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 Australian adults usually describe their health as good  Adulthood is a time of independence, strong social and emotional connections and possibly.

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Presentation on theme: " Australian adults usually describe their health as good  Adulthood is a time of independence, strong social and emotional connections and possibly."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Australian adults usually describe their health as good  Adulthood is a time of independence, strong social and emotional connections and possibly starting a family of one’s own  Adulthood is usually a time when a person experiences optimal health  Optimal health: The best possible state of an individual’s health for their age

3  The health of adults is influenced by a number of determinants including:  Biological  Behavioural  Physical environment &  Social environment

4  The main biological determinants affecting the health and development of Australian adults are:  Body weight  Blood pressure  Blood cholesterol &  Genetics  What is another biological determinant that would also have an affect on health?

5  Within the health community it is accepted that you inherit your body shape and possibly some of the health problems associated with body weight in later life  Australians are currently ranked among the world’s most overweight populations  Obesity was added to the National Health Priority Area (NHPA) in 2008 because of the alarming increase in overweight and obesity figures in Australia  Body weight issues can be addressed via increased attention to food intake and physical activity  Obesity is a risk factor for a number of serious conditions: diabetes, high blood pressure, stroke, kidney disease, breast & colon cancer, & cardiovascular disease.  Being overweight has implications for an adults social and mental health. Many suffering from low self-esteem and have been victims of bullying and teasing. They are also less likely to participate in physical activity

6  High blood pressure or hypertension (elevated blood pressure) is linked with a high intake of salt  It is a dangerous condition that can lead to serious health conditions such as cardiovascular disease, stroke or kidney damage.  High blood pressure is currently the second greatest burden of disease and is also one of the greatest areas identified for prevention. Preventative factors include: reduce salt consumption, decrease alcohol, increase physical activity and maintaining a healthy body weight  As an adult ages, their blood pressure rises and therefore it is important that this is monitored to maintain health

7  High blood cholesterol is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke  It is estimated to be responsible for about 60% of the total burden of disease for adults  There is a genetic related susceptibility to high cholesterol levels in families  It is important to maintain a healthy blood cholesterol level to obtain optimal health and peak physical condition  It is often a long-term condition that needs to be monitored and managed by monitoring of food intake and health check-ups

8  A person’s genetic make-up will influence their health and development  Direct impact of genetics are genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis and Huntington's disease  Other conditions such as cardiovascular disease, cancers (including breast and bowel) and diabetes are health conditions where a family predisposition has found to be a casual link  It is important for your health to know your family’s health history (there may be preventative actions to reduce personal risk)  Factors out of our control that also impact on our health include age and sex

9  Behavioural determinants or lifestyle factors relate to the way people choose to live their lives  They are the links between individual behaviour and the impact on health status  Individuals have the greatest control over behavioural determinants, and therefore are the most preventable  Determinants include:  Smoking  Physical activity  Alcohol & drug use  Sexual practices

10  Tobacco smoking is the most serious behavioural determinant on health and is currently the cause of the greatest burden of disease among adults  A major risk factor for health including lung cancer, coronary heart disease and stroke  Passive smoking is also a concern. The long-term affects of smoking or passive smoking are realised during adulthood  Smoking is far more common in adults who have a low socioeconomic status, and more men tend to smoke than women  A smoker is 10 times more likely to be diagnosed with lung cancer than a non-smoker  The longer you smoke, the greater the risks: breathing difficulties, wheezing, and coughing which can lead to emphysema (relying on oxygen)  This would limit mobility and opportunities for socialisation, as leaving the home can even be difficult. This could have a negative effect on mental health

11  Adults should exercise for 30 minutes a day. Physical activity has many benefits to physical health and prevention of diseases such as high blood pressure and Type II diabetes.  Being involved in a team sport can enhance social health and provide a sense of belonging that enhances mental health  Food intake is a major contributor to the state of a person’s health and making the right food choices can have a positive impact on health and development. Making the right food choices can prevent illness and disease and lead to improved health and development as you age  Adults need to be conscious of finding time to exercise and play around work commitments and family life to maintain health

12  Excessive alcohol consumption is a major risk for adult morbidity and mortality (drowning, burns, suicides and motor vehicle fatality)  Long-term health conditions associated with alcohol consumption include liver disease, diabetes, some cancers and increased risk of injury  Adult high-risk drinkers are more likely than adult low-risk drinkers to experience high or very high levels of psychological distress, including depression and anxiety.  Adult violent behaviour is often connected with alcohol consumption  Illicit drug use is a major risk factor for adult health being linked to organ and brain damage, sleep disorders, weight loss, high blood pressure and respiratory problems  Illicit drugs can also cause psychological problems, addictions and problems with social, mental and intellectual health and development

13  Unsafe sexual practices continue to be a determinant on health and development within the adult community. They can increase the rates of sexually transmitted infections and cancer of the cervix  Health conditions associated with unsafe sex include HIV, gonorrhoea, syphilis and Chlamydia  Sexual practices are an adult health issue that can vary depending on the stage of adulthood  Typically during adulthood, an individual is becoming sexually intimate and may have intercourse with a number of different partners. The implications of sexual practice for adults on health and development will depend on individual circumstances and behaviour

14  The physical environment refers to the world in which we live  It can include shelter and the actual communities in which we carry out our daily lives  It is important for optimal health for adults to feel safe in their physical environment, wherever they may be:  Housing  Neighbourhood safety  Access the health care services

15  A significant change in the transition to adulthood is moving out of the family home to a home of their own  Providing and maintaining a house takes up a large percentage of an adults income with costs such as: mortgage repayments, utilities such as gas & electricity, and general maintenance and repair  For adults who don’t have financial security, the stress may have a negative impact on their mental health  Housing can also be a positive determinant of adult health, with houses providing many adults a feeling of security and connectedness to the community in which they live as well as a sense of achievement and pride

16  Neighbourhood safety is adults within a community feeling safe and secure within their environment and encompasses efforts to reassure communities and influence their perceptions about safety issues and crimes  Adults feeling that their personal safety can be maintained within their home and nearby area. This includes safety in public spaces such as train stations, shopping centres and parks. Within the neighbourhood, the behaviours of some people will influence the feelings of safety among others  Low level violence and crime will increase feelings of neighbourhood safety  Adults who do not feel safe in their neighbourhood can experience fear and anxiety that may contribute to poor emotional health and development

17  Barriers affecting the access of adults to health care in Australia include: location of resources, mobility issues, cost of health care and socioeconomic status, language spoken, knowledge of health services available, ethnicity and value and attitude towards individual health  Being able to receive health care, through prevention, education, monitoring and treatment on health is a requirement to being able to maintain optimal health

18  The social environment refers to the socioeconomic factors that influence and impact on adult health and development such as:  Education  Employment  Media  Community belonging &  Living arrangements

19  People with a high level of education, or who have invested time and effort into their education, are more likely to invest time and effort into healthy behaviours and have a reduced rate of risk-taking behaviours  Statistics show that people with a high level of education are more likely to make informed choices about their health, are typically employed and experience high levels of security

20  Work and career have many positives for adult health including: enhanced self-esteem and social connectedness, as well as giving a sense of satisfaction and achievement beyond simply that of financial gain  There are also negative impacts including: long working hours, conflict with family-work balance and feelings of stress and fatigue

21  Australians are exposed to many forms of media, including: newspapers, magazines, television, radio, internet etc.  Advertising/media are effecting marketing tools and as a result can have a positive or negative effect on health and development  Positives: Media campaigns such as Quit have had a significant impact on encouraging adults to give up smoking. Information can be communicated to a large audience with relative ease and people are influenced by the messages received  Negatives: Media stereotyping can impact on mental health for individuals who feel they do not measure up to the images being presented. Media used in the wrong way e.g take-away ads, which in turn is major factor in the increase of obesity

22  Belonging is the sense of feeling a part of something, a feeling of connectedness, and families often have activities that enhance these feelings e.g. birthdays, Christmas, eating dinner as a family  Families have an important role in providing for optimal social and emotional health of adults including belonging, identity, self-esteem, affection and security  Not everyone has a strong connection with their family, or as people age they experience loss of loved ones. This individuals may seek this feeling from other social connections such as co- workers, or other members of the community

23  At the beginning of this lifespan stage, most adults have achieved independence and live away from their family, earning their own income, making their own decisions and taking responsibility for their own actions  As they get older however, many adults start to lose their independence and require help to remain living independently or move into aged care or with their families  Changes may include losing a partner and having to live alone, which can create loneliness and isolation, impacting on their social and emotional health  Independence is an important component of one’s health and losing one’s independence can have a negative impact on health and development

24  What are the four categories of health and development determinants?  Give one example for each of the four determinants  What impact is getting bullied for being obese likely to have on a persons social, emotional and physical health??  Discuss why you believe more men feel safe in their homes alone than women. What might be the reasons for these feelings of security?

25  Please complete activity 12.3 (Looking at your behaviours)  We will get the net books another/next lesson to do activity 12.1 so skip this activity until then  We will start to watch the notebook on Friday (period 6) so remember to bring tissues


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