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THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE WEST

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1 THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE WEST 1450 - 1750

2 TWO RENAISSANCES Italian Renaissance
Renaissance, or rebirth of art and learning, Aristocrats, popes, nobles became wealthy patrons and vied to outdo one another Medici Family City-states sponsored innovations in art and architecture Masaccio, Leonardo da Vinci used linear perspective to show depth Sculptors (Donatello and Michelangelo) created natural poses

3 The Last Supper and Mona Lisa by da Vinci Trinity by Masaccio

4 David by Donatello David, the Pieta, and Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo

5 Renaissance architecture
Simple, elegant style, inherited from classical Greek and Roman Magnificent domed cathedrals Brunelleschi's cathedral of Florence St. Peter’s in Rome

6 Humanists or Man is the Measure of All Things
Drew inspiration from classical models especially Greece, Rome Leading scholars included Dante, Erasmus, Petrarch Scholars interested in humane letters Literature, history, and moral philosophy Called humanists Recovered and translated many classical works Attention to political and social issues and graces, too Boccaccio’s Decameron Castiglione’s The Courtier Machiavelli’s The Prince

7 Northern Renaissance Especially strong in France, England, Netherlands Focus was more on science, math, and Christianity (language favored was Hebrew) Strongly supported by the middle classes and minor nobles Leading figures include Shakespeare, Durer, Erasmus, Protestant reformers

8 PROTESTANT REFORMATION
Precursors to Luther Great/Western Schism 1378 2-3 popes at same time undermined authority of the church Church councils rule/attempt to overrule popes, Council of Constance Jan Hus in Holy Roman Empire and Wycliffe in England Both attacked aspects of church corruption, wealth, practices Both condemned by Church Hus executed, but Wycliffe protected by King of England Wycliffe had Bible translated into English

9 Martin Luther ( ) Attacked the sale of indulgences, 1517 Attacked corruption in Catholic Church; called for reform Argument reproduced with printing presses and widely read Enthusiastic response from lay Christians, princes, many cities By mid-16th century, half Germans adopted Lutheranism

10 Reform spread outside Germany
Protestant movements popular in Swiss cities, Netherlands Scandinavian kings like movement as it removes Church as a rival English Reformation sparked by King Henry VIII's desire for divorce John Calvin, French convert to Protestantism Organized model Protestant community in Geneva in the 1530s Calvinist missionaries were successful in France Zwingli leads Calvinist like reformation in Switzerland John Knox leads Presbyterian movement in Scotland Martin Bucer writes pamphlets, lead to rise of Puritan movement in England

11 CATHOLIC REFORMATION Early Attempts to Reform
Catholic cardinals, bishops call council in early 15th century Council of Constance deposes rival popes Attempts to assert authority over pope, initial reforms Catholic intellectuals attack Church corruption Emperor Sigismund attempts to reform church in Germany Church reaction to Luther, Protestants Charles V, Church condemn, excommunicate Luther King Henry VIII condemns Luther Inquisition unleashed against Protestants Spanish use wealth to fund anti-Protestants The Council of Trent, Directed reform of Roman Catholic Church Attacked corruption Reaffirmed tradition, Bible as co-equal The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) Founded 1540 by Ignatius Loyola High standards in education Combat Protestants with logic, faith, hard work Saved S. Germany, E. Europe from Protestants Became confessors, advisories to kings Worldwide missionaries

12 RELIGIOUS CONFLICT Religious wars
Between Protestants, Catholics during 16TH century Wars as much social, political as religious Neither side is innocent of conflict Civil war in France Between Huguenots (French Calvinists), Catholic League Monarchy often a pawn of both sides and nobles Lasted thirty-six years ( ) Ended with new dynasty Spanish Armada War between Catholic Spain, Protestant England, 1588 Spill over from conflict in the Netherlands Question of heir to English throne: Catholic Scottish Queen or Protestant Elizabeth Protestant provinces of the Netherlands revolted against rule of Catholic Spain Originally began as a revolt of all Netherlands against Spain Eventually split country into Catholic south (Belgium) and Protestant north (Holland)

13 The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)
The most destructive European war up to WWI Began as a local conflict in Bohemia; eventually involved most of Europe Devastated the Holy Roman Empire (German states): lost one-third population Saw rise of Sweden as Great Power and eclipse of Spain, Hapsburgs as European great power Saw independence of Holland, Switzerland from Holy Roman Empire Ended with Germany neither holy, nor Roman nor an Empire Peace of Westphalia Scottish Presbyterians revolt Expel Catholic Queen with England’s secret assistance Raise her kidnapped son James as Presbyterian

14 NEW RELIGIOUS MAP

15 STATE BUILDING Italian city-states France and England Spain united
Flourished with industries and trade Each with independent administration and army Levied direct taxes on citizens More powerful absorbed smallest France and England Hundred Years' War ( ) Fought for control of French lands Imposed direct taxes to pay the costs of war Central government over feudal nobility English War of the Roses leads to Tudor Dynasty Louis XI of France reduces powers of feudal aristocracy Spain united By marriage of Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castile Sales tax supported a powerful standing army Conquered Granada from Muslims Seized southern Italy in 1494 Sponsored Columbus's quest for western route to China Competition among European states Frequent small-scale wars Encouraged new military and naval technology Technological innovations strengthened armies Dynastic Politics Constant search for an heir Must marry for political advantage Gave women influence as regents, brides, mother of heir

16 NEW MONARCHS New Monarchs France, England and Spain
Taxes, armies as instruments of national monarchies by late fifteenth century Used feudal powers but added new powers to become dominant in society Developing towards divine right monarchs answerable only to God, not people Henry VII of England and Louis XI of France are two best examples France, England and Spain All three united after long wars Kings have new, broad powers Nobles often weakened; new nobles created out of middle classes Enhanced royal, centralized powers Wealthy treasuries by direct taxes, fines, and fees State power enlarged and more centralized Standing armies in France and Spain Professional bureaucrats loyal only to monarch, not church Nobility status often sold to wealthy merchants to raise funds Reformation increased royal power Kings confiscate wealth, land of the Church Kings sell off lands to middle class, making them loyal to state Even Catholic monarchs tended to follow this trend New law courts enhance royal power Kings tend to function above the law English Star Chambers – do not require warrants, trials The Spanish Inquisition, Catholic court of inquiry, founded 1478 Intended to discover secret Muslims and Jews Used by Spanish monarchy to detect Protestant heresy and political dissidents French Parlements reduced to law courts not legislative assemblies

17 ATTEMPTED REVIVAL OF EMPIRE
Charles V Reigned Holy Roman Emperor Austria Czech lands, Silesia Hungary, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia Netherlands Eastern France Milan, Northern Italy King of Spain Castile Navarre Catalonia Two Sicilies Spanish American Empire, Philippines Inherited a vast empire of far-flung holdings through marriage Unable to establish a unified state Disputes with German nobles, France, and Ottoman Empire German nobles resented his power and obstructed his every move Many nobles became Protestant as it was a tool against emperor Even Catholic nobles supported Reformation as it limited his religious influence France opposed Charles and supported Protestants, Charles’ enemies Charles main enemy was Ottoman Empire France, Protestants and Turks allied against Charles Charles forces defeat Turks

18 CONSTITUTIONAL AND ABSOLUTE MONARCHS
Constitutional states of England and the Netherlands Divine Right Monarchs limited by war, nobles, wealthy Characterized by Powers limited by constitutions, bills of right, convention No one is above the law, property is protected by law Representative institutions: rights of oversight, taxation, review, veto Prominent merchant classes enjoyed unusual prosperity Commercial empires overseas with minimal state interference Dutch constitutional monarchy evolved out of religious wars England’s road to rights Constitutional monarchy in England evolved out of a civil war English Glorious Revolution 1688 English Bill of Rights 1689

19 Absolutism in France, Spain, Austria, and Prussia
Based on the theory of the divine right of kings Relied often on bureaucrats, professional armies Great trappings of power especially palaces, images Restricted power of aristocracy, legislatures and church Relied on mercantilism to generate taxable wealth Spain, Austria united by Hapsburg marriage, inheritance Cardinal Richelieu French chief minister Crushed power of nobles Supported Protestants, Sweden against Hapsburgs, Spain, Austria Prussia began to rise in late 17th century Based on absolutism and army Eventually will unite Germany

20 LOUIS XIV OF FRANCE King of France Bureaucracy
Called the Sun King Planets revolve around the sun Sun gives light, warmth of the solar system Reigned Bureaucracy Used middle class for professional bureaucrats Established intendants to carry out wishes Model of royal absolutism: the court at Versailles Nobles reduced to serving king, state Became generals, diplomats, ministers Lived at Versailles where king spied on them Large professional standing army Well trained, well paid, well equipped Kept, enforced order Mercantilism and Colonies Minister Colbert was mastermind behind wealth Promoted economic development: roads, canals Promoted industry, and exports especially luxuries Built large French navy and colonies in North America, India Rulers in Spain, Austria, Prussia, Russia saw France as model

21 EUROPEAN STATE SYSTEM The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
Ended the Thirty Years' War Began system of independent sovereign states Abandoned notion of religion unity Did not end war between European states The balance of power No state allowed to dominate others Diplomacy based on shifting alliances No permanent alliances Only permanent interests Religion unimportant to determining alliances Destroy no nation Make no permanent enemies Military development costly and competitive New armaments (cannons and small arms) New military tactics Extremely intricate fortifications Professional navies with modern warships, weapons China, India, and the Islamic states did not keep apace Small, well-trained armies become critical

22 THE NATION-STATE Nation-State
Ethnic group with common language, culture Shared history, traditions Shared institutions (faith, politics) Occupying a common territory Ruled by a common government Government’s job Insure domestic tranquility and happiness Assumed many of the Church’s old social roles Multiple ethnic groups destroy nation-state Belief in Nation-state became new popular ideology Love of your nation above others is nationalism Originated as an elite idea of the aristocracy, educated elite Loyalty to state, king more important than loyalty to church, pope Martin Luther addresses the “German People” King James, Wycliffe translate Bible into English French have Joan of Arc fighting for France against English Scotsmen, English resent Catholic “Romish” influence Dutch, Portuguese, Catalans revolt against foreign Spanish rule

23

24 POPULATION GROWTH Population growth
European population increased from 81 million in 1500 to 180 million in 1800 American foods improved European nutrition, diets Increased resistance to epidemics after 1650s Life spans increased Infant deaths decrease Most dramatic in Ireland, England, Poland, France, Netherlands Urbanization Rapid growth of major cities For example, Paris from 130,000 (1550) to 500,000 (1650) Cities increasingly important as administrative and commercial centers (London, Amsterdam, St. Petersburg, Berlin, Lyons)

25 EARLY CAPITALISM Profits and ethics Early capitalism
Medieval theologians considered profit making to be selfish and sinful Renaissance merchants supported changes, arts becoming influential in society Protestant Reformation saw profit, success as signs of God’s Favor Early capitalism Led to increased influence for urban middle classes Altered rural society Improved material standards Increased independence of rural workers Capitalism generated deep social strains Bandits, muggers, witch-hunting Began to impoverish urban workers Pricing Revolutions were common Impoverished aristocrats, peasants Too much money chasing too few goods The Price Revolution Use of money replaced barter Imports of gold, silver led to trade imbalances Mercantilism demanded payments in gold, silver Spain, Portugal did not support manufacturing Both countries had to import goods Northern Europeans demanded payment in gold, silver Inflation resulted Peasants, aristocrats On fixed incomes Payment in kind economies suffered Inflation drove real wages down

26 GRAPHS OF THE DISASTER

27 COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION
The nature of capitalism Private parties sought to take advantage of free market conditions Economic decisions by private parties, not by governments or nobility Forces of supply and demand determined price New managerial skills and banking arrangements arose Supply and demand Merchants built efficient transportation and communication networks New institutions and services: banks, insurance, stock exchanges Joint-stock companies Dutch East Indies, English East/West Indies Companies Organized commerce on a new scale Authorized to explore, conquer, colonize distant lands Rise of Manufacturing Colonial markets, population stimulated manufacturing Putting-out system of 17th and 18th centuries Entrepreneurs bypassed guilds Moved production to countryside Rural labor cheap, cloth production highly profitable Capitalism actively supported by governments Especially in England and Netherlands Chartered joint-stock companies Protected property, upheld contracts, settled disputes Adam Smith and The Wealth of Nations Considered the founding father of capitalism Society would prosper as individuals pursued their own interests States were to support private interests, free trade

28 MORE CHANGES Mass Culture Arises Agriculture changes Manufacturing
Nationalism, national faiths arise embracing all Use of some luxuries becomes common Rise of leisure time even for poorer peoples Rise of professional entertainment Immigration by commoners to colonies Agriculture changes New technologies applied to farming Draining swamps, animal breeding New tools to increase productivity Introduction of new world crops, i.e. potato Manufacturing Mass produced items common: textiles, metal products Capitalism stimulates production as profitable New jobs caused people to move into manufacturing from agriculture New Social Classes Rise of entrepreneurial class with great wealth Rise of a technological managerial class

29 SOCIAL CHANGE, SOCIAL PROTEST
Rise of urban, rural working class Referred to as proletariat Paid low wages in horrible conditions At mercy of price revolutions Many peasants reduced to paid wages Population growth Urbanization increased tensions Growth increased poverty Social Tensions Peasant revolts especially during Reformation In France, Germany rose against landlords Many sought more radical forms of Protestantism Urban citizens also tended towards Protestantism Persecution of witches Elite and Mass Culture Prior to Reformation, there were two cultures, elite and common Two rarely intermixed or cooperated Mass culture such as entertainment Faith often became elite culture The nuclear family strengthened by capitalism Families more independent economically, socially, and emotionally Love between men and women Parents and children became more important

30 GENDER ISSUES Renaissance saw expansion of women’s rights
Books written for women Education of women allowed Women could enter public arena as intellectuals Artesmia Gentileschi was a painter Reformation took back many of the rights Many reformers were women Many threatened males traditional roles Margaritte of Navarre, Elizabeth of England Protestants emphasized family role of women Witch-hunts in Europe Theories, fears of witches intensified in 16th century Reformation fed hysteria about witches and devil worship About sixty thousand executed, 95 percent of them women Commercial, Capitalist Revolution Women needed often to support family by outside work Many women merchants very successful Women assumed new economic roles Education and Women Education was one of few avenues open to women Aristocratic women often educated Enlightenment saw first major victories for women’s rights Women ran intellectual salons of France Many very prominent as philosophes: Madame de Stael Some few feminists appeared

31 SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS
The reconception of the universe The Ptolemaic universe A motionless earth surrounded by nine spheres Could not account for observable movement of the planets Compatible with Christian conception of creation The Copernican universe Copernicus suggested sun was center of universe, 1543 Implied that the earth was just another planet The Scientific Revolution Science becomes the new authority and challenges faith for control Johannes Kepler ( ) demonstrated planetary orbits elliptical Galileo Galilei ( ) With a telescope saw sunspots, moons of Jupiter, mountains of the moon Theory of velocity, falling bodies anticipated modern law of inertia Tried by Inquisition as his ideas challenged Papal infallibility Isaac Newton ( ) Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy in 1686 Mathematical explanations of laws govern movements of bodies Newton's work symbolized the scientific revolution Direct observation Mathematical reasoning

32 ENLIGHTENMENT Enlightenment Voltaire (1694-1778) John Locke
Thinkers called philosophes Sought natural laws that governed human society Center of Enlightenment was France Theory of progress was ideology of philosophes Apply reason/science to society, government, law Voltaire ( ) Champion of religious liberty and individual freedom Prolific writer; father of Enlightenment John Locke All human knowledge comes from sense perceptions Life, Liberty and Property; 1689 English Bill of Rights Allowed persons to revolt against an oppressive ruler Adam Smith: laws of supply and demand determine price Montesquieu: checks, balances, balanced government Deism Popular among thinkers of Enlightenment Accepted existence of a god Denied supernatural teachings of Christianity God the Clockmaker Ordered the universe according to rational and natural laws Impact of Enlightenment Weakened the influence of organized religion Encouraged secular values based on reason rather than revelation Subjected society to rational analysis, promoted progress and prosperity Enlightenment applied science to every day life and made science practical


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