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Prepared by J. Mabbutt & C. Maynard NaMO September 2008 3: The Drugs.

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Presentation on theme: "Prepared by J. Mabbutt & C. Maynard NaMO September 2008 3: The Drugs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prepared by J. Mabbutt & C. Maynard NaMO September 2008 3: The Drugs

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3 1.During the session drug, types, classifications, street names & use statistics will be overviewed 2.Participants will be involved in an activity to explore why people use different types of drugs 3.At the end of the session, nurses & midwives will have a greater understanding of the types of drugs & their use enabling an increase in knowledge & confidence in practice 3: The Drugs Objectives

4 A drug is:  “… any chemical substance which, when taken into the body alters its function physically and psychologically”  “… any substance people consider to be a drug with the understanding that this will change from culture to culture and from time to time” –WHO (1989); Krivanek (1982) 3: The Drugs Drugs defined From Commonwealth Government /NCETA 2004 – GP Trainers Illicit Drug Issues CD Rom

5 Psychoactive drugs are generally defined as substances which alter: –mood –cognition (thoughts) –behaviour 3: The Drugs Psychoactive Drugs (1) From Commonwealth Government /NCETA 2004 – GP Trainers Illicit Drug Issues CD Rom

6  Affect mental processes and behaviour  Affect thought processes and actions  Alter perceptions of reality  Change level of alertness, response time and perception of the world  Achieve effects by interacting with the Central Nervous System (CNS) Carmichael (2001) 3: The Drugs Psychoactive Drugs (2) From Commonwealth Government /NCETA 2004 – GP Trainers Illicit Drug Issues CD Rom

7  Is a common activity  Is part of a range of human behaviours  Can be classified in many ways, including legal status, drug effects  Alters mood or consciousness, although there are other ways to achieve this: e.g. skydiving, meditation, extreme (and non-extreme) sport, sex. Children, for example, love to alter their consciousness by ‘spinning around’ 3: The Drugs Psychoactive Drug Use From Commonwealth Government /NCETA 2004 – GP Trainers Illicit Drug Issues CD Rom

8  Psychoactive drugs may be classified according to their: 1. status legal chemical medical social 2. action and properties depressant stimulant hallucinogenic etc From Commonwealth Government /NCETA 2004 – GP Trainers Illicit Drug Issues CD Rom 3: The Drugs Drug Classifications

9 * Cannabis has unique properties – CNS depressant but hallucinogenic effects at high doses. #Ecstasy (MDMA) can also be hallucinogen and stimulant From Commonwealth Government /NCETA 2004 – GP Trainers Illicit Drug Issues CD Rom 3: Classifying Psychoactive Drugs

10 Cannabis Cocaine Ecstasy

11 Powder – Amphetamine/Methamphetamine Base – Amphetamine/Methamphetamine ‘Ice/Crystal’ Methamphetamine Pills – Methamphetamine

12  ‘Substance dependence’ is a condition characterised by a combination of physical changes, psychological states and behaviours that gives drug use greater priority over other activities. Carmichael (2001, p. 30) 3: The Drugs Dependence From Commonwealth Government /NCETA 2004 – GP Trainers Illicit Drug Issues CD Rom

13  The two best known and used criteria come from the: –Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association DSM-IV TR (2000) and the –World Health Organisation (WHO) International Classification of Diseases 10 th Edition (ICD-10 1993)  Both have a list criteria relating to dependence  If three or more of the criteria have occurred a 12 month period the person meets the criteria for dependence 3: The Drugs Dependence diagnosing criteria From Commonwealth Government /NCETA 2004 – GP Trainers Illicit Drug Issues CD Rom

14 Body Drug BodyIncrease Sudden Body in has adjusts dose cessation in balance effect needed of drug balance for effect causes withdrawal 3: Tolerance and withdrawal CEIDA Core Traning Manual

15 Tolerance  Occurs when more of the drug is needed to produce the initial effect Dependence  The need to keep taking a drug to feel physically and or mentally OK – Dependence requires a high level of tolerance Withdrawal  The effects on the body and mind of a person who suddenly stops taking a drug, after becoming dependent on it 3: The Drugs Tolerance, Dependence & Withdrawal

16 Break into two groups Both groups list: All the ways drugs can get into the body Why this method may be used for a certain drug Each group has 5 minutes before they report back to the whole group and this is written up on the board 3: The Drugs How people use drugs – Activity

17 Approved name of drugStreet namePrice in NSW, 2004-5 * AlcoholGrog, piss, booze, sauce AmphetaminesSpeed, goey, whiz, uppers, oxblood, point, crystal, crystal meth, ice, shabu 1 weight gram $90–$500 Benzodiazepinesbenzos, rowies, moggies, downers, sleepers, tummies, series, pills Cannabismarijuana, grass, pot, shit, ganja, mull, hash, durry, green, dope, cone Leaf- Ounce (28 g) $150 Head- Ounce (28 g) $200 Hydroponic- (28 g) $250 Hash/resin- Deal (1g ) $50 CocaineSnow, coke1 gram $150–$300 EcstasyE, eccies, XTC, fantasy, GBH, liquid ecstasy, good speed 1 tablet/capsule $30–$70 Heroin/opioidsHammer, H, shit, smack, horse, harry, white, skag, junk 1 taste/cap (0.1–0.3 g) $50 Full gram $200–$500 * Adapted from the Illicit Drug Data Report. 2004–05 Australian Crime Commission 3: Appendix 6: Street names of drugs * Adapted from the Illicit Drug Data Report. 2004–05 Australian Crime Commission

18 Approved name of drugStreet namePrice in NSW, 2004-5 * KetamineSpecial KVaried across States: ACT – $65 S.A. – $200 Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) Acid, blotter, trips, wangers, tabs, dots$10 to $25 per tab Methylene Dioxyamphetamine (MDA) Adam1 tablet/capsule $30-$70 Methylene Dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) Ecstasy, Utopia, E, XTC1 tablet/capsule $30-$70 Phencyclidine (PCP)Angel dust PMADr Death PsilocybinMagic mushrooms, gold tops Solventsglue, tol, toluene, bute, nitrus, amyls, petrol, super, aerosol paint-chroming 3: Appendix 6: Street names of drugs * Adapted from the Illicit Drug Data Report. 2004–05 Australian Crime Commission

19 3: Percentage of all deaths attributable to Tobacco, Alcohol and Illicit drugs, in Australia 2003

20 3: Percentage of Drug related deaths attributable to Tobacco, Alcohol & Illicit drugs, Australia 2003

21 3: Percentage of Tobacco related deaths in Australia 2003 by condition

22 3: Percentage of Alcohol related deaths in Australia 2003 by condition

23 3: Percentage of Illicit drug related deaths in Australia 2003 by condition


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