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Owen Carter Research Fellow Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer Control Curtin University of Technology Investigating Presentation Methods of the.

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Presentation on theme: "Owen Carter Research Fellow Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer Control Curtin University of Technology Investigating Presentation Methods of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Owen Carter Research Fellow Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer Control Curtin University of Technology Investigating Presentation Methods of the Ultraviolet Index

2 The Ultraviolet Index Forecast by BoM in Australia since 1996 Reported in variety of media Internationally standardised in 1995

3 Reporting of the UV Index Television

4 Reporting of the UV Index Television Radio … and today’s UV index is 12 and extreme

5 Reporting of the UV Index Television Radio Newspapers

6 Reporting of the UV Index Television Radio Newspapers Internet

7 Salience of the UV Index Blunden, Lower and Slevin (2004) WA public awareness is high (90%) Understanding is ‘good’ Recall is low (5%) Utilisation is poor (~1%)

8 Criticisms of the UV Index Gives no behavioural cues Fails to describe ‘complexity’ of UV conditions

9 WHO Recommendations Categorise by colour and label

10 WHO Recommendations Add behavioural cues

11 WHO Recommendations Add behavioural cues

12 UV Index International Examples Location maps

13 American Location Map

14 European Location Map

15 Spanish Location Map

16 British Location Map

17 UV Index International Examples Location maps Contour maps

18 American Contour Map

19

20

21 European Contour Map

22 Australian Contour Map

23 New Zealand Contour Map

24 UV Index International Examples Location maps Contour maps Altitude maps

25 Austrian Alpine Chart

26 UV Index International Examples Location maps Contour maps Altitude maps Time graphs

27 Australian Time Graph

28

29 New Zealand Time Graph

30 UV Index International Examples Pictographs Location maps Contour maps Altitude maps Time graphs

31 New Zealand pictograph

32 Study Aim To assess and compare various presentation methods of the UV index to maximise public awareness, recall, understanding, attitude and utilisation

33 Methodology Six groups stratified by age and sex AgeMaleFemaleTotal 16 to to to Total212344

34 Methodology Completed brief questionnaires to ascertain pre-existing knowledge and beliefs about the UV index

35 Methodology Groups shown thirty UV index presentation formats The relative merits of each were discussed

36 “What is mentioned in weather forecasts?” MeasureTop of MindTop ThreeAny Mention Temperature57%77%93% Humidity14%30%41% Rainfall11%18%64% Winds7%18%77% Seas4%5%43% Cloud cover2%27%41% Air pressure2%11%45% UV Index-5%56% Fire danger--18%

37 “What aspects of the weather forecast would you heed if heading to the beach?” MeasureTop of mindTop ThreeAny mention Temperature59%86%89% Wind14%50%52% Seas14%48%55% UV Index7%23%30% Rain4%23%30% Humidity-11%14% Cloud Cover-9%14%

38 “How many times have you been sunburnt this summer?” Times sunburnt this summer Percent

39 “What do you consider to be a ‘healthy’ tan?” no tan light tan medium tan dark tan very dark tan Percent

40 “Where have you noticed the UV index reported?” 0% 9% 95% 18% Internet Newspaper Radio Television

41 Percent extremely useful very useful somewhat useful not very useful not useful at all “How useful do you consider the UV Index?”

42 “Higher values mean it is easier to get burnt” Poor appreciation of UVI range Frequently associated with temperature Hourly variation in UVI vaguely understood Effects of cloud cover poorly understood More attention paid to label than number Understanding of the UV Index

43 Television “Eyes drawn strait to temperature first” “Usually only hear it, not see it” “Should be on separate screen to temperature” “Should be same size as temperature”

44 Newspaper “Never noticed it” “Barely see it” “No one uses it” “Have to actually know it’s there to look for it” “Eyes drawn away to Perth temperature”

45 WHO Format Colours liked by women but disliked by men Too many categories at lower values of UV index and not enough at higher levels “Need a colour and label for extreme extreme”

46 Perth Monthly Average UV Index UV Index JulAugSepOctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJun

47 WHO Format “People already know what to do” “Same all year round!” “Means staying in-doors half the year” “Stupid”

48 Location Map “Would confuse with temperature forecast” “Only want to know about Perth” “Not very meaningful” “Not enough detail”

49 Location Map “Would confuse with temperature forecast” “Only want to know about Perth” “Not very meaningful” “Not enough detail” “Overkill” “Too much”

50 Location Map “Would confuse with temperature forecast” “Only want to know about Perth” “Not very meaningful” “Not enough detail” “Overkill” “Too much” “Better…”

51 Contour Map “YUCK!” “No good” “Not useful” “Too hard to read”

52 Contour Map “YUCK!” “No good” “Not useful” “Too hard to read” “Too little range” “Maybe more colours”

53 Horizon Time Graph “Instantly tells you the story” “Easy to read” “Informative” “Nice colours” “Too colourful” “Colours too distracting” “White line gets lost”

54 Horizon Time Graph + Symbols “Tells you what to do and when to do it” “Good idea” “Symbols good reminders” “Good for kids” “Too busy” “Not necessary”

55 Vertical Time Graph “Eyes drawn to purple / extreme” “Time easier to read” “Drawn to time” “Pretty good” “Blue and purple clash” “Eyes drawn to blue”

56 Vertical Time Graph + Symbols “Pictures are distracting” “Takes emphasis from graph” “Too much happening” “Helpful for kids”

57 Alternative Colour Scheme Graduated spectrum with red as ‘extreme’ Red synonymous with danger Either strongly liked or disliked Overall no great advantage

58 Bar and Column Time Graphs Alternative time graphs Bars/columns easier to read for some Less “flowing” than bell graphs

59 Group Preference Rankings FemaleMaleΣ Rank V. Bell1 st 5 th 1 st 2 nd 1 st 3 rd 131 st H. Bell4 th 3 rd 1 st 2 nd 1 st 142 nd Column3 rd 2 nd 3 rd 2 nd 153 rd Bar2 nd 1 st 4 th 194 th City5 th 4 th 6 th 5 th 315 th Contour6 th 5 th 6 th 346 th

60 2nd 3rd 1st

61 W I N N E R ! 1st

62 What’s Next? Validate findings with a representative sampleValidate findings with a representative sample 600 intercept interviews assessing:600 intercept interviews assessing: –Understanding of UV index –Preference for different formats –Likely impact on sun protection behaviours Field study?Field study?

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