Projections of the global middle class by region Source: Kharas, H and Gertz G, 2010, 'The New Global Middle Class: A Cross-Over from West to East' in C Li (ed), China's Emerging Middle Class: Beyond Economic Transformation, Washington, DC, Brookings Institution Press.
Policing, prosecution and penalties Tapping into the knowledge about organised crime in other contexts and how it is dealt with in other jurisdictions Penalties Harmonization Equity fines for corporate offenders Private enforcement regimes Standing Qui tam
Mechanisms ( After Brewer 2012) Most coercive Conscription e.g. requirements that hunting safari companies ensure clients have all necessary permits Required private interface e.g. requirements that hunting trophies be treated by a taxidermist before export Required record keeping and disclosure e.g. private rhino horn stockpiles registers; records of online wildlife sales Co-optation of external interests e.g. registered conservancies Conferring entitlements e.g. empowering private parties to take enforcement actions on behalf of the state (e.g. against pollluters) Incentives e.g. rewards for providing information to authorities or protecting wildlife Education/ capacity building [facilitation] e.g. providing civil air space for private patrol drones; funding NGO campaigns; tax policies that assist community groups; creating/allowing regulated markets Least coercive