Presentation on theme: "Qur’an or Bible: Which is the Word of God?. Overview of the Bible Two major sections: Old Testament & New Testament A library of books : law, history,"— Presentation transcript:
Overview of the Bible Two major sections: Old Testament & New Testament A library of books : law, history, prophecy, poetry.
Details of the Bible Written by 40 men (all Jewish except one) Written over 1400 years In 3 languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, Common (koine) Greek Old Testament has 39 books & 23,000 verses, pointing to Christ New Testament has 24 books & 8,000 verses, telling about Christ
Implications from the Bible God works through history God uses all kinds of people God loves variety but also order (1.Cor.14:33,40) The supreme revelation of the Bible is Jesus Christ The Bible can be read in any language (Acts.2:7- 11) – translated into 2300 languages God accepts all cultures and languages (Acts.10:34,35; Rev.7:9)
Overview of the Qur’an 114 chapters Not in chronological order Arranged by size: biggest smallest Unsure which chapters came first Revealed to one man – no witnesses Based on his 23 years of ministry 6,200 verses Written in Qurayshi Arabic
Implications from the Qur’an Allah is not as concerned about history and order The supreme time was the period of Muhammad (Q.3:110) Muhammad is the best model for humanity (Q.33:21) People should obey Muhammad as they do Allah (Q.4:80) They should not ask questions (Q.5:101; 33:36) The Qur’an can only be read in Arabic (Q.12:1,2)
Times, places & people in Bible Chronological order : Genesis (beginnings) Revelation (the end) Historical markers: Isaiah 6:1 ; Luke 3:1,2; world powers Geographical markers: Genesis 2:14 – Tigris & Euphrates rivers; Revelation 1:9 – John was on the island of Patmos Identifies people: genealogies, titles, relationships Eyewitness or contemporary accounts: 1.Jn.1:.1-3
Implications from the Bible The Bible stands by itself The Bible invites verification The Bible tells real stories about real people The details of their lives are given, including the bad ones God is intimately involved in the lives of these people God can be involved in our lives too
Times, places & people in Qur’an Not in chronological order (size of chapter) No times or dates or reigns Sparse Geography: ‘Mecca’; ‘Medina’ (x 2) ‘Arafat’; ‘Badr’; ‘Safa & Marwa’ ‘Bakkah’; ‘Hunain’; ‘Rome’ (x 1) ; Persia & Ethiopia (x 0) Dead People: All but two people named were dead: 28 prophets, Pharoah, Al-Aziz; only one woman named (Mary) Contemporary people: Muhammad x 4 ; ‘Abu Lahab’ x1
Q.58:1 “Indeed Allah has heard the statement of her that disputes with you concerning her husband, and complains to Allah. And Allah hears the argument between you both.” (Q.58:1) Who is the complaining woman? What did her husband do? Who is the ‘you’ she disputing with? Some claim that she was Khaulah bint Tha’labah who went to Muhammad and complained that her husband Aus bin As-Samit was refusing to sleep with her or to divorce her.
Q.80:1-12 He frowned and turned away, because the blind man came to him. But what could tell you that perhaps he might become pure or that he might receive admonition, and that the admonition might profit him? As for the one who thinks himself self- sufficient, you attend to him, although it is no blame to you if he does not become pure. But you are neglectful to the one who came to you running, and is afraid. By no means! For it is indeed a Message of instruction: So whoever wills, let him pay attention to it.
Explanation of Q.80:1-12 from al-Muwatta no. 0.630555555555556 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa that his father said that Abasa (Sura 80) was sent down about Abdullah ibn Umm Maktum. He came to the Prophet… and began to say, "O Muhammad, show me a place near you (where I can sit)," whilst one of the leading men of the idol worshippers was in audience with the Prophet... The Prophet… began to turn away from him and give his attention to the other man, and he said to him, "Father of so-and-so, do you see any harm in what I am saying?" and he said, "No, by the blood (of our sacrifices) I see no harm in what you are saying." And Abasa - "He frowned and turned away when the blind man came" - was sent down.
Implications from the Qur’an The Qur’an generally tells incomplete stories of people long-dead before it was written It goes not give historical or geographic details which could be affirmed or denied Contemporary people are not identified It reads more like Muhammad’s personal diary and meditations The Qur’an is not open to historical investigation – it is ahistorical
Comparisons Two prayers: Lord’s prayer & Fatiha
What the Bible says about itself Reference God's word is like Psalm 119:105 A lamp to my feet Jeremiah 20:9; 23:29 (a) Fire Ephesians 5:26 Washing with water Jeremiah 23:29 (b) A hammer 2 Peter 1:19Word of the prophets Ps:19:10Gold Luke 8:11 Secrets James 1:23-25A mirror 1 Peter 1:23Imperishable seed 1 Peter 2:2; 1 Corinthians 3:1,2 Pure spiritual milk Hebrews 5:12-14; 1 Corinthians 3:1,2 Solid food Psalm 119:103; Ezekiel 3:3 Honey Ephesians 6:17; Hebrews 4:12 Sword of the Spirit
Number of verses about the Qur’an: Titles of the Qur’an 550 Verbs describing ‘revelation’ 328 The word ‘aya/at’ 234 (‘verse/s, signs or miracles) The word ‘surah’ 9 (chapter of the Qur’an) Total references on the Qur’an to itself 1121 The Qur’an has only 6200 verses “The Qur’an is the most meta-textual, most self-referential holy text known in the history of world religions.” Stefan Wild (Professor of Islamic Studies, University of Bonn) “meta-textual” – talking about itself “self-referential” – quoting itself
The Qur’an claims that it is clear a perspicuous/plain book or Qur’an kitaab/qur’aan mubeen (Q.5:15, 12:1; 15:1; 26:2, 195; 27:1; 28:2; 36:69; 43:2; 44:2) with ‘clear verses’ ayaat mubayyinaat (22:16; 24:34; 66:11) Allah made His signs clear so you can understand kadhaalik yubayyin alaah lakum ayaatihi la’allakum ta’qiloon (Q.2:242) We (Allah) sent down/made an Arabic Qur’an so that you may understand inna nazalnaahu/ja’alnaahu qur’aanan ‘arabiyyan la’allakum ta’qiluun (Q.12:2; 43:3) in a clear Arabic tongue wa haadha lisaanun arabiyyun mubeenun (Q.16:103; 26:195; 20:113; 39:28; 41:3,44; 42:7)
The Qur’an is not so clear “[Allah] has sent down to you) the Book (this Qur'an). In it are Verses that are entirely clear, they are the foundations of the Book and others not entirely clear… but no one knows its hidden meanings except Allah.” (Q.3:7) Waleed Aly : “The Qur’an admits its own ambiguity” People Like Us p.217 29 suras have unknown lists of letters such as alif lam mim eg 2:1; 3:1, with the explanation: “Only Allah knows their meanings.”
Qur’an is not in pure Arabic Jalal-ud-din Al-Suyuti, (c. 1445-1505 AD) in his book Iqtan fi ‘Ulum al- qur’an “Perfection in the Quranic Sciences“ - found 275 non Arabic words in the Quran. He listed words from the following languages: 1 Ethiopic Habashi 7 Nabatean Nabatiya 2 Persian Farisiya8 Coptic Coptiya 3 Greek Roumiya9 Turkish Turkiya 4 Indian Hindiya10 Negro Zinjiya 5 Syriac Syriyaniya11 Berber Barbariya 6 Hebrew Ibraniya The commentators al Tabari, al Badhawi & al Razi also listed foreign words. Arthur Jeffery outlined about 118 foreign - non Arabic - words in the Quran, many of which are among the most important, without which the Quran could not possibly exist. (The Foreign Vocabulary of the Quran; Oriental Institute; Baroda 1938).
The Qur’an claims it is inerrant no contradictions ikhtilaaf (Q.4:82) no falsehood baatil (Q.41:42) no crookedness ‘awjan(18:1; 39:28) Its verses are perfected uHkimat ayaatuhu (11:1)
The Qur’an claims that it is comprehensive a detailed book alkitaab mufassilan (Q.6:114) a detailed explanation of everything tafseel kul shayin (Q.12:111) an exposition of everything tibyaanan kulli shayin (Q.16:89) has neglected or omitted nothing ma farratna min shay’ (Q.6:38)
Comprehensive ? But it lacks the complete shahada the five daily prayers how to wash Full details of fasting and pilgrimage Circumcision etc, etc
The Qur’an claims it is unique The pagans are challenged to bring their own Book (28:49; 37:157), or to at least produce a Sura like the Qur’an (2:23; 10:38), or ten suras (11:13) This is a feat beyond all humans and jinn (17:88; 28:86,87)
Muhammad ibn Zakariyā Rāzī (Rhazes) (865 – 925) – Persian Muslim physician “You claim that the evidentiary miracle is present and available, namely, the Koran. You say: "Whoever denies it, let him produce a similar one." Indeed, we shall produce a thousand similar, from the works of rhetoricians, eloquent speakers and valiant poets, which are more appropriately phrased and state the issues more succinctly. They convey the meaning better and their rhymed prose is in better meter.... By God what you say astonishes us! You are talking about a work which recounts ancient myths, and which at the same time is full of contradictions and does not contain any useful information or explanation. Then you say: "Produce something like it"?!”
Comparisons The nature of God Psalm 23 Al Ikhlas (Sura 112)
What criteria? Internal evidence: What is says about itself External evidence: history, archaeology, prophecy
Archeologist Nelson Glueck "It may be stated categorically that no archaeological discovery has ever contradicted a biblical reference."
Historian A. N. Sherwin-White "For [the book of] Acts the confirmation of historicity is overwhelming. … any attempt to reject its basic historicity even in matters of detail must now appear absurd.".
Adolf Hitler “It is deplorable that the Bible should have been translated into German, and that the whole of the German Folk should have thus become exposed to the whole of this Jewish mumbo jumbo...” 5 June 1942
Desmond Tutu "There's nothing more radical, nothing more revolutionary, nothing more subversive against injustice and oppression than the Bible. If you want to keep people subjugated, the last thing you place in their hands is a Bible." September 2008.
SUBJECTOT ProphecyNT Fulfillment As the Son of GodPs 2:7Lu 1:32,35 As the seed of the womanGe 3:15Ga 4:4 As the seed of AbrahamGe 17:7 22:18Ga 3:16 As the seed of IsaacGe 21:12Heb 11:17-19 As the seed of DavidPs 132:11 Jer 23:5Ac 13:23 Ro 1:3 His coming at a set timeGe 49:10 Da 9:24,25Lu 2:1 His being born of a virginIsa 7:14Mt 1:22,23 Lu 2:7 His being called ImmanuelIsa 7:14Mt 1:22,23 His being born in Bethlehem of JudeaMic 5:2Mt 2:1 Lu 2:4-6 Great persons coming to adore himPs 72:10Mt 2:1-11 The slaying of the children of BethlehemJer 31:15Mt 2:16-18 His being called out of EgyptHo 11:1Mt 2:15 His being preceded by John the BaptistIsa 40:3 Mal 3:1Mt 3:1,3 Lu 1:17 His being anointed with the SpiritPs 45:7 Isa 11:2 61:1Mt 3:16 Joh 3:34 Ac 10:38 His being a Prophet like to MosesDe 18:15-18Ac 3:20-22 His being a Priest after the order of MelchizedekPs 110:4Heb 5:5,6 His entering on his public ministryIsa 61:1,2Lu 4:16-21,43 His ministry commencing in GalileeIsa 9:1,2Mt 4:12-16,23 His entering publicly into JerusalemZec 9:9Mt 21:1-5 His coming into the templeHag 2:7,9 Mal 3:1Mt 21:12 Lu 2:27-32 Joh 2:13-16 His povertyIsa 53:2Mr 6:3 Lu 9:58 His meekness and want of ostentatiousIsa 42:2Mt 12:15,16,19 His tenderness and compassionIsa 40:11 42:3Mt 12:15,20 Heb 4:15 His being without guileIsa 53:91Pe 2:22 His zealPs 69:9Joh 2:17 His preaching by parablesPs 78:2Mt 13:34,35 His working miraclesIsa 35:5,6Mt 11:4-6 Joh 11:47 His bearing reproachPs 22:6 69:7,9,20Ro 15:3 His being rejected by his brethrenPs 69:8 Isa 63:3Joh 1:11 7:3 His being a stone of stumbling to the JewsIsa 8:14Ro 9:32 1Pe 2:8 His being hated by the JewsPs 69:4 Isa 49:7Joh 15:24,25 His being rejected by the Jewish rulersPs 118:22Mt 21:42 Joh 7:48 That the Jews and Gentiles should combine against HimPs 2:1,2Lu 23:12 Ac 4:27 His being betrayed by a friendPs 41:9 55:12-14Joh 13:18,21
His disciples forsaking himZec 13:7Mt 26:31,56 His being sold for thirty pieces silverZec 11:12Mt 26:15 His price being given for the potter's fieldZec 11:13Mt 27:7 The intensity of his sufferingsPs 22:14,15Lu 22:42,44 His sufferings being for othersIsa 53:4-6,12 Da 9:26Mt 20:28 His patience and silence under sufferingIsa 53:7Mt 26:63 27:12-14 His being smitten on the cheekMic 5:1Mt 27:30 His visage being marredIsa 52:14 53:3Joh 19:5 His being spit on and scourgedIsa 50:6Mr 14:65 Joh 19:1 His hands and feet being nailed to the crossPs 22:16Joh 19:18 20:25 His being forsaken by GodPs 22:1Mt 27:46 His being mockedPs 22:7,8Mt 27:39-44 Gall and vinegar being given him to drinkPs 69:21Mt 27:34 His garments being parted, and lots cast for his vesturePs 22:18Mt 27:35 His being numbered with the transgressorsIsa 53:12Mr 15:28 His intercession for His murderersIsa 53:12Lu 23:34 His DeathIsa 53:12Mt 27:50 That a bone of him should not be brokenEx 12:46 Ps 34:20Joh 19:33,36 His being piercedZec 12:10Joh 19:34,37 His being buried with the richIsa 53:9Mt 27:57-60 His flesh not seeing corruptionPs 16:10Ac 2:31 His resurrectionPs 16:10 Isa 26:19Lu 24:6,31,34 His ascensionPs 68:18Lu 24:51 Ac 1:9 His sitting on the right hand of GodPs 110:1Heb 1:3 His exercising the priestly office in heavenZec 6:13Ro 8:34 His being the chief corner-stone of the ChurchIsa 28:161Pe 2:6,7 His being King in ZionPs 2:6Lu 1:32 Joh 18:33-37 The conversion of the Gentiles to himIsa 11:10 42:1Mt 1:17,21 Joh 10:16 Ac 10:45,47 His righteous governmentPs 45:6,7Joh 5:30 Re 19:11 His universal dominionPs 72:8 Da 7:14Php 2:9,11 The perpetuity of his kingdomIsa 9:7 Da 7:14Lu 1:32,33