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Developing language-specific curricula in the Australian Curriculum Biennial Conference of the AFMLTA Australian National University, Canberra 6-8 July.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing language-specific curricula in the Australian Curriculum Biennial Conference of the AFMLTA Australian National University, Canberra 6-8 July."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing language-specific curricula in the Australian Curriculum Biennial Conference of the AFMLTA Australian National University, Canberra 6-8 July 2013 Presenters:Angela Scarino, Andrew Scrimgeour, Michelle Kohler, Michael Walsh, Jaky Troy 1

2 Presentations Part 1: Language-specific curriculum development 1.Angela Scarino: The Languages Curriculum Design 2.Andrew Scrimgeour: Development of Chinese in the Australian Curriculum 3.Michelle Kohler: Developing Indonesian in the Australian Curriculum 4.Discussion Part 2: Developing the Australian Languages Framework 1.Michael Walsh: Developing a framework for teaching Australian Languages 2.Jaky Troy: Reflections on the process 3.Discussion Part 3: Overall discussion 2

3 The Languages Curriculum Design Angela Scarino Research Centre for Languages and Cultures University of South Australia Email: 3

4 Context 4 Learning languages in the context of super-diversity (Vertovec 2009; Blommaert, 2010) A recognition of the changing nature of multilingualism and multiculturalism (Leung 2005; Kramsch & Whiteside 2008) The centrality of language and communication in the new economy (Heller 2009) Changing curricula and pedagogies that engage with and build on the diversity in semiotic modes that learners bring to the classroom (Stroud & Heugh 2011)

5 Expanded conception of language, culture and learning and their relationship 5 An expanded conception of language; language as personal, expressive - how we want to be in a language (Shohamy 2007). Learning a language is not a monolingual activity as there are always at least two languages at play (Kramsch 2009). Language mediates learning – learning how to mean (Halliday 1993). Language is not only something that we use; we are “at home” in language; to learn a language is to learn an inheritance (Gadamer 2004).

6 The shifts 6 Understanding language as form, as practice and as the interpretation and creation of meaning. As Kramsch (2006) states: “Today it is not sufficient for learners to know how to communicate meanings. They have to understand the practice of meaning-making.” Understanding the crucial role of language and culture in meaning- making; learners learn through the lens of their culture; learning languages is not only about how to see through this lens but also to bring to learners’ awareness that they have this lens. Understanding the crucial role of language and culture in learning (‘learning how to mean’)  within an interlinguistic and intercultural perspective (Liddicoat & Scarino 2013)  within an interpretive, reflective, reflexive (reciprocal) orientation

7 A further expansion to consider 7 Hasan (2003) on the changing nature of literacy in the globalised world: Three forms of literacy: (1)recognition literacy: the regular kinds of literacy practices typical in education such as encoding and decoding language (2)action literacy: enables learners to “write to mean” including self-expression and the production of texts in genres that are educationally valued (3)reflective literacy: “it aims to create in the pupil an understanding of reading and writing as bearers of deep social significance, not simply a vehicle for information but as a potent instrument of social formation: it is a form of literacy that goes beyond simple interpretation to reflection on how the “same” words can be made to construe different meanings and what is the significance of such semantic construals. This implies that reflection literacy moves from comprehensive into enquiry: the literate person should be able to interrogate the wording and the meaning of the utterance – why these words, what might they achieve, to whose loss and to whose benefit (pp.446-447.)

8 The Languages Design - Aims communicate in the target language understand language, culture, and learning and their relationship, and thereby develop an intercultural capability in communication understand themselves as communicators And for Australian Languages: understand the process of language building ( to develop knowledge of linguistic techniques and processes of language revitalisation) 8

9 Strands and sub-strands Communicating Socialising and taking action Obtaining and using information Responding to and expressing imaginative experience Moving between/translating Expressing and performing identity Reflecting on intercultural language use 9 Understanding Systems of language Variability in language use Language awareness Role of language and culture Language building for Australian Languages)

10 Socialising and taking action Sub-strand 1.1: Socialising and taking action Socialising with others (orally and in writing) to exchange ideas, opinions, experiences, thoughts, feelings, intentions and plans, and to take action with others. Students learn to socialise with others in the target language (both orally and in writing); to interact with others to build relationships and participate in shared activities; to negotiate, to make decisions and arrangements and take individual and collective action. 10

11 Socialising and taking action 11 Concepts Text-types Processes friendship (experiences, values, conflict, reconciliation) relationships (family, generations) leisure celebration neighbourhood (geography, distance, environment) etiquette (greetings, politeness) naming attitude education (learning, knowledge) journey community time space/place negotiation health/wellbeing interconnection across concepts and actions Conversation: face-to-face interaction; telephone conversations; participating in shared communicative activities, discussions, debates Correspondence: emails, text messages, class blog/chat forums, notes, invitations, greeting cards, letters, postcards listening, speaking, reading and writingexplaining expressing preferences and feelingspersuading comparingadvising negotiatingcommenting making decisions and arrangementsdescribing giving and following instructionsdebating invitingtransacting accepting and decliningthanking discussingplanning and participating expressingconnecting/relating justifying

12 Socialising and taking action: sequencing 12 Examples of sequencing in broad terms (predominantly for second language learning) Early primary years (pre-literacy/early literacy) Upper primary (developing literacy) Junior secondary (expanding literacy) interacting/socialising is guided; often occurs as a whole-class response; is based on the learner’s own experience interacting/socialising to give, share, roleplay; articulate and exchange ideas, feelings, preferences interacting/socialising to state and exchange thoughts, feelings, plans; begin to discuss/debate; take social/community action; express opinion; reflect on and compare self with others; understand reciprocally interacting/socialising takes place within the context of the classroom and is connected to the home and local environment interacting/socialising takes place within the neighbourhood and local community; beginning to take community action interacting/socialising takes place in diverse contexts, local and global, in real time and virtual; taking group action; understanding consequences; communicating with parents/others student as participant with teacher; students participate by naming, pointing, miming, participating in games and action-related talk peer to peer; student to teacher; student to known people; with one of multiple participants student to diverse participants repeated language; active listeningaccessing resources, including digital resources; can find out/research/ compare; supported writing students vary their language according to age and gender; socialising through a range of texts, including narratives, diaries, records of experience; intercultural exchange

13 Moving between languages/translating: concepts, text-types, processes 13 Concepts Text-types Processes equivalence representation (words, icons, symbols) individual (character, values, relationship) nation (origins, social order, politics, religion) taboo (transgression, respect, conformity) linguistic landscape (language in the environment) sensitivity and empathy (values and beliefs, respect, tolerance) interconnection across concepts and actions translating interpreting explaining comparing translations comparing bilingual texts analysing judging adequacy/evaluating considering the validity of different meanings connecting/relating interculturally translating (written) interpreting (oral) explanation (oral and written)

14 Moving between languages/translating: sequencing 14 Examples of sequencing in broad terms (predominantly for second language learning) Early primary years (pre-literacy/early literacy) Upper primary (developing literacy) Junior secondary (expanding literacy) students know that some people use different codes in communicating; they can identify different codes, give equivalence, match real objects and words, and begin to navigate between the known and unknown at the level of code students are aware of languages in the environment; they recognise cultural ways of behaving, can make comparisons, explain to others, and note the lack of word-for- word equivalence students are able to compare and explain concepts, processes, views and experiences in culturally responsive and reciprocal ways; they understand that meaning can be ‘lost in translation’ Sequencing

15 Content descriptions: Italian Obtaining and using information 15 Sub-strand 1.2: Obtaining and using information Obtaining and processing information Identify and order factual information from a range of spoken, written, digital and multimodal texts, and process and represent meaning, e.g. through classification, sequence and summary [Key processes: ordering, classifying, tabulating]  obtaining information as a dimension of this sub- strand  the fact that it is factual information suggests the appropriate level  key processes here give a sense of the level of information giving Giving information Convey ideas and information through a range of spoken, written, digital and multimodal texts in ways that allow comparison of diverse perspectives and practices [Key processes: describing, presenting]  giving information as a dimension of the sub-strand  the fact that it is factual information suggests the appropriate level  key processes here give a sense of the level of information giving Note: This is an introduction only to the reality of diverse perspectives.

16 An example: Signs in every-day life Learners will be taught to: recognise, identify, interpret and respond to the meaning being communicated in signs (e.g. warning, instruction, direction) and other graphic representation (e.g. illustrations, cartoons) Concept presentation presentation and comparison of signs and placards used in signs discussion of language used in signs (commands, instructions, warnings) and their function in society examination and discussion of cultural values reflected by the language of signs e.g. responsibility of state for providing warning, expectations of public, shorthand ways of mediating meanings Concept’s key language features linguistic structures that convey commands, instructions and warnings that require actions (Do x; Don’t’ do Y); demands (More parks now!) examination of social consequences of language structures that indicate power relations 16

17 The interrelationship of the strands and sub-strands The interrelationship of the strands and sub-strands is best seen as three facets of the same experience: 1.performance and experience of communication (performance) 2.analysis of various aspects of language and culture involved in communication (analysis) 3.reflection on the comparative and reciprocal dimensions of language learning and use (reflection) 17

18 References Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA]. (2011). Shape of the Australian Curriculum: Languages. Sydney: ACARA. paper/national-cultural-policy-discussion-paper.pdf paper/national-cultural-policy-discussion-paper.pdf Blommaert, J. (2010). The sociolinguistics of globalization. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. Gadamer, H-G. (2004). Truth and method (2nd ed.) (J. Weinsheimer & D.G. Marshall, Trans.). New York. Continuum. Halliday, M.A.K. (1993). Towards a language-based theory of learning. Linguistics and Education, 5, 93–116. Heller, M. (2009). Multilingualism and transnationalism. In P. Auer and L. Wei (Eds.) Handbook of multilingualism and multilingual communication. Berlin. Mouton de Gruyter (pp.539-553). Kramsch, C. (2009). The Multilingual Subject. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kramsch, C. & Whiteside, A. (2008). Language ecology in multilingual settings. Towards a theory of symbolic competence. Applied Linguistics, 1–27, doi:10.1093/applin/amn022. Leung, C. (2005). Convivial communication: Recontextualising communicative competence. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 15, 119–144. Liddicoat, A.J. & Scarino, A. (2013) Intercultural language teaching and learning. Malden. Wiley-Blackwell. Shohamy, E. (2007). Language Policy. Hidden agendas and new approaches. London and New York. Routledge. Stroud, C. & Heugh, K. (2011). Languages in education. In R. Mesthrie (Ed.) Cambridge handbook of sociolinguistics (pp. 413–429). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Vertovec, S. (2009). Transnationalism. London: Routledge. 18

19 The development of Chinese in the Australian Curriculum Andrew Scrimgeour Research Centre for Languages and Cultures University of South Australia Email: 19

20 Outline: the development of Chinese curriculum Context the distinctiveness of Chinese learner diversity in Chinese classrooms Curriculum responses developing oral & print literacy in Chinese developing learner pathways for Chinese Future challenges teacher knowledge & experience in classroom contexts 20

21 The distinctiveness of Chinese 澳大利亚人口少地方大。 àodàlìyàrénkǒushǎodìfāngdà Àodàlìyà rénkǒu shǎo, dìfāng dà. Australia population few, area big. Australia has a small population and a large area. The challenge capturing the distinctiveness of each mode – oral & written determining the nature and rate of conceptual development and performance in each mode 21

22 Learner diversity learner background data (SAALE) 22

23 Learner diversity a complex cohort a diversity of knowledge, experience, engagement complex histories, blurred boundaries diversity of needs, interests, aspirations within each group The challenge Determining the nature of the learner group and the pitch for each pathway 23

24 The curriculum development challenge Conceptualising the language Determining developmental sequences of concepts and processes for learning and using Chinese language Representing language use experiences providing access to & promoting exploration of the nature of the spoken & written language in diverse contexts of use for young learners of diverse background 24

25 How does the Australian Curriculum Chinese address issues of character learning and literacy development in Chinese ? 25

26 ACARA Languages responding to learner diversity Three learner pathways will be developed to cater specifically for second language learners, background language learners and first language learners of Chinese 26

27 Learner Groups – the pitch Second language learners Learners who are introduced to learning Language at school = new learners Background language learners Learners who use the Language at home (not necessarily exclusively) and have knowledge of Language (to varying degrees) and have a base ready for literacy development in Language = Bilingual learners First language learners Learners who are Language first language users who have undertaken at least primary schooling in the Language; they have had their primary socialisation as well as initial literacy development in Language = think in the Language 27

28 Responding to distinctiveness the curriculum structure Communicating Strand using CHINESE for communicative purposes involves Oral interaction (listening and speaking) Written interaction (reading and writing) Understanding strand analysing the systems and characteristics of Chinese Phonology, Orthography, Morphology Grammar, Text Appreciating diversity – in communities of speakers – in spoken languages / in writing – in contexts of communication The role of technology in language The power of language The role of culture in language use 28

29 Oral-written distinction Years 7 and 8 (Level 1)Years 9 and 10 (Level 2) Socialising and taking action Oral Interacting and responding exchange information and opinions about interests, routines and family life and establish and maintain friendships with others in conversations and class discussions request information and compare experiences, opinions and preferences relating to daily life, such as routines at home, study habits, extracurricular activity Transacting Make choices from available options and request quantities of items in transactions Negotiate and comment on prices, quantities or quality to complete transactions Taking Action Participate in group action to share aspects of Chinese culture with others through performance participate in planning and presenting a social or cultural event such as conducting a speech competition or performance Classroom Interaction Ask and respond to questions, seek permission and make requests, and follow instructions in classroom routines share opinions and experiences, clarify understandings and take initiative in Chinese language learning and use Written Interacting and responding Relate aspects of their daily experience to others such as sporting and leisure interests, home and school routines via social media or correspondence Share perspectives on people, places and activities across cultures through social media or correspondence Taking ActionCollaborate with others to promote Chinese language and culture at school by producing bilingual signs and posters Create visual displays to promote for example well- being and intercultural understanding among peers 29

30 Systems … Foundation to Year 2 (Level 1) Years 3 and 4 (Level 1) Years 5 and 6 (Level 2) Years 7 and 8 (Level 3) Years 9 and 10 (Level 4) Phonology Mimic pronunciation, tone and rhythm in Chinese speech Recognise the tone- syllable nature of Chinese spoken language and compare Chinese and English sounds Discriminate between similar or related syllables and words by listening with attention to tone, stress and phrasing Discriminate differences in pronunciation and tone and recognise systems of sound flow in Chinese speech Identify differences in intonation, rhythm and pronunciation when listening to speakers of diverse age, gender and regional background OrthographyRecognise Chinese characters as a form of writing and associate character forms with their meanings Explore structural features of Chinese characters, such as stroke types and sequences, and component forms and their arrangement Analyse character structure, sides and component sequences to relate the form of a character to its particular sound and meaning Relate characters containing a common component or side to explore the degree of reliability in how sound and meaning are conveyed Relate prior knowledge of character form and function to infer information about sound and meaning 30

31 Learner pathways Obtaining and using information L2 9-10BL 9-10 Oral Obtaining and processing information Summarise, and compare factual information obtained from for example video podcasts and interviews about people, places and lifestyles in diverse communities Evaluate diverse interpretations of contemporary social issues or events heard in media such as documentaries and current affair programs, related to for example natural disaster and human endeavour in diverse communities Using information engage in class discussions to share information gathered about everyday life experiences in diverse communities such as significant or distinctive cultural, social, leisure or educational practices Present a position by referring to sources to connect with ideas and perspectives of others on issues of interest to young people such as popular music, film, TV and fashion in diverse communities Written Obtaining and processing information collate information about education experiences and daily life drawn from diverse sources such as websites and brochures Collate information under topical headings from brochures, advertisements and websites to develop an insight into for example features of contemporary society across the Chinese speaking world Using informationcreate visual and textual displays to report on topics of interest such as distinctive features of life and education and compare lifestyles across communities Connect information drawn from personal sources and correspondence with others comparing experiences of youth across cultures to present in online multimedia displays to share with readers overseas 31

32 Challenges in implementation Context – Dealing with composite classes –attending to needs of specific cohorts – Acknowledging Community schooling experience Teacher background - experiences – expectations – practices – as Native speaker teachers of Chinese (esp. as a second language) – Teacher ‘positioning’ in relation to the language & the learner – converting experiential knowledge into pedagogical knowledge – conceptualising and representing Chinese as appropriate to learner background – understanding the task from the learners perspective 32

33 Developing language specific curricula: the case of Indonesian in the Australian Curriculum Michelle Kohler Research Centre for Languages and Cultures University of South Australia Email: 33

34 A welcome opportunity Language specific curricula is welcome after previous generic orientation Opportunity to convey sense of distinctiveness of the language and culture, its teaching and learning – greater clarity and shared understanding Many considerations in development 34

35 The design construct 35 Two major influences on language specific development (1) The AC construct: FeatureExpectations Content Descriptions Single statement of what will be taught (2 year period) Includes concepts, processes, text types ElaborationsExamples to illustrate and exemplify content descriptions Implicit stem ‘this may involve students…’ Commence with verb in present continuous tense, e.g. ‘identifying’, ‘exploring’, ‘describing’ Achievement Standards Statement of skills and understanding in two paragraphs 1: students’ performance/‘doing’ in the target language 2: students’ understanding related to performance/ doing Language-specific examples to capture level of sophistication

36 The design construct 36 (2) The Shape and design papers for Languages: -Contemporary understandings of language teaching and learning - intercultural orientation e.g. social, experiential, interpretive, reflective -Described through strands and sub-strands (cascading representation) StrandSub-strand CommunicatingSocialising and taking action Obtaining and using information Responding to and expressing imaginative experience Mediating (translating, interpreting) Expressing and performing identity Reflecting on intercultural language use UnderstandingSystem of language Variability Language Awareness Reflecting on role of language and culture

37 Language specificity: content 37 How to conceive/represent distinctiveness? Both from current practice and intention of ‘new’ aspects of design e.g. mediating, reflection on intercultural language use ProcessExamples Map ’culturally fruitful’ concepts nasib (fate), gotong royong (mutual support), pulang kampung (return home/to one’s origins) Map linguistic content (functional orientation) - identifying things using concrete nouns, for example, school (ruang kelas); objects (bak mandi) and places (desa, masjid) - referring to numbers of things using cardinal number system (puluh, ratus) and things in sequence using ordinal number system (pertama, ke-) - telling others to do something using imperatives, for example, Duduklah, Diamlah - specifying place and location, for example, di sini, di atas

38 Language specificity: content 38 An example:

39 Language specificity: achievement 39 How to render achievement at a give point? How to render achievement over time/progression? – 2 year intervals, not just more but qualitative shift in learning, important to select ‘indicative’ language use and understandings Two paragraphs: – Communicating: evidence base for Year 6 & 10 (SAALE study) – Understanding: anecdotal evidence (writing panel experience) – Overall, intercultural orientation – anecdotal, experimental, hypothetical

40 Language specificity: achievement 40 Extracts from Year 7 and 8 (Level 1) (Communicating) Students refer to others using a range of pronouns (saya, kamu, dia, mereka, Bu/Pak), and use these in possessive form, including using -nya (sepatunya trendi, filmnya menarik). They refer to events in time and place using prepositions (pada, di and ke) as well as tense markers, such as se belum/sesudah, … yang lalu, … depan. (Understanding) Students recognise that Indonesian has similarities with English, such as the same alphabet, and similar word order, apart from possessives and noun- adjective order. They are aware of major features such as base words (main, makan, tidur, jalan) and how to apply affixes such as -an to create nouns and ber- to create verbs.

41 Reflections on the experience 41 Working with the design construct: struggles and benefits for language specificity Complexity of holding multiple frames at once e.g. AC construct, Languages design, language specific/generic content, current and new dimensions of teaching and learning, existing and envisaged practice - at a given point (2 years) and over time (F-10) It is a process of conceptualising, abstracting/specifying, weaving, foregrounding/backgrounding, crafting the language for maximum meaning In practice, teachers integrate, build connections between various dimensions to shape programs The AC Indonesian is a reference point, a contribution to professional dialogue and a potential lever for enhancing teaching and learning of Indonesian into the future

42 Introducing the Draft Framework for Australian Languages Michael Walsh AIATSIS Centre for Australian Languages, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages

43 Oversight of the curriculum development process The ACARA Board [the ultimate bosses] The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Advisory Group Languages Advisory Group Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages Advisory Group Languages National Panel Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Panel Consultations with the public

44 Overview of the curriculum development process Shape paper – lead writer: Angela Scarino; companion writer: Jaky Troy Draft Framework for Australian Languages – writers: Doug Marmion; Jaky Troy; Michael Walsh various drafts looked over by the advisory groups and national panels before going out to consultation 12 August – Languages Advisory Group discusses proposed directions for revision of the Framework 12 September - Languages Advisory Group considers the revised Framework

45 Timetable for consultations on the Draft Framework for Australian Languages Online consultations: 20 May – 25 July 2013 18 face-to-face consultations, one for each capital city as well as other key centres for larger areas e.g. Northern Territory: Alice Springs 14 June; Darwin 29 July Western Australia: Broome 17 June; Hedland 18 June; Perth 19 June; Kalgoorlie 20 June others: Hobart, Melbourne, Adelaide, Port Augusta, Sydney, Vincentia, Port Macquarie, Parkes, Canberra, Brisbane, Cairns, Thursday Island

46 Overview of the Framework Rationale Aims Principles and protocols Pathways Strands Sub-strands Sub-sub-strands: content descriptions; content elaborations

47 An example from Japanese Strand: Communicating Sub-strand: Socialising and taking action Sub-sub-strand: “1.1 Interact in simple exchanges … everyday intercations” Content description [blue] Content elaborations [black]

48 Overview of the Framework Rationale why are we doing this? Aimswhat do we hope to achieve Principles and protocolsshow some respect! Pathwayscatering to 3 different kinds of learners Strandsbroad organizing principle for any language Sub-strandsthe nitty-gritty Sub-sub-strands: content descriptions; content elaborationseven nittier-grittier

49 Rationale why are we doing this? The overall rationale for learning Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages in Australian schools is that they are the original languages of this country. Through learning them all students gain access to knowledge and understanding of Australia that can only come from an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander perspective. The languages by their nature embed this perspective. Developing the ability to use these unique languages can play an important part in the development of a strong sense of identity and self-esteem for all Australian students. and five more

50 Aims what do we hope to achieve To communicate in the target language To understand language, culture, and learning and their relationship and thereby develop an intercultural capability in communication To understand oneself as a communicator (as performer and audience) To understand the process of language building (to develop knowledge of linguistic techniques and processes of language revitalisation).

51 Aims To communicate in the target language To understand language, culture, and learning and their relationship and thereby develop an intercultural capability in communication To understand oneself as a communicator (as performer and audience) To understand the process of language building (to develop knowledge of linguistic techniques and processes of language revitalisation). the 4 th aim is unique to Australian Languages

52 Principles and Protocols - excerpts Appropriate consultations with relevant Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander communities are always the touchstone for the development and provision of language learning programs. Before, during and after the introduction of such programs the following guiding principles and protocols should be integral to the development and delivery of Australian languages programs: Each Australian language is recognised as belonging to a group of people who are the language owners or custodians. Sufficient time and resources should be allowed for thorough and ongoing consultation processes in accordance with local situations.. The ultimate authority regarding the choice of target language rests with the local community. … Issues to be considered might include: whether the target language is the language of the land on which it will be learned the level of documentation for that language the proportion of students identifying with the language availability of appropriate human resources for teaching the language.

53 Curriculum architecture: Pathways

54 Languaging the content elaborations: before

55 Languaging the content elaborations: after Sample content elaborations for L1 non-Pama-Nyungan: Murrinh-Patha. Errata: white blossom  orange blossom; thitay  thithay

56 Languaging the content elaborations

57 Erratum: thitay  thithay

58 Languaging the content elaborations



61 What it’s all for?! It is intended that the Framework will be used by state and territory jurisdictions and schools to develop language-specific programs. Of necessity a framework is general and abstract. This is because it needs to be potentially applicable to the entire range of all 250 Australian languages which display a very wide variety of language ecologies. There will be a number of instances of specific language exemplification in which content descriptions and elaborations which have hitherto been general and abstract are applied in a concrete fashion to these specific languages.

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