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Structural Levels of Organization (F 1-1)

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Presentation on theme: "Structural Levels of Organization (F 1-1)"— Presentation transcript:

0 Chapter 1 Introduction to the Structure and Function of the Body

1 Structural Levels of Organization (F 1-1)
Organization is an outstanding characteristic of body structure The body is a unit constructed of the following smaller units: Chemical Level- proper organization and structure of molecules and bonding Cells—the smallest structural units; organizations of various chemicals Tissues—organizations of similar cells Organs—organizations of different kinds of tissues Systems—organizations of many different kinds of organs


3 Anatomic Position (F 1-2)
Standing erect with the arms at the sides and palms turned forward Prone- face down Supine- face up

4 Anatomic Directions (F 1-3)
Superior—toward the head, upper, above Inferior—toward the feet, lower, below Anterior—front, in front of (same as ventral in humans) Posterior—back, in back of (same as dorsal in humans) Medial—toward the midline of a structure Lateral—away from the midline or toward the side of a structure Proximal—toward or nearest the trunk, or nearest the point of origin of a structure Distal—away from or farthest from the trunk, or farthest from a structure’s point of origin Superficial—nearer the body surface Deep—farther away from the body surface


6 Planes or Body Sections (F 1-3)
Sagittal plane—lengthwise that divides a structure into right and left sections Midsagittal—sagittal plane that divides the body into two equal halves Frontal (coronal) plane—lengthwise plane that divides a structure into anterior and posterior sections Transverse plane—horizontal plane that divides a structure into upper and lower sections

7 Body Cavities (F 1-4, 1-7) Ventral Cavity Thoracic cavity
Mediastinum—midportion of thoracic cavity; heart and trachea are located in mediastinum Pleural cavities—right lung located in right pleural cavity; left lung is in left pleural cavity (Cont’d…)

8 Body Cavities Dorsal Abdominopelvic cavity
Abdominal cavity contains stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen Pelvic cavity contains reproductive organs, urinary bladder, and the lowest part of the intestine Abdominopelvic regions (next slide) Nine regions Four quadrants Dorsal Cranial cavity contains brain Spinal cavity contains spinal cord

9 (F 1-6) (F 1-5)

10 Body Regions (F 1-8) Axial region—head, neck, and torso or trunk
Appendicular region—upper and lower extremities

11 The Balance of Body Functions
Survival of the individual and of the genes is the body’s most important business Survival depends on the maintenance or restoration of homeostasis (relative constancy of the internal environment); the body uses negative feedback loops and, less often, positive feedback loops to maintain or restore homeostasis All organs function to maintain homeostasis Body functions are related to age; peak efficiency is during young adulthood, diminishing efficiency occurs after young adulthood

12 Go To Flash Media for Additional Review

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