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Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / 614.3 September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia A JPL / GSFC Partnership for an Earth Science Decadal Survey Mission.

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Presentation on theme: "Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / 614.3 September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia A JPL / GSFC Partnership for an Earth Science Decadal Survey Mission."— Presentation transcript:

1 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia A JPL / GSFC Partnership for an Earth Science Decadal Survey Mission Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission

2 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia Outline SMAP science – why do we care about soil moisture & FT NRC Decadal Survey impetus SMAP science objectives Mission & instrument concept SMAP science products & synergy

3 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia Dry Soil Moist Soil 5°C May 10 :Clear w/ scattered cirrus & mild winds May 18:90 mm Rain May 20: Clear sky & mild winds CASES’97, BAMS (81), Soil Moisture Controls Land / Atmosphere Interactions (Cahill et al., 1999) Soil moisture is an important land surface control on water and energy fluxes. A soil moisture mission will help answer: -- do climate models correctly represent land surface / atmosphere interactions? -- what are the water resources and water availability impacts of global climate change? Water and Energy Cycle Impact on Atmosphere

4 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia Predictability of seasonal climate is dependent on boundary conditions such as sea surface temperature (SST) and soil moisture – soil moisture is particularly important over continental interiors. Difference in Summer Rainfall: 1993 (flood) minus 1988 (drought) years Observations Simulation driven by SST and soil moisture Simulation driven just by SST Rainfall Difference [mm/day] (Schubert et al., 2002) New space-based soil moisture observations and data assimilation modeling can improve forecasts of local storms and seasonal climate anomalies With Realistic Soil Moisture 24-Hours Ahead High-Resolution Atmospheric Model Forecasts Observed Rainfall 0000Z to 0400Z 13/7/96 (Chen et al., 2001) Buffalo Creek Basin High resolution soil moisture data will improve numerical weather prediction (NWP) over continents by accurately initializing land surface states Without Realistic Soil Moisture NWP Rainfall Prediction Seasonal Climate Predictability Value of Soil Moisture Data to Weather and Climate

5 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia Terrestrial Water, Energy and Carbon Cycle Processes Landscape Freeze/Thaw Dynamics Drive Boreal Carbon Balance [The Missing Carbon Sink Problem]. Carbon Cycle Are Northern Land Masses Sources or Sinks for Atmospheric Carbon? Mean growing season onset for 1988 – 2002 derived from coarse resolution SSM/I data SMAP will provide important information on the land surface processes that control land- atmosphere carbon source/sink dynamics. It will provide more than 8-fold increase in spatial resolution over existing spaceborne sensors.

6 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia Flood and Drought Applications “…delivery of flash-flood guidance to weather forecast offices are centrally dependent on the availability of soil moisture estimates and observations.” “SMAP will provide realistic and reliable soil moisture observations that will potentially open a new era in drought monitoring and decision-support.” Decadal Survey: Current: Empirical Soil Moisture Indices Based on Rainfall and Air Temperature ( By Counties or ~30 km ) SMAP Capability: Direct Soil Moisture Observations – global, 2-3 day revisit, 10 km resolution Current NWS Operational Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) Current Operational Drought Indices by NOAA and National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC)

7 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia NRC SMAP Expectations “…the SMAP mission is ready for “fast-track” towards launch as early as 2013, when there are few scheduled Earth missions. The readiness of the SMAP mission also enables gap-filling observations to meet key NPOESS community needs (soil moisture is “Key Parameter,” see in IORD-II Document).” Decadal Survey PanelsCited SMAP Applications Water Resources and Hydrological Cycle 1.Floods and Drought Forecasts 2.Available Water Resources Assessment 3.Link Terrestrial Water, Energy and Carbon Cycles Climate / Weather1.Longer-Term and More Reliable Atmospheric Forecasts Human Health and Security 1.Heat Stress and Drought 2.Vector-Borne and Water-Borne Infectious Disease Land-Use, Ecosystems, and Biodiversity 1.Ecosystem Response (Variability and Change) 2.Agricultural and Ecosystem Productivity 3.Wild-Fires 4.Mineral Dust Production SMAP is one of four missions recommended by the NRC Earth Science Decadal Survey for launch in the time frame

8 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia NASA SMAP Workshop (July 2007) Key Workshop Conclusions (Executive Summary): There is a stable set of instrument measurement requirements for SMAP that are traceable to science requirements for soil moisture and freeze/thaw. The baseline SMAP instrument design is capable of satisfying the science measurement requirements. Significant heritage exits from design and risk-reduction work performed during Hydrosphere State (Hydros) mission formulation and other technology development activities. Heritage and lessons learned can be leveraged from the Aquarius project. This heritage includes both the L-Band radiometer and radar electronics. There are no technology “show-stoppers”, and SMAP formulation is positioned to begin where Hydros left off.

9 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia Global mapping of Soil Moisture and Freeze/Thaw state to Global mapping of Soil Moisture and Freeze/Thaw state to:  Understand processes that link the terrestrial water, energy & carbon cycles  Estimate global water and energy fluxes at the land surface  Quantify net carbon flux in boreal landscapes  Enhance weather and climate forecast skill  Develop improved flood prediction and drought monitoring capability SMAP Science Objectives Primary Controls on Land Evaporation and Biosphere Primary Productivity Freeze/ Thaw Radiation Soil Moisture

10 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia SMAP Mission Concept Orbit: −Sun-synchronous, 6 am/pm orbit −670 km altitude Instruments: −L-band (1.26 GHz) radar ◦High resolution, moderate accuracy soil moisture ◦Freeze/thaw state detection ◦SAR mode: 3 km resolution ◦Real-aperture mode: 30 x 6 km resolution −L-band (1.4 GHz) radiometer ◦Moderate resolution, high accuracy soil moisture ◦40 km resolution −Shared instrument antenna ◦6-m diameter deployable mesh antenna ◦Conical scan at 14.6 rpm ◦incidence angle: 40 degrees −Creates contiguous 1000 km swath −Swath and orbit enable 2-3 day revisit Mission Development Schedule  Phase A start:September 2008  SRR/MDR:February 2009  PDR:December 2009  CDR:December 2010  SIR:October 2011  Instrument DeliveryApril 2012  LRD:March 2013 Mission operations duration: 3 years

11 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia Mission Implementation Approach Mission partners: JPL and GSFC  Potential non-NASA partnerships Leverage knowledge from Hydros studies Science Team selected competitively by NASA Radar provided by JPL Radiometer provided by GSFC Maximize Aquarius heritage Shared antenna and spin assembly procured from industry Instrument data processing shared between JPL and GSFC Spacecraft developed in-house at JPL Launch vehicle: Minotaur IV based on DoD use of SMAP data

12 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia SMAP Instrument Concept 1000 km Nadir gap in high res radar data: km Radiometer measurements: –40 km real-aperture resolution –Made over 360 deg of scan –Form full contiguous swath of 1000 km –Collected continuously; AM/PM, over land and over ocean “Low res” radar measurements: –30 x 6 km real-aperture “slices” –Made over forward and aft portions of scan –Form full contiguous swath of 1000 km –Collected continuously, AM/PM, over land and over ocean “High res” radar measurements: –Used to generate 1 km gridded product, can be further averaged up to 3 km and 10 km. –Made over forward 180 deg of scan only (optional 360 deg collection possible) –1000 km swath with nadir gap of km astride spacecraft ground track –Collection programmable; baseline to collect over land during AM portion of orbit only Orbit: 670 km, sun-synchronous, 6 pm LTAN Instrument Architecture: Radiometer and radar share rotating 6 meter diameter reflector antenna Antenna Beam: 14.6 rpm rotation rate, 40 deg incidence angle

13 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia SMAP Coverage Strategy Radiometer, Low-Res Radar High-Res Radar Three orbit sample shown in image above. Low-res radiometer and low-res radar: Using AM revs only, cover entire Earth in 3-days. Average revisit time improves when AM + PM passes are used (but Faraday rotation becomes an issue). High-res radar data collection is programmable via ground command. Average revisit time is 3- days over land when only AM revs are used.

14 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia Key antenna requirements –Dual-pol L-Band feed – 90% beam efficiency. –14.6 rpm rotation rate –Deployable mesh material, high reflectivity at L-Band –Pointing: 0.3º stability, 0.1º knowledge –Rotational Inertia 1 Hz. During Hydros risk reduction, two antenna vendors were funded to study adaptations of heritage reflector designs for rotation. –“Radial Rib” design with fixed central boom and rotating reflector. –“Perimeter Truss” design with rotating reflector and boom.  SMAP antenna RFP will have a requirement of no boom blockage Rotating Reflector

15 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia Level 1 Baseline and Minimum Requirements Baseline MissionMinimum Mission Soil Moisture Measurement* Provide estimates of soil moisture in the top 5 cm of soil with an accuracy of 4% volumetric at 10 km resolution and 3- day average intervals Provide estimates of soil moisture in the top 5 cm of soil with an accuracy of 6% volumetric at 10 km resolution and 3- day average intervals Freeze/Thaw Measurement Provide binary estimates of surface transitions in region north of 45°N with a classification accuracy of 80% at 3 km resolution and 2-day average intervals Provide binary estimates of surface transitions in region north of 45°N with a classification accuracy of 70% at 10 km resolution and 3-day average intervals Mission Duration At least 3 yearsAt least 1 year * Excludes forests (regions with vegetation water content greater than ~5 kg/m 2 ) and urban / mountainous areas

16 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia Science L1 Requirements Baseline Mission Duration Requirement is 3 Years (Decadal Survey) Requirement Hydro- Meteorology Hydro- Climatology Carbon Cycle Baseline MissionMinimum Mission Soil Moisture Freeze/ Thaw Soil Moisture Freeze/ Thaw Resolution4-15 km km1-10 km10 km3 km10 km Refresh Rate2-3 days3-4 days2-3 days (1) 3 days2 days (1) 3 days3 days (1) Accuracy4-6% 80-70%4%80%6%70% (1) North of 45°N latitude

17 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia Baseline Science Data Products Data ProductDescription L1B_S0_LoResLow Resolution Radar σ o in Time Order L1C_S0_HiResHigh Resolution Radar σ o on Earth Grid L1B_TBRadiometer T B in Time Order L1C_TBRadiometer T B on Earth Grid L2/3_F/T_HiResFreeze/Thaw State on Earth Grid L2/3_SM_HiResRadar Soil Moisture on Earth Grid L2/3_SM_40kmRadiometer Soil Moisture on Earth Grid L2/3_SM_A/PRadar/Radiometer Soil Moisture on Earth Grid L4_F/TFreeze/Thaw Model Assimilation on Earth Grid L4_SM_profileSoil Moisture Model Assimilation on Earth Grid Global Mapping L-Band Radar and Radiometer High-Resolution and Frequent-Revisit Science Data Observations + Models = Value-Added Science Data

18 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia 100 km10 km1 km Day Week Month ALOS SAR Aquarius SMOSSMAP Radar-Radiometer Climate Applications Weather Applications Carbon Cycle Applications Applications Resolved Spatial Scales Resolved Temporal Scales Radiometer Radar Evolution of L-Band Sensing SMAP Mission Uniqueness

19 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia SMAP Synergy With Other Missions/Applications  SMAP provides continuity for L-band measurements of ALOS, SMOS, and Aquarius, and synergy with GPM and GCOM-W  SMAP soil moisture and co- orbiting GPM precipitation data will improve surface flux estimates and flood forecasts (Crow et al., 2006)  SMAP also benefits GPM by providing surface emissivity information for improved precipitation retrievals SMAP GPM GCOM-W Aquarius SMOS ALOS RMS Error in Latent Heat Flux [W m -2 ] Frequency of Rainfall Observations [day -1 ] Potential reduction in GPM-estimated latent heat flux error by assimilation of SMAP soil moisture in land surface model (LDAS) SMAP 3-day sampling Estimated Mission Timeline

20 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia Examples of Combined L-Band Sensor Systems Tower-Based Aircraft-Based

21 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia SMAP Major Field Campaigns Year/ Quarter SMAPVEX SMOS Australia Germany Spain Australia 2010 AustraliaAquarius SMAPVEX10 Germany, Spain SMAPVEX SMAPVEX SMAP SMAPVEX SMAPVEX SMAPVEX08 High priority design/algorithm issues Australia one-week campaigns to span four seasons J. Walker aircraft radiometer (PLMR) and new radar (PLIS) Separate SMOS validation SMAP SDT participation Germany/Spain SMOS validation…launch delays possible Can we get a European group to add L-band radar (DLR)? SMAP SDT participation SMAPVEX10: CLASIC Spring-Summer 2010 Oklahoma SMOS and Aquarius available Focus of algorithm validation SMAPVEX11 Focus on different problems: F/T, regions, seasons SMAPVEX13 and 14 SMAP product validation Satellite Launch in Red

22 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia Applications and User Engagement Droughts Floods/Landslides Agriculture Weather/Climate Human Health By providing direct measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state, SMAP will enable a variety of societal benefits: Near-term SMAP applications outreach will be focused on: 1.Developing a community of end-users, stakeholders, and decision makers that understand SMAP capabilities and are interested in using SMAP products in their application (SMAP Community of Practice). 2. Developing an assessment of current application benefits / requirements and needs for SMAP products (survey). 3. Identifying a handful of “early adopters” who will partner to optimize their use of SMAP products, possibly even before launch as part of the extended OSSE activities (“targeted partners”). 4. Providing information about SMAP to the broad user community

23 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia

24 Peggy O’Neill, NASA / GSFC / September, 2008NAFE Workshop, Melbourne, Australia Project Overview Primary Science Objectives Global, high-resolution mapping of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state to:  Link terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycle processes  Estimate global water and energy fluxes at the land surface  Quantify net carbon flux in boreal landscapes  Extend weather and climate forecast skill  Develop improved flood and drought prediction capability SMAP is a first-tier mission recommended by 2007 NRC Earth Science Decadal Survey Mission Implementation: Partners JPL (project & payload mgmt, science, spacecraft, radar, mission operations, science processing) GSFC (science, radiometer, science processing) Risk D Category 2; Payload Risk Class C Launch March 2013, Minotaur IV Orbit Polar sun-synchronous; 670 km altitude Life 3 years Payload L-band SAR (JPL) L-band radiometer (GSFC) Shared 6 m rotating (14.6 rpm) antenna (industry)


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