Presentation on theme: "Mount Alexander Shire Council"— Presentation transcript:
1 Mount Alexander Shire Council Disability AwarenessPresentation 10th December 2012
2 Topics Introductions What is disability – facts and figures What is inclusion and how do we become more inclusive?Impact of disability and barriers to inclusionCommunication strategies and language of disabilityBehaviours of concern
3 What do we mean by disability? Disability Discrimination Act 1992 Disability, in relation to a person, means:total or partial loss of the person's bodily or mental functions; ortotal or partial loss of a part of the body; orthe presence in the body of organisms causing disease or illness; orthe presence in the body of organisms capable of causing disease or illness; orthe malfunction, malformation or disfigurement of a part of the person's body; ora disorder or malfunction that results in the person learning differently from a person without the disorder or malfunction; ora disorder, illness or disease that affects a person's thought processes, perception of reality, emotions or judgment or that results in disturbed behaviour; and includes a disability that:presently exists; orpreviously existed but no longer exists; or may exist in the future; oris imputed to a person.
4 Prevalence We are all on the list! Statistics estimate that : 20% of the Australian population have a disability.Disability is strongly correlated to age. The disability rate increases with age from4% of children with disability, to41% of people aged 65 to 69, and92% of people 90 years and over.We are all on the list!
5 Ways in which we think of disability Medical modelRights modelSocial Model
6 What is inclusion?Look at the following case studies and consider what they tell us about inclusion
7 Case studiesKay attends water aerobics. She seems to enjoy the sessions, but once they are over, she changes and rushes off with her support worker to her next activityPeter is non verbal. He has a communication board but no-one at the centre knows how to use it. Yesterday he became very angry and began yelling and hitting out at people.Jasmine coaches a basketball team. Her boss has been told she has autism but this has not affected her work. A week ago there was a fire drill and she hasn’t been back since.
8 Inclusion Is more than presence Supports social inclusion Allows for independence and dignityRecognises the impact of disabilityTakes time and effortIt is not..TokenismSomething that only effects certain people
9 So, what is Inclusion? Inclusion is…. Guaranteeing full enjoyment of life without discriminationChanging the attitudinal and environmental barriers that result in disabling people with impairments
10 What does it mean for us? We are creating barriers to inclusion when…… We make assumptions and don’t clarify themWe do not fully involve someone (i.e. allow just a presence)We shield individuals or groups to protect themWe do things for other people they can do for themselves or haven’t asked us to do for themWe are supporting inclusion when...We challenge our assumptions and valuesWe are willing to overcome our discomfortWe learn to embrace differencesWe recognise that people express themselves differentlyWe advocate and support the public to be more tolerant
11 Impact of disability Physical disability Sensory disability Wheelchairs, poor mobility, arthritis, cerebral palsySensory disabilityBlind or with low visionDeaf or hard of hearingIntellectual disabilityCommunication impairmentsAutismMental illnessAge related
12 People with physical disability Mobility issues (note not all people with physical disability use a wheelchair)VertigoLoss of balanceFatigueFunctional difficulties e.g. with hand movementsPoor bladder function.
13 What causes physical disability? Accidents which could result in: spinal injuryamputationacquired brain injury affecting motor skills and limb controlMedical conditions such as: cerebral palsy spina bifidachronic fatigueinherited conditions passed on genetically (for example limb deficiency)Age
14 Barriers to inclusion Surfaces - uneven, polished Access – pathways, doorways, door weight, door handles, stairsToilet accessParkingSocial facilitiesLack of hoistsAccess to informationObjects out of reachNarrow spaces
15 Communications and people with physical disability Do not move or touch wheelchair without permissionMove into eye lineAsk if help is needed and accept “NO”
16 People who are deaf or hard of hearing May be affected by background noiseMay miss spoken cuesMay miss verbal or sound alarmsDo not all lip read
17 Communicating with people who are deaf or hard of hearing Get the person’s attention before you speakFace the person directly and maintain eye contactMake sure your mouth is visibleDon’t shout, keep your volume up but naturalUse short sentencesUse visual cues and facial expressionsIf you are not being understood, repeat message in different words, or write message downHearing loops
18 Communicating with people who are blind or have low vision Identify yourself and ask others to do the sameAddress people by nameExplain sudden noisesDon't shoutTalk about what you and others are doingShow the person where things are placedDon't move objects without telling the studentDon't pat assistant animalsIf you are leaving, tell the person where you are going, and when you will be backGive clear directions, don't talk about "here" and "there"
19 Intellectual Disability • Significantly below average intelligence (lQ of 70 or less). The score is obtained from a standardised test whereby 100 is an average• Shortcomings in everyday life skills. Personal skills such as self care are inadequate compared with other people of the same age and culture• Disability appears before eighteenth birthday
20 People with an intellectual disability may: Learn slowlyHave short term memory issuesBe easily confusedLack social skillsFind abstract and potential concepts hardHave difficulty concentratingGive expected or “right” responsesReact adversely to change
21 Communications with people with an intellectual disability Use the same tone of voice and eye contact as for anyone elseUse age appropriate languageUse plain English, familiar words and short sentencesAccept that you may have to repeat information againIntroduce a person to others in a groupGive one instruction at a timeGive positive feedbackTalk in the here and now avoiding jargon and slang
22 Communications with people with speech impairment Speak directly to the person not their carerMaintain eye contactUse normal speech, volume and pitch and usual lip movementEncourage but don’t push the person to express themselvesAccept and respond to all forms of communicationAvoid completing words and phrases for the personTake time to listen and wait for their responseAsk how a communication board or other device works if usedAsk for something to be repeated rather than pretend you understand when you didn’tBe comfortable with silence
23 People with autism spectrum disorder Pattern of behaviour in three key areascommunication,social interaction, andimaginative thought.May also coexist with other conditions or disorders, e.g.intellectual disability,speech and language disorders,anxiety and depression (especially in adolescents and adults), epilepsy, attention disorders,Tourette Syndrome, andDown Syndrome
24 People with Autism Spectrum Disorder may: Need a structured environmentHave problems with social interactionHave problems with generalisationsHave difficulty with double meaningsHave problems with some noisesHave problems with some lightsReact adversely to changeBe fixated on one subject
25 Communication and people with autism spectrum disorder A structured predictable environmentRules to aid social interactionExplain metaphors / words with double meaningsTeach generalisationsUse concrete and visual methods: non verbal cues, picturesAvoid long strings of verbal instructionsBreak tasks into componentsBe aware of noises which hurt ears : PA systems, bells, buzzers or scraping chairsBe aware of fluorescent and flickering lightsBlack print on coloured paper to avoid contrast (not bright yellow)
26 Myths and mental health People with mental health disorders are likely to be violentPeople with mental health disorders are not very intelligentPeople with mental health disorders are likely to behave oddly
27 Some mental health disorders SchizophreniaBi- Polar DisorderDepressionAnxietyObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)Eating disordersPost traumatic stress disorder
28 People with a mental illness may experience: Lack of motivationUnexplained anger, expressions of emotionHave difficulty making decisionsConcentration problemsLack of confidenceHigh levels of anxietyEffects of medication
29 Effects of medication Drowsiness and lethargy Restlessness Dry mouth/persistent thirstProblems with coordinatione.g. shakiness/tremors in handsInvoluntary movements of mouth, tongue and other parts of the bodyHeadaches, nauseaVision difficultiesQuiet space to restFlexible attendance requirementsFrequent breaks, go for walksFrequent drink breaksAdapt physical actions to minimise impact of shakes. Talk rather than do as per needEncourage person to explain this to peersEmpathise, provide outside breaks, place to restProvide oral explanations
30 Age related disability Can (and probably will) happen to all of usPhysical – arthritis, mobility, effects of medicationSensory – sight and hearingPoor bladder functionDementiaDepression
31 Language of disability Is language important or is it all political correctness gone mad?
32 Language of disability UseDon’t usePerson with disabilityDisabled personPerson suffering from..An epileptic/paraplegicCrippledAbnormalImpairmentHandicapAccessible parking/toiletDisabled parking/toiletSeizureFitUses a wheelchairWheel chair boundPerson with an intellectual disabilityMentally retardedNon- disabled, person without a disabilityNormalIs blind or has low visionVisually impaired
33 General communication strategies Remember that a person with a disability is a person- like everyone else.Speak directly to them not their companion.Don’t shout or raise your voice.Be willing to communicate in different ways and to learn how to use new tools for communication.If you don’t know what to do or say, relax and allow the person with a disability to speak/communicate.Take time to listen to their response- this is very important.Be honest, don’t pretend that you have understood them. Ask the person to try again using a different term or ask someone else who knows the person to help out.Remember, as in any conversation, maintain eye contact as you normally would.Remember the person is not sick, so the person should be viewed as healthy.Offer assistance when it’s asked for or if the need seems obvious, don’t overdo or insist on it. Respect the person’s right to indicate the type of help they need.Always talk to the person in an age appropriate manner and especially not as a child.Find out the person’s abilities and the things they like to do as a way of getting to know the person better.
34 Written communication Provide a range of formatsUse pictures and drawings to reinforce words. Use Easy English where possibleUse large font size (16 or 18) and a sans serif fontPage numbers should be the same size as the textAvoid using blocks of capital letters: a mix of upper and lower caseSeparate paragraphs with blank linesMargins left justified only and the same width both sidesUse paper with a matt finishUse black text on white paper and avoid red or green text.
35 Enrolments Do we have to include? No-one is obliged to disclose an impairment
36 Questions to ask Ask everyone (with or without disability): Is there anything which might prevent you fully participating in this activity?Is there any support you might need to fully participate?You will not be discriminated against but failure to disclose may mean we cannot provide the support or medical attention you need
37 Case studyMaria normally attends aerobics with her support worker without incident. On one occasion the support worker cannot attend and Maria becomes extremely distressed, bursts into tears and runs out saying she can’t stay any longer.How can we assist Maria?
38 Behaviours of concern What is a behaviour of concern? Why is it happening?Who can help?Making your expectations knownCode of conductConsideration of dignity
39 Critical incident planning Safety first:YouPerson concernedRest of the communityKeep calmDo not man handleCall the policeDebrief
40 Look after yourselfAt some point you will feel tired, frustrated, irritable, overwhelmed. This is normal – but don’t react negatively.Recognise when this is happeningFind someone to talk toHave a break