4Italy and MussoliniIn many places in Europe – discontent after WWI and fear of the threat of spreading Communism led many to embrace far right dictatorial movements.In Italy, unemployed veterans of WWI flocked around Benito Mussolini and his political party – FASCI DI COMBATTIMENTO – Fascist Party.
6What was the Fascist Party – what are the qualities of governments/movements now called fascist? Ultra nationalisticAnti-democraticAnti-MarxistAnti-parliamentarianThey very often wanted to avoid the class debates of Marxism and the party divisions of liberal governments
8Mussolini and the “Black Shirts” were initially unclear as to their political stands. They did act as gangs of thugs beating up socialists and Communists and disrupting their meetings. They graduated to arson and murder.1921 – Mussolini and the Fascists elected in large numbers to the Chamber of Deputies.The Fascists organized a March on Rome – King Victor Emmanuel III refused to sign an order that would have blacked the march. His government resigned in protest.October 29, 1921, King Victor Emmanuel III asked Mussolini to form a government.
9Victor Emmanuel IIIHis refusal to denounce Mussolini led to the end of the Italian monarchy after WWII – although one of his daughters died in the Nazi death camp of Buchenwald in 1944.
11Fascist Rule in Italy1922 – Victor Emmanuel and the Italian parliament gave Mussolini dictatorial powers for one year – in order to bring political stability to Italy.1924 – representation in parliament no longer based on percentage of vote – largest party received 2/3 of the seats1926 – Fascists running parliament and Mussolini ruling by decree.Fascist Party and government became shadows of each other – Italy became a fascist state – political enemies exiled or murdered
12Lateran Accords 1929 – since 1870 when French troops left the Vatican and Italy absorbed the Papal States – the popes had not left the Vatican.Mussolini agreed to pay the papacy for the land – Catholic Church recognized as official religion – church law governed marriage – the church exempt from taxMussolini gained prestige.Pius XI
14Mexico – The Mexican Revolution Mexican Revolution – internal struggles for power – but impacted by WWIThe iron fisted rule of PORFIRIO DIAZ was weakening by 1910 when he allowed some political opposition.FRANCISCO MADERO promoted reforms that would allow the government to continue its control of the economy – BUT Diaz had Madero arrested and a rigged election continued Diaz’s regime.Madero called for a revolt.
15In the north of Mexico, small farmers, railroaders, and cowboys supported a former bandit – PANCHO VILLA
16In the south of Mexico, where native Indian communities worked large estates - EMILIANO ZAPATA led a movement for land reform.
17Madero assumed power for a brief time before he was assassinated and replaced in a military coup d’etat.VICTORIANO HUERTA established a brutal military dictatorship until he was deposed – after American intervention.
18Alvaro Obregon – a general who had fought Villa for power – became president in 1920. For four years he tried to reform Mexico – only to be toppled from power and assassinated.
19Results of the Mexican Revolution 1.5 million people deadMajor industries destroyedRanching and farming hurtIncreased hostilities with the USMEXICAN CONSTITUTION OF 1917Promised land reformLimited foreign ownership of major industriesGuaranteed the rights of workersRestriction on the Catholic church ***perceived secularization of Mexico was countered by the CRISTEROS – conservative peasants who backed traditional church roles in Mexico
20Mexican nationalism and INDIGENISM portrayed in art DIEGO RIVERA
23Russian discontent centuries of oppression No political freedom Massive povertyIndustrially backwardNo well develop oppositionWeak tsar8 million losses in World War I
24The February Revolution 1917 (sometimes March!) Discontent with the war effort and food shortages in urban areas led the people of PETROGRAD to strike.The soviets – workers councils – joined the revoltTroops sent to put down the rebellion join it.Nicholas II abdicated and a new government was established by ALEXANDER KERENSKY. He decided to keep Russia in the war.
26The problems that caused the February Rebellion did not go away with the change of government. The Germans took the Russia communist leader in exile – VLADIMIR LENIN – and placed him in a train car and sent him to Petrograd. They hoped his presence in Russia would take Russia out of the war.
27The Bolsheviks’ power base was in urban areas Lenin controlled the Communist group the BOLSHEVIKS. They believed that an elite group of revolutionaries should run the government.The MENSHEVIKS were communists who wanted to use the electoral system for change.The Bolsheviks received public backing through the phrase “LAND, PEACE AND BREAD”The Bolsheviks’ power base was in urban areas
28The October Revolution 1917 (sometimes it is November) Lenin and the leader of the Communist RED GUARD – LEON TROTSKY – organized the storming of government offices and overthrew the government of Kerensky.A civil War broke out between the anti-Communists – THE WHITE ARMY – and the Communists – THE RED ARMYAfter heavy losses – the Bolsheviks achieved complete power by 1920.
31Lenin’s RuleLenin established a dictatorship through the Communist Party.The capital was moved from Petrograd to Moscow.The secret police - CHEKA – helped to establish a police state.1922 the nation was renamed – THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS.
32Lenin and the Economy1918 – WAR COMMUNISM – all industries were nationalized1921 – NEW ECONOMIC POLICY (NEP) Lenin announced the ability of individuals to buy and sell some products themselves and he encouraged the investment of foreign capital.The government encouraged peasants to form COLLECTIVES – where they combined land for greater efficiency. After centuries of serfdom – few peasants wanted to give up their own land.Lenin died in 1924 – he left the future of communist Russia in doubt.
341911 – the final Qing emperor was deposed For many years the weakness of the Qing Dynasty allowed the rise of rural warlords – the fall of the Qing exacerbated the problem – YUAN SHIKAI was a warlord who hoped to establish himself as emperor – BUT urban merchants and bankers moved to establish a western style government.1912 – Chinese nationalists formed a government in the city of Nanjing/Naking under the leadership of Dr. Sun Yixian (Yat-sen)
35Dr. Sun YixianFather of the first Chinese republicWestern educated
36GUOMINDANGThe Chinese Nationalist Party (Guomindang) under Dr. Sun Yixian tried to unite China.After centuries of weak imperial rule and abuse by foreigners – large parts of China were ruled by local warlords – with their own armies and rules.Yixian needed to defeat the warlords, feudalism, and regionalism in order to develop Chinese nationalism.
37The May Fourth Movement 1919 – Treaty of Versailles ending World War I – Japan is given control over large sections of China4 May 1919 – students in Beijing demonstrate against Japan and foreign involvement in China.Japanese goods are boycotted – Japanese owned businesses are attacked – Japanese in China are attacked
38The May Fourth Movement spreads throughout China Anti-Japanese sentiment led to calls by the students for China to modernize and abandon old ways of thinking.Sun Yixian used the sentiment of the students to rally support against the warlords.
39The Guomindang – under Yixian’s leadership – made a controversial move when it began to accept money from the Soviet Union and to bring the Chinese communists into the Guomindang.Dr. Sun Yixian died in 1925 and was succeeded by Chiang Kaishek.
41CHIANG KAISHEK – was a conservative nationalist. He believed in the power of the military and was not an advocate of advanced democracy.Kaishek did not believe in the unity between the Nationalist and the Communists that Yixian had espoused.
42The Chinese Communists under the leadership of Mao Zedong began to separate themselves from the Guomindang. The Communist in China – like those in 1918 Russia – failed to worry about the disconnect between Marx’s call for a proletariat revolt against the bourgeois and the fact that China was rural and feudal. LI DAZHAO re-interpreted Marx and promoted the rural peasants as the force behind Communist revolution in China.The Guomindang and the Communists began a civil war for control of China.
44The Long MarchThe smaller Communist army began to move into the interior of the nation in 1934.For over one year – Mao and the communists marched through the country.They attracted new followers and Mao honed his own theories of Marxism while fleeing the Guomindang army. Mao saw the Chinese peasants as key to the success of the Chinese Communist Party.
47While fighting the Communists, Kaishek and the Nationalists tried to modernize China. Better and more modern industry was developedSchools and universities grewForeign influence diminishedBUT – China had been so poor and backward that these reforms were not enough.
48The JapaneseWhen the Japanese began to attack China in the 1930s, the Guomindang and the Communists put aside their civil war and both sides attacked the Japanese.The Allies recognized Chiang Kaishek as the leader of China and worked with him to defeat Japan.Mao and the Communists also fought the Japanese during the war.
49When World War II was over, Mao and the Communists revived the civil war. Weakened by World War II and massive corruption – the Nationalists under Chafing Kaishek abandoned the mainland and took refuge on the island of Formosa/Taiwan.1 October 1949 – Mao declared the creation of the People’s Republic of China