The body parts that make up the axial and appendicular portion~Body cavities and their membranes~The function of each organ system
13 Short Answers Use complete sentences Define anatomy and physiology.List and describe the (8) levels of organization.Several pairs of structures are given next. In each case, choose the one that meets the condition given first.a. Distal– the knee/the footb. Lateral– the cheekbone/the nosec. Superior– the neck/the chind. Anterior– the heel/the toenailse. External– the skin/the skeletal musclesAt the Clinic Use complete sentencesA nurse informed John that she was about to take blood from his antecubital region. What part of the body was she referring to? Later, she came back and said she was going to give him an antibiotic shot in the deltoid region. Did he take off his shirt or drop his pants to get the shot? Before John left the office, the nurse noticed that his left sural region was badly bruised. What part of the body was bruised?Jennie Dip fell of her motorcycle and tore a nerve in her axillary region. She also tore ligaments in her cervical and scapular regions and broke the only bone of her right branchial region. Explain where each of her injuries is located.