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The World in the 1920s: Challenges to European Dominance Chapter 29.

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Presentation on theme: "The World in the 1920s: Challenges to European Dominance Chapter 29."— Presentation transcript:

1 The World in the 1920s: Challenges to European Dominance Chapter 29

2 The Roaring Twenties Jazz Age Jazz Age Cubist Movement Cubist Movement Art Deco Art Deco Kellogg-Briand Pact Kellogg-Briand Pact

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4 Italy and Mussolini In many places in Europe – discontent after WWI and fear of the threat of spreading Communism led many to embrace far right dictatorial movements. In many places in Europe – discontent after WWI and fear of the threat of spreading Communism led many to embrace far right dictatorial movements. In Italy, unemployed veterans of WWI flocked around Benito Mussolini and his political party – FASCI DI COMBATTIMENTO – Fascist Party. In Italy, unemployed veterans of WWI flocked around Benito Mussolini and his political party – FASCI DI COMBATTIMENTO – Fascist Party.

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6 What was the Fascist Party – what are the qualities of governments/movements now called fascist? What was the Fascist Party – what are the qualities of governments/movements now called fascist? Ultra nationalistic Ultra nationalistic Anti-democratic Anti-democratic Anti-Marxist Anti-Marxist Anti-parliamentarian Anti-parliamentarian They very often wanted to avoid the class debates of Marxism and the party divisions of liberal governments They very often wanted to avoid the class debates of Marxism and the party divisions of liberal governments

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8 Mussolini and the Black Shirts were initially unclear as to their political stands. They did act as gangs of thugs beating up socialists and Communists and disrupting their meetings. They graduated to arson and murder. Mussolini and the Black Shirts were initially unclear as to their political stands. They did act as gangs of thugs beating up socialists and Communists and disrupting their meetings. They graduated to arson and murder – Mussolini and the Fascists elected in large numbers to the Chamber of Deputies – Mussolini and the Fascists elected in large numbers to the Chamber of Deputies. The Fascists organized a March on Rome – King Victor Emmanuel III refused to sign an order that would have blacked the march. His government resigned in protest. The Fascists organized a March on Rome – King Victor Emmanuel III refused to sign an order that would have blacked the march. His government resigned in protest. October 29, 1921, King Victor Emmanuel III asked Mussolini to form a government. October 29, 1921, King Victor Emmanuel III asked Mussolini to form a government.

9 Victor Emmanuel III Victor Emmanuel III His refusal to denounce Mussolini led to the end of the Italian monarchy after WWII – although one of his daughters died in the Nazi death camp of Buchenwald in His refusal to denounce Mussolini led to the end of the Italian monarchy after WWII – although one of his daughters died in the Nazi death camp of Buchenwald in 1944.

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11 Fascist Rule in Italy 1922 – Victor Emmanuel and the Italian parliament gave Mussolini dictatorial powers for one year – in order to bring political stability to Italy – Victor Emmanuel and the Italian parliament gave Mussolini dictatorial powers for one year – in order to bring political stability to Italy – representation in parliament no longer based on percentage of vote – largest party received 2/3 of the seats 1924 – representation in parliament no longer based on percentage of vote – largest party received 2/3 of the seats 1926 – Fascists running parliament and Mussolini ruling by decree – Fascists running parliament and Mussolini ruling by decree. Fascist Party and government became shadows of each other – Italy became a fascist state – political enemies exiled or murdered Fascist Party and government became shadows of each other – Italy became a fascist state – political enemies exiled or murdered

12 Lateran Accords 1929 – since 1870 when French troops left the Vatican and Italy absorbed the Papal States – the popes had not left the Vatican. Lateran Accords 1929 – since 1870 when French troops left the Vatican and Italy absorbed the Papal States – the popes had not left the Vatican. Mussolini agreed to pay the papacy for the land – Catholic Church recognized as official religion – church law governed marriage – the church exempt from tax Mussolini agreed to pay the papacy for the land – Catholic Church recognized as official religion – church law governed marriage – the church exempt from tax Mussolini gained prestige. Mussolini gained prestige. Pius XI Pius XI

13 BUT…… Mussolini got the trains to run on time…. BUT…… Mussolini got the trains to run on time….

14 Mexico – The Mexican Revolution Mexican Revolution – internal struggles for power – but impacted by WWI Mexican Revolution – internal struggles for power – but impacted by WWI The iron fisted rule of PORFIRIO DIAZ was weakening by 1910 when he allowed some political opposition. The iron fisted rule of PORFIRIO DIAZ was weakening by 1910 when he allowed some political opposition. FRANCISCO MADERO promoted reforms that would allow the government to continue its control of the economy – BUT Diaz had Madero arrested and a rigged election continued Diazs regime. FRANCISCO MADERO promoted reforms that would allow the government to continue its control of the economy – BUT Diaz had Madero arrested and a rigged election continued Diazs regime. Madero called for a revolt. Madero called for a revolt.

15 In the north of Mexico, small farmers, railroaders, and cowboys supported a former bandit – PANCHO VILLA In the north of Mexico, small farmers, railroaders, and cowboys supported a former bandit – PANCHO VILLA

16 In the south of Mexico, where native Indian communities worked large estates - EMILIANO ZAPATA led a movement for land reform. In the south of Mexico, where native Indian communities worked large estates - EMILIANO ZAPATA led a movement for land reform.

17 Madero assumed power for a brief time before he was assassinated and replaced in a military coup detat. Madero assumed power for a brief time before he was assassinated and replaced in a military coup detat. VICTORIANO HUERTA established a brutal military dictatorship until he was deposed – after American intervention. VICTORIANO HUERTA established a brutal military dictatorship until he was deposed – after American intervention.

18 Alvaro Obregon – a general who had fought Villa for power – became president in Alvaro Obregon – a general who had fought Villa for power – became president in For four years he tried to reform Mexico – only to be toppled from power and assassinated. For four years he tried to reform Mexico – only to be toppled from power and assassinated.

19 Results of the Mexican Revolution 1.5 million people dead 1.5 million people dead Major industries destroyed Major industries destroyed Ranching and farming hurt Ranching and farming hurt Increased hostilities with the US Increased hostilities with the US MEXICAN CONSTITUTION OF 1917 MEXICAN CONSTITUTION OF 1917 Promised land reform Promised land reform Limited foreign ownership of major industries Limited foreign ownership of major industries Guaranteed the rights of workers Guaranteed the rights of workers Restriction on the Catholic church ***perceived secularization of Mexico was countered by the CRISTEROS – conservative peasants who backed traditional church roles in Mexico Restriction on the Catholic church ***perceived secularization of Mexico was countered by the CRISTEROS – conservative peasants who backed traditional church roles in Mexico

20 Mexican nationalism and INDIGENISM portrayed in art DIEGO RIVERA

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22 The Russian Revolution 1918

23 Russian discontent Russian discontent centuries of oppression No political freedom Massive poverty Industrially backward No well develop opposition Weak tsar 8 million losses in World War I

24 The February Revolution 1917 (sometimes March!) Discontent with the war effort and food shortages in urban areas led the people of PETROGRAD to strike. Discontent with the war effort and food shortages in urban areas led the people of PETROGRAD to strike. The soviets – workers councils – joined the revolt The soviets – workers councils – joined the revolt Troops sent to put down the rebellion join it. Troops sent to put down the rebellion join it. Nicholas II abdicated and a new government was established by ALEXANDER KERENSKY. He decided to keep Russia in the war. Nicholas II abdicated and a new government was established by ALEXANDER KERENSKY. He decided to keep Russia in the war.

25 Alexander Kerensky

26 The problems that caused the February Rebellion did not go away with the change of government. The problems that caused the February Rebellion did not go away with the change of government. The Germans took the Russia communist leader in exile – VLADIMIR LENIN – and placed him in a train car and sent him to Petrograd. They hoped his presence in Russia would take Russia out of the war. The Germans took the Russia communist leader in exile – VLADIMIR LENIN – and placed him in a train car and sent him to Petrograd. They hoped his presence in Russia would take Russia out of the war.

27 The Bolsheviks Lenin controlled the Communist group the BOLSHEVIKS. They believed that an elite group of revolutionaries should run the government. Lenin controlled the Communist group the BOLSHEVIKS. They believed that an elite group of revolutionaries should run the government. The MENSHEVIKS were communists who wanted to use the electoral system for change. The MENSHEVIKS were communists who wanted to use the electoral system for change. The Bolsheviks received public backing through the phrase LAND, PEACE AND BREAD The Bolsheviks received public backing through the phrase LAND, PEACE AND BREAD The Bolsheviks power base was in urban areas The Bolsheviks power base was in urban areas

28 The October Revolution 1917 (sometimes it is November) Lenin and the leader of the Communist RED GUARD – LEON TROTSKY – organized the storming of government offices and overthrew the government of Kerensky. Lenin and the leader of the Communist RED GUARD – LEON TROTSKY – organized the storming of government offices and overthrew the government of Kerensky. A civil War broke out between the anti- Communists – THE WHITE ARMY – and the Communists – THE RED ARMY A civil War broke out between the anti- Communists – THE WHITE ARMY – and the Communists – THE RED ARMY After heavy losses – the Bolsheviks achieved complete power by After heavy losses – the Bolsheviks achieved complete power by 1920.

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30 Leon Trotsky Leon Trotsky

31 Lenins Rule Lenin established a dictatorship through the Communist Party. Lenin established a dictatorship through the Communist Party. The capital was moved from Petrograd to Moscow. The capital was moved from Petrograd to Moscow. The secret police - CHEKA – helped to establish a police state. The secret police - CHEKA – helped to establish a police state the nation was renamed – THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS the nation was renamed – THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS.

32 Lenin and the Economy 1918 – WAR COMMUNISM – all industries were nationalized 1918 – WAR COMMUNISM – all industries were nationalized 1921 – NEW ECONOMIC POLICY (NEP) Lenin announced the ability of individuals to buy and sell some products themselves and he encouraged the investment of foreign capital – NEW ECONOMIC POLICY (NEP) Lenin announced the ability of individuals to buy and sell some products themselves and he encouraged the investment of foreign capital. The government encouraged peasants to form COLLECTIVES – where they combined land for greater efficiency. After centuries of serfdom – few peasants wanted to give up their own land. The government encouraged peasants to form COLLECTIVES – where they combined land for greater efficiency. After centuries of serfdom – few peasants wanted to give up their own land. Lenin died in 1924 – he left the future of communist Russia in doubt. Lenin died in 1924 – he left the future of communist Russia in doubt.

33 China present

34 1911 – the final Qing emperor was deposed 1911 – the final Qing emperor was deposed For many years the weakness of the Qing Dynasty allowed the rise of rural warlords – the fall of the Qing exacerbated the problem – YUAN SHIKAI was a warlord who hoped to establish himself as emperor – BUT urban merchants and bankers moved to establish a western style government. For many years the weakness of the Qing Dynasty allowed the rise of rural warlords – the fall of the Qing exacerbated the problem – YUAN SHIKAI was a warlord who hoped to establish himself as emperor – BUT urban merchants and bankers moved to establish a western style government – Chinese nationalists formed a government in the city of Nanjing/Naking under the leadership of Dr. Sun Yixian (Yat-sen) 1912 – Chinese nationalists formed a government in the city of Nanjing/Naking under the leadership of Dr. Sun Yixian (Yat-sen)

35 Dr. Sun Yixian Dr. Sun Yixian Father of the first Chinese republic Father of the first Chinese republic Western educated Western educated

36 GUOMINDANG The Chinese Nationalist Party (Guomindang) under Dr. Sun Yixian tried to unite China. The Chinese Nationalist Party (Guomindang) under Dr. Sun Yixian tried to unite China. After centuries of weak imperial rule and abuse by foreigners – large parts of China were ruled by local warlords – with their own armies and rules. After centuries of weak imperial rule and abuse by foreigners – large parts of China were ruled by local warlords – with their own armies and rules. Yixian needed to defeat the warlords, feudalism, and regionalism in order to develop Chinese nationalism. Yixian needed to defeat the warlords, feudalism, and regionalism in order to develop Chinese nationalism.

37 The May Fourth Movement 1919 – Treaty of Versailles ending World War I – Japan is given control over large sections of China 1919 – Treaty of Versailles ending World War I – Japan is given control over large sections of China 4 May 1919 – students in Beijing demonstrate against Japan and foreign involvement in China. 4 May 1919 – students in Beijing demonstrate against Japan and foreign involvement in China. Japanese goods are boycotted – Japanese owned businesses are attacked – Japanese in China are attacked Japanese goods are boycotted – Japanese owned businesses are attacked – Japanese in China are attacked

38 The May Fourth Movement spreads throughout China The May Fourth Movement spreads throughout China Anti-Japanese sentiment led to calls by the students for China to modernize and abandon old ways of thinking. Anti-Japanese sentiment led to calls by the students for China to modernize and abandon old ways of thinking. Sun Yixian used the sentiment of the students to rally support against the warlords. Sun Yixian used the sentiment of the students to rally support against the warlords.

39 The Guomindang – under Yixians leadership – made a controversial move when it began to accept money from the Soviet Union and to bring the Chinese communists into the Guomindang. The Guomindang – under Yixians leadership – made a controversial move when it began to accept money from the Soviet Union and to bring the Chinese communists into the Guomindang. Dr. Sun Yixian died in 1925 and was succeeded by Chiang Kaishek. Dr. Sun Yixian died in 1925 and was succeeded by Chiang Kaishek.

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41 CHIANG KAISHEK – was a conservative nationalist. CHIANG KAISHEK – was a conservative nationalist. He believed in the power of the military and was not an advocate of advanced democracy. He believed in the power of the military and was not an advocate of advanced democracy. Kaishek did not believe in the unity between the Nationalist and the Communists that Yixian had espoused. Kaishek did not believe in the unity between the Nationalist and the Communists that Yixian had espoused.

42 The Chinese Communists under the leadership of Mao Zedong began to separate themselves from the Guomindang. The Communist in China – like those in 1918 Russia – failed to worry about the disconnect between Marxs call for a proletariat revolt against the bourgeois and the fact that China was rural and feudal. LI DAZHAO re-interpreted Marx and promoted the rural peasants as the force behind Communist revolution in China. The Chinese Communists under the leadership of Mao Zedong began to separate themselves from the Guomindang. The Communist in China – like those in 1918 Russia – failed to worry about the disconnect between Marxs call for a proletariat revolt against the bourgeois and the fact that China was rural and feudal. LI DAZHAO re-interpreted Marx and promoted the rural peasants as the force behind Communist revolution in China. The Guomindang and the Communists began a civil war for control of China. The Guomindang and the Communists began a civil war for control of China.

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44 The Long March The smaller Communist army began to move into the interior of the nation in The smaller Communist army began to move into the interior of the nation in For over one year – Mao and the communists marched through the country. For over one year – Mao and the communists marched through the country. They attracted new followers and Mao honed his own theories of Marxism while fleeing the Guomindang army. Mao saw the Chinese peasants as key to the success of the Chinese Communist Party. They attracted new followers and Mao honed his own theories of Marxism while fleeing the Guomindang army. Mao saw the Chinese peasants as key to the success of the Chinese Communist Party.

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47 While fighting the Communists, Kaishek and the Nationalists tried to modernize China. While fighting the Communists, Kaishek and the Nationalists tried to modernize China. Better and more modern industry was developed Better and more modern industry was developed Schools and universities grew Schools and universities grew Foreign influence diminished Foreign influence diminished BUT – China had been so poor and backward that these reforms were not enough. BUT – China had been so poor and backward that these reforms were not enough.

48 The Japanese When the Japanese began to attack China in the 1930s, the Guomindang and the Communists put aside their civil war and both sides attacked the Japanese. When the Japanese began to attack China in the 1930s, the Guomindang and the Communists put aside their civil war and both sides attacked the Japanese. The Allies recognized Chiang Kaishek as the leader of China and worked with him to defeat Japan. The Allies recognized Chiang Kaishek as the leader of China and worked with him to defeat Japan. Mao and the Communists also fought the Japanese during the war. Mao and the Communists also fought the Japanese during the war.

49 When World War II was over, Mao and the Communists revived the civil war. When World War II was over, Mao and the Communists revived the civil war. Weakened by World War II and massive corruption – the Nationalists under Chafing Kaishek abandoned the mainland and took refuge on the island of Formosa/Taiwan. Weakened by World War II and massive corruption – the Nationalists under Chafing Kaishek abandoned the mainland and took refuge on the island of Formosa/Taiwan. 1 October 1949 – Mao declared the creation of the Peoples Republic of China 1 October 1949 – Mao declared the creation of the Peoples Republic of China


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