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Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Slide 0 Chapter 1 Introduction to the Structure and Function of the Body
Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Slide 1 Structural Levels of Organization (F 1-1) Organization is an outstanding characteristic of body structure The body is a unit constructed of the following smaller units: Chemical Level- proper organization and structure of molecules and bonding Cellsthe smallest structural units; organizations of various chemicals Tissuesorganizations of similar cells Organsorganizations of different kinds of tissues Systemsorganizations of many different kinds of organs
Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Slide 2
Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Slide 3 Anatomic Position (F 1-2) Standing erect with the arms at the sides and palms turned forward Prone- face down Supine- face up
Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Slide 4 Anatomic Directions (F 1-3) Superiortoward the head, upper, above Inferior toward the feet, lower, below Anteriorfront, in front of (same as ventral in humans) Posteriorback, in back of (same as dorsal in humans) Medialtoward the midline of a structure Lateralaway from the midline or toward the side of a structure Proximaltoward or nearest the trunk, or nearest the point of origin of a structure Distalaway from or farthest from the trunk, or farthest from a structures point of origin Superficialnearer the body surface Deepfarther away from the body surface
Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Slide 5
Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Slide 6 Sagittal planelengthwise that divides a structure into right and left sections Midsagittalsagittal plane that divides the body into two equal halves Frontal (coronal) planelengthwise plane that divides a structure into anterior and posterior sections Transverse planehorizontal plane that divides a structure into upper and lower sections Planes or Body Sections (F 1-3)
Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Slide 7 Body Cavities (F 1-4, 1-7) Ventral Cavity Thoracic cavity Mediastinummidportion of thoracic cavity; heart and trachea are located in mediastinum Pleural cavitiesright lung located in right pleural cavity; left lung is in left pleural cavity (Contd…)
Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Slide 8 Body Cavities Abdominopelvic cavity Abdominal cavity contains stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen Pelvic cavity contains reproductive organs, urinary bladder, and the lowest part of the intestine Abdominopelvic regions (next slide) o Nine regions o Four quadrants Dorsal Cranial cavity contains brain Spinal cavity contains spinal cord
Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Slide 9 (F 1-5) (F 1-6)
Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Slide 10 Body Regions (F 1-8) Axial regionhead, neck, and torso or trunk Appendicular regionupper and lower extremities
Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Slide 11 The Balance of Body Functions Survival of the individual and of the genes is the bodys most important business Survival depends on the maintenance or restoration of homeostasis (relative constancy of the internal environment); the body uses negative feedback loops and, less often, positive feedback loops to maintain or restore homeostasis All organs function to maintain homeostasis Body functions are related to age; peak efficiency is during young adulthood, diminishing efficiency occurs after young adulthood
Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Slide 12 Go To Flash Media for Additional Review (F 1-9)
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