Presentation on theme: "Medical Technology. Pharmaceuticals Chemical substances that are used in the treatment, cure, prevention & diagnoses of disease Pharmacology: study of."— Presentation transcript:
Pharmaceuticals Chemical substances that are used in the treatment, cure, prevention & diagnoses of disease Pharmacology: study of drugs Pharmacogenomics: study of effect of genetic variation (whole genome) on patient’s response to drugs Pharmacogenetics: study of effect of specific genes on patient’s response to drugs Analgesics: pain relieving drugs Non-opioid: mild to moderate pain, over the counter. E.g. paracetamol, aspirin Opioid: severe pain, generally prescription needed. E.g. codine, morphine, oxycodone
Anti-inflammatories: reduce inflammation Inflammation: response to injury / disease pain, swelling, redness, heat Corticosteroids: steroids which bind to cortisol receptors, preventing cortisol (damage repair hormone) release. Prolonged use may be detrimental (e.g. osteoporosis) Used to treat: asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, eczema. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID): inhibit COX enzyme (cyclo-oxygenase), which means body can’t make prostaglandins. (hormone like substance which causes inflammation) Prolonged use may be detrimental (e.g. stomach disorders) e.g. aspirin, ibuprofen, indomethacin and naproxen.
Statins: lower bad cholesterol levels (low density lipoprotein) Prescribed, people with CV disease, Inhibit enzyme produced in liver blocking metabolic pathway May cause liver damage and muscle pain Antibiotics: fight bacterial infections
Alzheimer’s disease Form of dementia, generally for people over 65. Memory los, confusion, mood swings, aggression, general withdrawal No cure but limited treatment acetylcholinesterase inhibitors ( Reminyl & Aricept) result in more of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine reduces symptoms Parkinson’s disease Shaking, slow movements, muscle stiffness, stooped posture, impaired speech Deficiency in neurotransmitter, dopamine. Treatments includes dopamine or drugs which reduce acetylcholine which needs to be in balance with dopamine. Drug delivery Injections Tablets / capsules Ointments / creams Suppositories (capsules inserted into rectum, vagina or urethra) Inhalation (nasal spray, inhaler) Skin patches Implanted slow release capsules Slow release pumps
Biotechnology Tissue regeneration Regenerative medicine: tissue engineering. Growth of certain tissue types in a lab Requires: tissue type cells, matrix to support cells, substances that act as cell communicators (initiate division and growth) E.g 2D - skin, bone, cartilage. 3D – tendons, knee cartilage Spray-on-skin Production of skin cells in 5 days (rather than 21) Used to treat burns or other skin trauma (fast response reduces scarring) Produced by Dr Fiona Wood (from WA) Stem cells Undifferentiated, can divided repeatedly, can differentiate into different types of cells Aldult vs embryonic stem cells Totipotent: potential to create any/all cell types. (found in zygote – 1 st five days) Pluripotent: Potential to create foetal cell types (but not embryonic membranes) (found in ICM) Multipotent: Potential to create cell types which are linked by a particular function. (blood stem cell RBC, WBC etc)
Transplants Heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, pancreas Bone marrow, heart valves, skin, cornea Taken from the recently deceased Grafts Transplant of only part of an organ Skin, tendon, bone, nerves