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Vatican II: The Event and Its Message for Today. With the passing of the years, the Council documents have lost nothing of their value and brilliance.

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Presentation on theme: "Vatican II: The Event and Its Message for Today. With the passing of the years, the Council documents have lost nothing of their value and brilliance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vatican II: The Event and Its Message for Today

2 With the passing of the years, the Council documents have lost nothing of their value and brilliance …… Now that the Jubilee has ended, I feel more than ever in duty bound to point to the Council as the great grace bestowed on the Church in the twentieth century; there we find a sure compass by which to take our bearings in the century now beginning. (NM 157)

3 Forty years after the Council, we can show that the positive is far greater and livelier than it appeared to be in the turbulent years around Today, we see that although the good seed developed slowly, it is nonetheless growing; and our deep gratitude for the work done by the Council is likewise growing. Address to the Roman Curia, 2005

4 1. Aggiornamento 2. The Reformability of the Church 3. Renewed Attention to the Word of God 4. Collegiality 5. Religious Freedom Cardinal Avery Dulles sj Achievements of the Council

5 6. The Active Role of the Laity 7. Regional and Local Variety 8. Ecumenism 9. Dialogue with Other Religions 10. The Social Mission of the Church Cardinal Avery Dulles sj Achievements of the Council.. cont’d

6 Catholicism in the 1950s Marks of “Catholic identity” Friday abstinence Latin liturgy devotion to Mary and saints devotion to the pope.. The Context

7 Twenty Ecumenical Councils The Larger Context 1. Council of Nicea (325) 2. First Council of Constantinople (381) 3. Council of Ephesus (431) 4. Council of Chalcedon (451) 5. Second Council of Constantinople (553) 6. Third Council of Constantinople ( ) 7. Second Council of Nicaea (787) 8. Fourth Council of Constantinople (869) 9. First Lateran Council (1123) 10. Second Lateran Council (1139)

8 Twenty Ecumenical Councils.. cont’d. 11. Third Lateran Council (1179) 12. Fourth Lateran Council (1215) 13. First Council of Lyons (1245) 14. Council of Lyons (1274) 15. Council of Vienne in France ( ) 16. Council of Constance ( ) 17. Council of Basle (1431), Ferrara (1438), Florence (1439) The Larger Context

9 Twenty Ecumenical Councils.. cont’d. 18. Fifth Lateran Council ( ) 19. Council of Trent ( ) 20. First Vatican Council ( ) The Larger Context

10 Protestant Reformation Catholic Reform Council of Trent ( ) St Ignatius of Loyola St Therese of Avila St Charles Borromeo

11 First Vatican Council Pastor Aeternis papal primacy papal infallibility Dei Filius faith and reason The Larger Context

12 The “Pian era” 150 years from Pius VII (1800) to Pius XII (1958) Rejection of the modern age Enlightenment French Revolution The Larger Context

13 The Modernist Crisis Alfred Loisy George Tyrell Pius IX Syllabus of Errors (1864) e.g. The Roman Pontiff can, and ought to, reconcile himself, and come to terms with progress, liberalism and modern civilization Pius X Condemnation of “the Modernists”, Pascendi Dominici Gregis (1907) Oath against Modernism The Larger Context The “Pian era”

14 In the 19th century under Pius IX, the clash between the Church's faith and a radical liberalism and the natural sciences.... had elicited from the Church a bitter and radical condemnation of this spirit of the modern age. Christmas Address of Pope Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia, The Larger Context

15 Thus, it seemed that there was no longer any milieu open to a positive and fruitful understanding, and the rejection by those who felt they were the representatives of the modern era was also drastic. Christmas Address of Pope Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia, The Larger Context

16 In the meantime, however, the modern age had also experienced developments. the American Revolution v. the French Revolution, as a model of a modern state. natural sciences – recognition of limitations imposed by their own method. So it was that both parties were gradually beginning to open up to each other. Christmas Address of Pope Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia, Revolution. The Immediate Context

17 World War I The Immediate Context World War II

18 Mystici Corporis (1943) - Church Divino Afflante Spiritu (1943) – Biblical Studies Mediator Dei (1947) – Liturgy Humanai Generis (1950) – Modern Thought The Immediate Context Encyclicals of Pope Pius XII

19 1959 Fidel Castro becomes Premier of Cuba The Immediate Context U.S. U-2 spy plane shot down over Russia Belgian Congo granted full independence John F. Kennedy elected President of the United States Three women admitted to the ministry of the Swedish Lutheran Church American Heart Association issues a report attributing higher death rates among middle-aged men to heavy smoking of cigarettes 1960

20 1961 UN General Assembly condemns apartheid Unsuccessful invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs Berlin Wall constructed Dag Hammarskjöld killed in air crash Adolf Eichmann found guilty Yuri Gagarin (U.S.S.R.) orbits the earth The Immediate Context Cuban missile crisis Uganda and Tanganyika become independent 1962

21 1963 Civil rights demonstrations in Birmingham, Ala., culminate in the arrest of Martin Luther King Jr. and the calling out of 3,000 troops by President Kennedy 200,000 Freedom Marchers descend on Washington to protest discrimination Nuclear test ban treaty signed by the United States, Soviet Union and Great Britain Nov. 22: President John F. Kennedy assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in Dallas. T he Immediate Context

22 U.S. destroyer attacked off coast of North Vietnam; U.S. aircraft attack North Vietnam bases Race riots break out in cities across the United States as reaction against enforcement of civil rights laws U.N. Peace Force takes over in Cyprus Yasser Arafat takes over leadership of Al-Fatah movement 1964

23 1965 Pope Paul VI addresses U.N. assembly in New York Outbreaks of racial violence in Selma, Ala.; Martin Luther King Jr. leads march of 4,000 people from Selma to Montgomery Race riots in Watts district of Los Angeles, 35 dead, 4,000 arrests Students demonstrate in Washington against U.S. bombing of North Vietnam The Immediate Context

24 The Council 25 January 1959 Pope John XXIII announced the Council at Church Unity Octave celebration in St Paul’s Outside the Walls previous popes had considered it Pius XI in early 1920s Pius XII in early 1950s 14 July he announced that it would be called “Second Vatican Council” The Calling

25 Goals of Pope John XXIII to promote “the enlightenment, edification and joy of the entire Christian people” to extend “a renewed cordial invitation to the faithful of the separated churches to participate with us in this feast of grace and brotherhood, for which so many souls long in all parts of the world.” The Council

26 The relationship between faith and modern science …. but also historical science. Christmas Address of Pope Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia, Challenges The Council Pope Benedict XVI

27 Secondly, it was necessary to give a new definition to the relationship between the Church and the modern State that would make room impartially for citizens of various religions and ideologies. Christmas Address of Pope Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia, Challenges The Council

28 Thirdly, linked more generally to this was the problem of religious tolerance - a question that required a new definition of the relationship between the Christian faith and the world religions. Christmas Address of Pope Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia, Challenges The Council

29 In particular, before the recent crimes of the Nazi regime and, in general, with a retrospective look at a long and difficult history, it was necessary to evaluate and define in a new way the relationship between the Church and the faith of Israel. Christmas Address of Pope Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia, Challenges The Council

30 Ante-preparatory phase (May June 1960) appointment of the “ante-preparatory commission to gather opinions from bishops and others about issues needing action letter (not a questionnaire) sent to 2,598 ecclesiastics 1,998 responded (77%) Preparation The Council

31 The “preparatory” phase proper responses from bishops (5000 pages) responses from institutions (2000 pages) sifting, organisation and formulation into texts The Council

32 Responses In general: the responses called for continuance of the Church as it was condemnations of modern evils in and outside the church further definitions of doctrine The Council

33 The Infrastructure Ten Preparatory Commissions 850 clergy almost two-thirds not from Roman Curia the burden of work fell to the Roman members A Central Coordinating Committee Secretariat for Christian Unity to liaise with other Christian bodies over “participation” Task: to produce in two years documents that could be submitted to the council for discussion produced six volumes of documentation (5000 pages) The Council

34 The Opening - 11 Oct 1962 the biggest meeting in the history of the world 2,856 invitations had been sent to: 85 cardinals 8 patriarchs 533 archbishops 2,131 bishops 26 abbots 68 superiors of religious orders of men Vatican 1 (750) Trent (29-200) The Council

35 The Vision We feel we must disagree with those prophets of gloom, who are always forecasting disaster, as though the end of the world were at hand. Opening Speech of Council, October 11, 1962 The Council Pope John XXIII

36 The Vision The salient point of this Council is not, therefore, a discussion of one article or another of the fundamental doctrine of the Church which has repeatedly been taught by the Fathers and by ancient and modern theologians, and which is presumed to be well known and familiar to all. For this a Council was not necessary. Opening Speech of Council, October 11, 1962 The Council Pope John XXIII

37 The Vision The substance of the ancient doctrine of the deposit of faith is one thing, and the way in which it is presented is another. And it is the latter that must be taken into great consideration with patience if necessary, everything being measured in the forms and proportions of a Magisterium which is predominantly pastoral in character. Opening Speech of Council, October 11, 1962 The Council Pope John XXIII

38 The Vision The Church has always opposed these errors. Frequently she has condemned them with the greatest severity. Nowadays however, the Spouse of Christ prefers to make use of the medicine of mercy rather than that of severity. She considers that she meets the needs of the present day by demonstrating the validity of her teaching rather than by condemnations. Opening Speech of Council, October 11, 1962 The Council Pope John XXIII

39 The Vision The Catholic Church, therefore, considers it her duty to work actively so that there may be fulfilled the great mystery of that unity, which Jesus Christ invoked with fervent prayer from His heavenly Father on the eve of His sacrifice. Opening Speech of Council, October 11, 1962 The Council Pope John XXIII

40 The Participants The Council

41 Pope John XXIII Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli ( ) 28 October Cardinal Angelo Roncalli of Venice became Pope John XXIII Called Council Jan First session of the Council (Oct. 11-Dec. 8, 1962) Died June 3, 1963

42 Pope Paul VI Giovanni Battista Montini ( ) Archbishop of Milan 1954 Elected to papacy June 21, 1963 Second to Fourth Sessions of Council

43 Archbishop Karol Wojtyla Archbishop of Krakow Cardinal 1967 ( )

44 Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani “semper idem” Named Cardinal by Pius XII in 1963 Secretary of the Holy Office ( ) Pro-Prefect of Congregation for Doctrine of the Faith ( ) President of Theological Commission of Second Vatican Council (1890–1979)

45 Archbishop Pericle Felici Canon Lawyer Secretary of the Central Preparatory Commission General Secretary of the Second Vatican Council Cardinal 1967 (1911–1982)

46 Cardinal Augustin Bea sj Rector of the Pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome ( ) Confessor to Pope Pius XII Named a Cardinal 1959 President of the Secretariate for Christian Unity ( )

47 Franz Cardinal König ( ) Archbishop of Vienna ( ) Named Cardinal by Pope John XXIII in 1958 Founder of Pro Oriente President of Secretariat for Non- Believers ( )

48 Cardinal Lèon-Joseph Suenens Archbishop of Mechelen–Brussel (1961) Named Cardinal by Pope John XXIII in 1962 Member of Central Preparatory Commission One of four Moderators of the Council (1904–1996)

49 Cardinal Giacomo Lercaro Archbishop of Bologna Member of Co-ordinating Commission One of four Moderators of the Council (1891–1976)

50 Josef Cardinal Frings (1887 – 1978) Archbishop of Cologne ( ) Named Cardinal by Pope Pius XII in 1946 Member of Central Preparatory Commission A Council President Fr Joseph Ratzinger was his theological advisor

51 Cardinal Bernardus Johannes Alfrink ( ) Archbishop of Utrecht ( ) Named Cardinal by Pope John XXIII in 1960 Member of Central Preparatory Commission A Council President

52 Julius Cardinal Döpfner ( ) Archbishop of Mechelen–Brussel ( ) Named Cardinal by Pope John XXIII in 1958 Member of Central Preparatory Commission One of four Moderators of the Council

53 Ernesto Cardinal Ruffini ( ) Archbishop of Palermo ( ) Named Cardinal by Pope Pius XII in 1946 A Council President Member of Coetus Internationalis Patrum

54 Cardinal Giuseppe Siri ( ) Archbishop of Genoa ( ) Named Cardinal by Pope Pius XII in 1953 A Council President Member of Coetus Internationalis Patrum

55 Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre Priest of Diocese of Lille Member of Holy Ghost Fathers,1931 Vicar Apostolic of Dakar, Senegal,1947 Archbishop of Dakar, 1955 Apostolic Delegate to French Africa, 1948 Superior General of Holy Ghost Fathers, 1962 Member of Central Preparatory Commission of Council Member of Coetus Internationalis Patrum (1905–1991)

56 Norman Thomas Cardinal Gilroy ( ) Archbishop of Sydney Cardinal 1946 One of ten Presidents of Council

57 Bishop Rush & Archbishop Young

58 Australian & New Zealand Bishops

59 Bishop Hugh Ryan, Townsville

60 Periti / Experts and Theologians Sebastien Tromp sj Marie-Dominique Chenu op Yves Congar op Gerard Phillips Joseph Ratzinger Karl Rahner sj Edward Schillibeeckx op John Courtney Murray sj Henri de Lubac sj Otto Semmelroth sj Hans Küng etc. etc. The Council

61 Yves Congar op and Marie-Dominique Chenu op

62 Henri De Lubac sj

63 Karl Rahner sj and Joseph Ratzinger

64 John Courtney Murray sj

65 The Four Sessions First Session 11 October - 8 December 1962 Second Session 29 September - 4 December 1963 Third Session 14 September - 21 November 1964 Fourth Session 14 September - 8 December 1965 The Council

66 Intervention of Pope John XXIII Pope John XXIII accepted vote despite insufficient numbers (1368 to 822) to discontinue discussion on document on Revelation – “yielding to the wishes of many” and set up a “mixed commission” from the Doctrinal Commission (Cardinal Ottaviani) and Sec. for Christian Unity (Cardinal Bea) to draw up a new schema. The Role of the Pope First Session (1962)

67

68 Intervention of Pope Paul VI October 16 – cancellation of vote on some key questions concerning document on the Church (Dei Ecclesia) October 28 – approved a revised ballot Second Session (1963) The Role of the Pope Third Session (1964) May 19 – Forwarded 3 suggestions concerning collegiality

69 November 16 - Postponed vote on schema on Religious Liberty -Sent changes to document on Ecumenism of which chapters had been already voted on - Preliminary Explanatory Note on Collegiality Third Session (1964) The Role of the Pope Intervention of Pope Paul VI

70 October 11 – Celibacy was withheld from agenda – greeted with applause October 18 – Requested changes to Dei Verbum November 24 – Requested changes to Gaudium et spes, including rejection of artificial contraception (Papal Commission established June 23, 1964) Fourth Session (1965) The Role of the Pope

71 The Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy (Sacrosanctum concilium) Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World (Gaudium et spes) Dogmatic Constitution on the Church (Lumen Gentium) Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation (Dei verbum) Constitutions The Teaching

72 Decree on the Means of Social Communication (Inter mirifica) Decree on the Pastoral Office of Bishops in the Church (Christus Dominus) Decree on the Catholic Eastern Churches (Orientalium Ecclesiarum) Decree on Ecumenism (Unitatis redintegratio) Decrees Decree on the Up-to-Date Renewal of Religious Life (Perfectae caritatis) The Teaching

73 Decree on the Training of Priests (Optatam totius) Decree on the Ministry and Life of Priests (Presbyterorum ordinis) Decree on the Apostolate of Lay People (Apostolicam actuositatem) Decree on the Church’s Missionary Activity (Ad gentes divinitus) Decrees The Teaching

74 Declaration on Christian Education (Gravissimum educationis) Declaration on Religious Liberty (Dignitatis humanae) Declarations Declaration on the Relation of the Church to Non-Christian Religions (Nostra aetate) The Teaching

75 This sacred Council has several aims in view: - it desires to impart an ever increasing vigor to the Christian life of the faithful; - to adapt more suitably to the needs of our own times those institutions which are subject to change; - to foster whatever can promote union among all who believe in Christ; - to strengthen whatever can help to call the whole of mankind into the household of the Church. Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy The First Sentence

76 The greatest concern of the Ecumenical Council is this: that the sacred deposit of Christian doctrine should be guarded and taught more efficaciously… The Lord has said: ‘Seek first the kingdom of God and his justice” (Mt. 6:33). The word “first” expresses the direction in which our thoughts and energies must move. Closing Address of Pope Paul VI

77 - a time which everyone admits is orientated towards the conquest of the kingdom of earth rather than of that of heaven; - a time in which forgetfulness of God has become habitual, and seems, quite wrongly, to be prompted by the progress of science; - a time in which the fundamental act of the human person, more conscious now of himself and of his liberty, tends to pronounce in favor of his own absolute autonomy, in emancipation from every transcendent law; Closing Address of Pope Paul VI

78 - a time in which secularism seems the legitimate consequence of modern thought and the highest wisdom in the temporal ordering of society; - a time, moreover, in which the soul of man has plumbed the depths of irrationality and desolation, a time, finally, which is characterized by upheavals and a hitherto unknown decline even in the great world religions. Pope Paul VI, Address during the last General Meeting of the Council. Closing Address of Pope Paul VI

79 The council devoted its attention not so much to divine truths, but rather, and principally, to the Church – her nature and composition, her ecumenical vocation, her apostolic and missionary activity. Closing Address of Pope Paul VI

80 Some have been inclined to suspect that an easy-going and excessive responsiveness to the outside world, to passing events, cultural fashions, temporary needs, an alien way of thinking… may have swayed persons and acts of the ecumenical synod, at the expense of the fidelity which is due to tradition, and this to the detriment of the religious orientation of the council itself. We do not believe that this shortcoming should be imputed to it, to its real and deep intentions, to its authentic manifestations. Closing Address of Pope Paul VI

81 Yes, the Church of the council has been concerned, not just with herself and with her relationship of union with God, but with man – man as he really is today. Closing Address of Pope Paul VI

82 Secular humanism, revealing itself in its horrible anti- clerical reality has, in a certain sense, defied the council. The religion of the God who became man has met the religion (for such it is) of man who makes himself God. And what happened? Was there a clash, a battle, a condemnation? There could have been, but there was none. Closing Address of Pope Paul VI

83 Its attitude was very much and deliberately optimistic. A wave of affection and admiration flowed from the council over the modern world of humanity. Errors were condemned, indeed, because charity demanded this no less than did truth, but for the persons themselves there was only warning, respect and love. Closing Address of Pope Paul VI

84 Instead of depressing diagnoses, encouraging remedies; instead of direful prognostics, messages of trust issued from the council to the present-day world. The modern world’s values were not only respected but honored, its efforts approved, its aspirations purified and blessed. Closing Address of Pope Paul VI

85 But one thing must be noted here, namely, that the teaching authority of the Church, even though not wishing to issue extraordinary dogmatic pronouncements, has made thoroughly known its authoritative teaching on a number of questions which today weigh upon man’s conscience and activity, descending, so to speak, into a dialogue with him, but ever preserving its own authority and force. Closing Address of Pope Paul VI

86 - it has spoken with the accommodating friendly voice of pastoral charity; its desire has been to be heard and understood by everyone; -it has not merely concentrated on intellectual understanding but has also sought to express itself in simple up-to-date, conversational style, derived from actual experience and a cordial approachwhich make it more vital, attractive and persuasive; it has spoken to modern man as he is. Closing Address of Pope Paul VI

87 Another point we must stress is this: all this rich teaching is channeled in one direction, the service of mankind, of every condition, in every weakness and need. The Church has, so to say, declared herself the servant of humanity, at the very time when her teaching role and her pastoral government have, by reason of the council’s solemnity, assumed greater splendor and vigor: the idea of service has been central. Closing Address of Pope Paul VI

88 It might be said that all this and everything else we might say about the human values of the council have diverted the attention of the Church in council to the trend of modern culture, centered on humanity. We would say not diverted but rather directed. Closing Address of Pope Paul VI

89 And so this council can be summed up in its ultimate religious meaning, which is none other than a pressing and friendly invitation to mankind of today to rediscover in fraternal love the God “to turn away from whom is to fall, to turn to whom is to rise again, to remain in whom is to be secure … to return to whom is to be born again, in whom to dwell is to live”. (St Augustine, Solil I, 1, 3; PL 32, 870) Closing Address of Pope Paul VI

90 The Interpretation In CONTINUITY with, not a departure from, the “living tradition” of the church, from apostolic times to the present

91 But also a recovery to some extent of the wholeness of “the living tradition”. Vatican II appropriated the scholarship of the “ressourcement” theologians e.g. The biblical renewal The liturgical renewal The patristic revival The ecumenical movement The renewal of “scholastic” theology The Interpretation

92 Rediscovering a “Catholicism” before and beyond the “style” of the immediate pre- conciliar times Developing an “historical consciousness” The Interpretation

93 Explicit intention to be “pastoral”, non- condemnatory and open to learning from the world This pastoral tone is found in the style of speaking as well as in the content of the documents The Interpretation

94 Archbishop Lefebvre, Society of St Pius X Differing schools of interpretation e.g. Bologna School: Giuseppe Alberigo, Joseph Komonchak John O’Malley sj, Ormond Rush, Archbishop Agostino Marchetto Those seeing Council as already passé The Interpretation

95 What has been the result of the Council? Was it well received? What, in the acceptance of the Council, was good and what was inadequate or mistaken? What still remains to be done? Why has the implementation of the Council, in large parts of the Church, thus far been so difficult? No one can deny …… Christmas Address of Pope Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia, 2005 The Interpretation

96 Well, it all depends on the correct interpretation of the Council or - as we would say today - on its proper hermeneutics, the correct key to its interpretation and application. Problem: contrary hermeneutics. One caused confusion. One silently and now visibly bears fruit. Christmas Address of Pope Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia, The Interpretation

97 On the one hand, there is an interpretation that I would call "a hermeneutic of discontinuity and rupture"; it has frequently availed itself of the sympathies of the mass media, and also one trend of modern theology. Christmas Address of Pope Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia, 2005 The Interpretation

98 On the other, there is the "hermeneutic of reform", of renewal in the continuity of the one subject- Church which the Lord has given to us. She is a subject which increases in time and develops, yet always remaining the same, the one subject of the journeying People of God. Christmas Address of Pope Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia, 2005 The Interpretation

99 The hermeneutic of discontinuity: risks split between pre-conciliar and post-conciliar Church claims texts do not express the true spirit of the Council texts are result of compromises true spirit is in the impulses toward the new Christmas Address of Pope Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia, 2005 The Interpretation

100 In a word: it would be necessary not to follow the texts of the Council but its spirit. In this way, obviously, a vast margin was left open for the question on how this spirit should subsequently be defined and room was consequently made for every whim. Christmas Address of Pope Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia, 2005 The Interpretation

101 The hermeneutic of reform: Pope John XXIII Opening Address Pope Paul VI Closing Address Christmas Address of Pope Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia, 2005 The Interpretation

102 It was necessary to learn to recognize that in these decisions it is only the principles that express the permanent aspect,..... On the other hand, not so permanent are the practical forms that depend on the historical situation and are therefore subject to change. True reform – combination of continuity and discontinuity. Christmas Address of Pope Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia, 2005 The Interpretation

103 The Second Vatican Council, with its new definition of the relationship between the faith of the Church and certain essential elements of modern thought, has reviewed or even corrected certain historical decisions, but in this apparent discontinuity it has actually preserved and deepened her inmost nature and true identity. Christmas Address of Pope Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia, 2005 The Interpretation

104 Those who expected that with this fundamental "yes" to the modern era all tensions would be dispelled and that the "openness towards the world" accordingly achieved would transform everything into pure harmony, had underestimated the inner tensions as well as the contradictions inherent in the modern epoch. ….. They had underestimated the perilous frailty of human nature. Christmas Address of Pope Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia, 2005 The Interpretation

105 However, wherever this interpretation guided the implementation of the Council, new life developed and new fruit ripened. Forty years after the Council, we can show that the positive is far greater and livelier than it appeared to be in the turbulent years around Today, we see that although the good seed developed slowly, it is nonetheless growing; and our deep gratitude for the work done by the Council is likewise growing. Christmas Address of Pope Benedict XVI to the Roman Curia, 2005 The Interpretation

106 Vatican II: The Event and Its Message for Today


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