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2009 HP-UX LVM, OnlineJFS and Oracle ASM Basics* Dusan Baljevic Sydney, Australia.

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Presentation on theme: "2009 HP-UX LVM, OnlineJFS and Oracle ASM Basics* Dusan Baljevic Sydney, Australia."— Presentation transcript:

1 2009 HP-UX LVM, OnlineJFS and Oracle ASM Basics* Dusan Baljevic Sydney, Australia

2 Disk Partitioning Concepts – HP-UX Partitions can be configured using: The Whole Disk Approach (no volume manager). Logical Volume Manager (LVM). Veritas Volume Manager (VxVM). 2

3 Whole Disk Partitioning Concepts Swap File System Swap Space Raw Space Swap File System Boot Area The whole disk approach supports partitioning a disk in five different ways: 3

4 Whole Disk Partitioning - Pros Simple to use, almost no Unix knowledge required. No licensing. Supports any type of physical volume. 4

5 Whole Disk Partitioning - Cons Partitions cannot span multiple disks. Each disk can contain at most one file system partition. Partitions cannot be easily extended. 5

6 Logical Volume Manager Concepts HP-UX LVM is much more flexible than the whole disk approach. Introduced in HP-UX 9.0: –Partitions/volumes can span multiple disks –Multiple partitions/volumes may be configured on a single disk –Partitions/volumes can be easily extended and reduced as needs change LVM is included in all current versions of HP-UX –BaseLVM is included with the operating system –LVM MirrorDisk/UX is available for an extra charge or in higher OE releases Physical Volume Volume Group Logical Volumes 6

7 7 HP-UX File Systems and Volume Managers Logical Volume Manager (LVM) MirrorDiskUX (MDUX) Veritas Volume Manager (VxVM) Cluster Volume Manager (CVM) Volume Management Solutions Base File System (VxFS-lite) MirrorDiskUX (MDUX) Cluster File System (CFS) File System Solutions Included in VSE, HA, and DCOE Include d in Base OE

8 8 HP-UX with Symantec Releases HP-UX OS VersionHP-UX 11.23HP-UX Symantec Release Version Sep 2009 Base Products Base-VxFSIn BaseOSBase-VxFS Base-VxFS- 50 Base-VxFS Base-VxFS- 5.0 Base-VxVM Base-VxVM- 50 Base-VxVM Base-VxVM- 5.0 Standalone Products Online-JFSB3929DAB3929EAB3929FAB3929EAB3929FB VxVM-FULLB9116AAB9116BAB9116CAB9116BAB9116CB

9 Scalability: LVM LVM Current L1 Limits On Disk L2 LimitsCode L2 Limits ArchImplArchImplTested Max LV size (64TB) 16TB EB TB Max PV size2 41 (2TB) TB Max Volume Groups (VG) 256 N/A * Max Logical Volumes (LV) Max Physical Volumes (PV) Max number of mirrors Max Nodes for mirroring 2N/A 16 Max number of Extents/VG 2 16 (64K) Max extent size (range) 1MB – 256MB1MB – 4TB 1MB– 4GB 1MB – 256MB Max stripe width 2 8 way (255) way Supported maximums HP-UX 11i v1/v2HP-UX 11i v3 (L2 Layout Limits) Update 3 enhancement

10 LVM and VxVM Features FeatureHP-UX LVM, MD/UXVxVM 4.1/5.0 1 SAN Boot SupportYY3Y3 RAID0YY RAID1MD/UXFULL license 4 Mirrored Stripes (RAID1+0)MD/UXFULL license Striped Mirrors (RAID 0+1) MD/UX FULL license Max Volume Size16EB (256TB) 2 32TB Max Vol/Volume Group2048 (511) 2 Unlimited Max Volume Groups 2304 (768) 2 Unlimited RootabilityYY Online Volume ReconfigurationSLVMFULL license 5 + CVM 5 Fast Resync MD/UXFULL license + VVR Cluster AwareY(SLVM)Y(CVM) Static Path Failover (A/P)YY Dynamic Path Load balancing (A/A)YFULL license # Mirrors632 Dynamic Root Disk (DRD)YY3Y3 HP Storage Device SupportALLLimited 6 3 rd Party Storage SupportLimited 6 1 – VxVM 4.1 available with 11.31, VxVM 5.0 on VxVM 5.0 only 6 – Validate device in question with HP or Symantec qualification list: available H2CY074 - Root Mirroring part of BASE 2 – supported limit 5 – For all features pdf

11 LVM and VxVM Features - continued FeatureHP-UX LVM, MD/UXVxVM 4.1/5.0 Instant Snapshots NFULL license Portable Data Containers NFULL license 1 Multi-volume File System support NFULL license Dynamic Storage Tiering support NFULL license Dynamic LUN expansion YY Extended Campus, Metrocluster, and Continental cluster integration YY Disk group configuration from any node YN Number Of Nodes16 4 – VxVM & CVM Base 16/8 – FULL License VxVM/CVM Storage Distance Support (standard/Metrocluster) 100 km / 300 km 100 km / 300 km Rolling UpgradeYY3Y3 RAID 5NFULL License Cluster lock supportY (disk, lun)N Hot RelocationNY Heterogeneous platformsSame commands on AIX, Linux AIX, Solaris, Linux, Windows 1 – VxVM 5.0 Only3 – As long as no functional or protocol changes (y within 3.x, n between 3.x = 4.x) 2 – AIX and Solaris have similar cluster solution4 – Not supported for all configurations

12 Scalability: Expanded file system N/A = Not architecturally limited File systems HP-UX 11i v1HP-UX 11i v2HP-UX 11i v3 VxFS Number of files N/A VxFS5.0 - File size 16TB VxFS File system size 50TB VxFS # Access Control List entries 1024 VxFS Number of files N/A VxFS File size 2TB16TB VxFS File system size 32TB VxFS number of files N/A VxFS File size 2TB VxFS File system size 2TB32TB VxVM volume 32TB VxVM volumes 2^23 VxVM mirrors 32 Supported maximums

13 Disk Space Management Tool Comparison Boot disk support? Available on other platforms? Can partitions span disks? Online resizing supported? Striping (RAID 0) supported? Mirroring (RAID 1) supported? RAID 0+1 and 1+0 supported? RAID 5 supported? GUI configuration tool available? HP-UX versions supported Online backups supported? Dynamic relayout support? * Features indicated by an asterisk may require an extra license Dynamic multi-pathing support? Whole DiskLVMVxVM 10.x,11.x,11i 11i Yes sam, smh vea Similar Yes NoYes NoYes NoYes No Yes* NoYes* No Yes* No Yes* NoYes* NoActive/PassiveActive/Active* 13

14 Benefits of HP-UX Native Multipathing Zero-Config. No initial setup or configuration needed. No license or add-on software installation needed. Free. Comes bundled with Core HP-UX. Is not an add-on product. No additional license fee for Native MP. Transport Aware Failover/Failback. −Fibre Channel RSCN based failover/failback. Detection and failover of all paths leading to affected component (hba, target port, switch, inter-switch link). Fully parallel path failover/failback and path monitoring. Built into Storage Stack. More responsive and better performing. Exploits both server platform and storage characteristics. 14

15 Benefits of HP-UX Native Multipathing - continued Tested as a core part of HP-UX. Engineered for scalability, reliability, performance, serviceability. Time to Market support for new technologies. Being a core part of HP-UX, new technologies are supported when released (ex : HPVM, VPARs, VSE, new transports like SAS, storage management products, etc). Simplifies Storage Management. Eliminates an entire layer in the IO Stack (add-on MP product) and reduces amount of management overhead for sysadmin. No more need to install, tune, update, monitor add-on MP product. Ideal for Oracle ASM. Oracle ASM provides its own volume management capability and Native MP is a good fit in that environment since the customer does not need to install VxVM solely for DMP capabilities. 15

16 HP-UX Native Multipathing vs. Classic MP Classic MP Product (DMP) Add-on product layered above IO stack. Agnostic of low level SAN and SCSI events. Unaware of transport specific failures (HBA, switch, switch port offline). Discovers failures on IO errors. Needs to issue test IO on IO error. Path Failover initiated following IO error and Test IO failure. Each such path failure detected individually on IO error on each path. Need to ping each failed path to detect recovery. HP-UX 11iv3 Native MP Not an add-on product. Built into the IO stack and HBA drivers are multi-path aware. Aware of SAN and SCSI events and takes advantage of those. Transport Aware. (Knows scope of outage such as HBA, switch, switch port, tgt port). Can failover at the scope of outage. (All paths under HBA, All paths thru the switch, all paths thru the switch port, all paths to the tgt port). SAN Fabric Events signal recovery. Pinging is avoided. Fully parallel failover/failback. 16

17 Product-use application 17 Volume Management Logical Volume Manager (LVM) If you need: VxVM If you need: Advanced Volume Management solution Instant Snapshots Cross-platform data sharing QoSS support Raid 5 Hot Relocate/Unrelocate CFS support No-cost solution Basic Volume Management-default Operating Environment install Simple operation SAN boot Disk-mirroring capability with MirrorDisk/UX

18 18 Product-use application Basic file system functionality A no cost solution Simple operation Fast file system recovery Direct I/O performance* Online defragmentation Online log and file system resizing Oracle Database Management Concurrent I/O performance* File change log Storage Checkpoints Functionality for a clustered environment Cluster Volume Manager Dynamic Storage Tiers Flashsnap technology File Systems VxFS Lite If you need: VxFS Full (OnlineJFS) If you need: Cluster File System (CFS) If you need:

19 Oracle ASM vs. Classical Storage Layers 19

20 Oracle Traditional Options - Raw versus Cooked and With or Without an LVM August 25, 2014

21 Disk Groups in the ASM Architecture 21

22 Oracle ASM Basics An ASM file system layer is implicitly created within a disk group. ASM provides a vertical integration of the file system and volume manager for Oracle database files. This file system is transparent to users and only accessible through ASM instance, interfacing databases, and ASM’s utilities. For example, database backups of ASM files can be performed only with RMAN. Does not completely bypass the O/S I/O stack. It uses the asyncdsk driver in order to perform asynchronous I/O. Without it, the logwriter and dbwriters would be doing direct, synchronous I/O and would not be able to perform acceptably in high IO workloads. The I/O requests also have to pass though the SCSI and FC layers. 22

23 Oracle ASM Basics - continued The functionality of an ASM instance can be summarized as follows: Manages groups of disks, called disk groups. Protects the data within a disk group. * Provides near-optimal I/O balancing without any manual tuning. Enables the user to manage database objects such as tablespaces without needing to specify and track filenames. Supports large files. 23

24 Oracle ASM Basics - continued One can use Oracle Enterprise Manager (EM) or the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) for a GUI interface to Automatic Storage Management that replaces the use of SQL or SQL*Plus for configuring and altering disk groups and their metadata. DBCA eases the configuring and creation of the database. EM provides an integrated approach for managing both the ASM instance and database instance. 24

25 Oracle ASM Limits 63 disk groups in a storage system. 10,000 ASM disks in a storage system. 4 Petabyte maximum storage for each ASM disk. 40 Exabyte maximum storage for each storage system. 140 Petabyte in external redundancy (no ASM mirroring). 42 Petabyte in normal redundancy (2-way ASM mirroring). 15 Petabyte in high-redundancy (3-way ASM mirroring). 25

26 Oracle ASM Limits ASM disk group that is implemented with External Redundancy has a maximum file size of 35 TB. ASM Disk Group that is implemented with Normal Redundancy has a maximum file size of 5.8 TB. ASM Disk Group that is implemented with High Redundancy has a maximum file size of 3.9 TB. 1 million files for each disk group. 2.4 Terabyte maximum storage for each file. 26

27 File Types Supported by Automatic Storage Management File Supported Default Templates Control files yes CONTROLFILE Datafiles yes DATAFILE Redo log files yes ONLINELOG Archive log files yes ARCHIVELOG Trace files no N/A Temporary files yes TEMPFILE Datafile backup pieces yes BACKUPSET Datafile incremental backup pieces yes BACKUPSET Archive log backup piece yes BACKUPSET Datafile copy yes DATAFILE Persistent initialization parameter file (SPFILE) yes PARAMETERFILE Disaster recovery configurations yes DATAGUARDCONFIG Flashback logs yes FLASHBACK Change tracking file yes CHANGETRACKING Data Pump dumpset yes DUMPSET Automatically generated control file backup yes AUTOBACKUP Cross-platform transportable datafiles yes XTRANSPORT O/S files no N/A August 25, 2014

28 Oracle ASM - Pros ASM provides some file system and volume management capabilities for Oracle database files only. These include DB control files, redo logs, archived redo logs, data files, spfiles and Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) backup files (see previous slide). File-level striping/mirroring. Ease of manageability. Instead of running LVM software, run an ASM instance, a new type of "instance" that largely consists of processes and memory and stores its information in the ASM disks it is managing. Attempts to identify the configuration errors. * 28

29 Oracle ASM - Pros Gives Oracle Corporation control over the storage system, which makes them happy, so they promote it heavily. * No large Unix-level administration needed. Provides a single point of support (Oracle) so there is no “finger-pointing”. Provides easy management of block devices (raw partitions). Automatically moves hot blocks to the outside of the disk. Vendor and operating system neutral. 29

30 Oracle ASM - Pros Included in the Oracle license so no additional cost for the software or its support. Supports very large disk groups and datafiles. Database File System with performance of RAW I/O. Supports clustering (RAC) and single instance. Automatic data distribution. Memory requirements for an ASM instance are small. 100 MB of RAM is typically all that is required to run an ASM instance on a production server. 30

31 Oracle ASM - Pros On-line add/drop/resize disk with minimum data relocation. Automatic file management. * Flexible mirror protection. Inode locks not applicable to ASM. Ability to grow diskgroup capacity on the fly. Supports multiple database instances running on a single host, and does not have its own data dictionary. 31

32 Oracle ASM – Pros (Oracle 11gr) Fast mirror resynchronization. * Preferred mirror read in a cluster. ** Support for large ALU. *** Variable size extents. **** Rolling upgrade and patching. Table level migration wizard in EM. New ASMCMD commands. New SYSADM privilege – separate from the SYSDNA privilege. More flexible FORCE options to MOUNT or DROP disk groups. 32

33 Oracle ASM - Cons ASM cannot be used for Oracle executables and non- database files. ASM files can only be managed through an Oracle application such as RMAN. This can be a weakness if you prefer third-party backup software or simple backup scripts. Cannot store CRS files or database software. Cannot manage ASM through standard Unix tools. Potentially disrupts the balance of power between the Unix Systems Administration groups, and the Database/DBA groups. Traditionally the former group manages disks, hardware, and the operating system level, leaving the DBAs to coordinate with them for new resources. This would change that balance, which could cause some resistance. * 33

34 Oracle ASM - Cons ASM does not have multi-pathing capability. It assumes the underlying O/S will provide this functionality. In HP-UX, multi-pathing is provided by a Volume Manager feature such as PVLinks in the HP-UX Logical Volume Manager (LVM), native multipathing in HP-UX 11.31, or DMP in Veritas Volume Manager from Symantec (VxVM), or by other third-party software such as Securepath or Powerpath. ASM is still in the enterprise computing, relatively new. There are a number of vendors whose core business has been in the logical volume manager/file system space for years. Often, maturity matters a lot when it comes to software systems, reliability, and proven success rates. New technology to get familiar with. 34

35 Oracle ASM - Cons Automatic Storage Management load balances file activity by uniformly distributing file extents across all disks in a disk group. For this technique to be effective it is important that the disks used in a disk group be of similar performance characteristics. There may be situations where it is acceptable to temporarily have disks of different sizes and performance co-existing in a disk group (for example, when migrating from an old set of disks to a new set of disks). The new disks would be added and the old disks dropped. As the old disks are dropped, their storage is migrated to the new disks while the disk group in online. 35

36 Oracle ASM - Cons There is no shared awareness of LUN use between ASM and LVM or VxVM. It means that the system administrator must be careful not to accidentally allocate a LUN already allocated for LVM or VxVM use to ASM use (or vice-versa). ASM is not an enterprise-class file system. ASM is a proprietary solution. The customer is dependant on the reliability of the new ASM code stack. * Does not offer network monitoring. Be careful about ASM hidden parameters. 36

37 Oracle ASM - Cons Not for high I/O environments (that is what some tests claim). Everything is single threaded through one process at a very low level. * If one uses Oracle ASM and CRS, they will still require a 3 rd party clustering solution to support the non-Oracle data. They will then have to manage multiple clustering solutions. 37

38 Oracle ASM - Cons DBAs must still watch and then perform the task of adding and removing disks to an ASM disk group when needed. This leads back to the problem of DBAs under allocating, and worse yet, over allocating disk storage, just to be safe, which recreates the problem of wasted space and leads to higher than needed storage costs. This is where thin provisioning comes into play. Thin provisioning will automatically allocate on a just-enough and just-in-time basis which relieves the DBA from both having to watch and then add or remove disk to a disk group. Oracle's ASM and thin provisioning could be combined to offer a complete, end-to-end, storage solution. Oracle's ASM feature would create, allocate, place, and rebalance data files for performance and thin provisioning would dedicate disk space on the fly and only when needed. 38

39 Oracle ASM - Cons Configuration details and performance metrics are exposed via V$ views. Other possibilities are the command line interface, asmcmd and the graphical interface of OEM. Metadata are however partially hidden to the end user. That is the mapping between physical storage, ASM allocation units, and database files is not completely exposed via V$ views. It was found that is possible to query such information via undocumented X$ tables. For example, it is possible to determine the exact physical location on disk of each extent (or mirror copies of extents) for each file allocated on ASM (and if needed access the data directly via the O/S). This can be used by Oracle DBAs wanting to extend their knowledge of the inner workings of the ASM or wanting to diagnose hotspots and ASM rebalancing issues. 39

40 What about Non-Database Files? Since ASM supports only database data files and log files, the following storage management methods are required for non-database files if ASM is used: A) A local file system or Cluster File System for Oracle Clusterware binaries and configuration files and RAC binaries and configuration files. B) Shared storage for Oracle Clusterware data: voting disk and OCR files. This storage has to be configured either as shared raw devices, shared raw volumes, or files in the Cluster File System. Oracle Clusterware needs to be up and running before the ASM daemon can start. Therefore, ASM cannot be used for Oracle Clusterware data. 40

41 Some of the Oracle Plans and Efforts * Elimination of Symantec by destroying Veritas Cluster as a viable product (replaced with CRS), and the same for Veritas File System (replaced by ASM). Elimination of Sun by adopting Linux as a low-cost alternative to Solaris (Sun has now been acquired by Oracle who has been primarily responsible for its downfall). Attempted elimination of Red Hat by “migrating” Red Hat Linux under Oracle Enterprise Linux (limited success so far). Challenge to EMC and NetApp in the area of storage using the Oracle Exadata Storage (version 1 was with HP and just- announced version 2 on Intel X86 and Linux). Changes in licensing structure. Acquisition of Sun Microsystems. 41

42 Capability compare Business Benefit VendorProduct(s) Oracle executable and non-database files Multi-pathing capability Strong I/O fencing Single-instance Database object storage RAC Database object storage Near raw database performance HP OnlineJFS+LVM/Mir rorDisk/UX (Single Instance only)Yes noYes HP OnlineJFS+VxVM/O DM Storage Management for Oracle (Single Instance only)Yes noYes HP Cluster file system(both RAC & Single Instance)Yes y y HP No file system – raw volumes No YesNoYes YES – it is raw volume (RAC ONLY) Oracle Automatic Storage Management (RAC & SI)No No* NoYes (limited) 42

43 Capability compare - continued Business Benefit VendorProduct(s) Ability to use standard UNIX commands to move or copy data Proven, time- tested quality and reliability All disaster- recovery needs can be met Ease of management (e.g., backup and database maintenance) HP OnlineJFS+LVM/Mirr orDisk/UX (Single Instance only)Yes y HP OnlineJFS+VxVM/OD M (Storage Management for Oracle)(Single Instance only)Yes y HP Cluster file system(both RAC & Single Instance)y y HP No file system – raw volumes nyyn (RAC ONLY) Oracle Automatic Storage Management (RAC & SI)No y 43

44 Oracle ASM versus HP-UX SLVM ** ASM lacks Multipathing: The ASM-over-SLVM configuration provides multipathing for ASM disk groups (using LVM PV Links or storage based multipathing). This is not an issue on HP-UX 11i v3 (native multipathing). ASM-over-SLVM enables the HP-UX devices used for disk group members to have the same names on all nodes, easing ASM configuration. Generally, when using raw disk devices with ASM, the device files are created under /dev/oracle, so they can be the same on all nodes. ASM-over-SLVM protects ASM data against inadvertent overwrites from nodes inside/outside the cluster. If the ASM disk group members are raw disks, there is no protection currently against these disks being setup in LVM or VxVM volume/disk groups. * There are some disadvantages too. ** 44

45 Oracle Discontinues Raw/Block Device Support In release 11.2, the Oracle Installer and DBCA (Database Configuration Assistant) will no longer support raw/block devices for database files. In addition, there will no longer be raw/block device support for storing the OCR and Voting Disks for new installs. Customers who create a new 11.2 database will need to store their database files in either ASM, a file system, or on an NFS filer. RAC database files must be stored on ASM, a certified clustered file system, or a certifed NFS filer. 45

46 Oracle ASM on HP-UX – Some Experiences It was found Oracle ASM was a good choice to simplify Oracle related storage and volume management −However do not use ASM redundancy features The HP-UX 11v3 MSS (Mass Storage Stack) and Oracle ASM were a “killer combo”. ASM works very well for Oracle data management, but a severe performance penalty gets incurred if the ASM redundancy features are used on top of the storage array redundancy features. 46

47 One of HP-UX Solutions * Currently this is offered through the purchase of a Storage Management Suite bundle HP-UX file systems can provide read/write performance 95-98% as fast as a raw-device setup.* OJFS 5.0.1: performance impact virtually eliminated. The manageability and reduced administration from a file system, with near-raw performance. 47

48 HP-UX 11iv3 Mass Storage Stack Transparent native multipathing to LUNs is useful and necessary – decreases work and rework. Load balancing increased performance −“least command load” policy provided the best performance for this BI workload −“round robin” policy, the default, provided slightly less performance Persistent LUN bindings and LUN DSF’s reduce design and maintenance efforts significantly for mid-range and high-end BI implementations containing large storage subsystems. 48

49 Some Best Practices for Oracle ASM with HP StorageWorks As a result of testing, a set of best practices for using Oracle ASM with HP StorageWorks on HP-UX servers is presented: Configure ASM disk groups to use external redundancy. When building a disk group or adding to an existing one, use disks of similar capacity and performance characteristics in the same disk group. To leverage I/O distribution across as many resources as possible, it is best to present more than one LUN to a disk group (allowing ASM to do the striping). Use HP Secure Path with ASM on HP-UX or MSS (Mass Storage Stack) on HP-UX because it complements the high availability and performance of the entire stack. 49

50 Some Best Practices for Oracle ASM with HP StorageWorks - continued Each device (LUN) should be managed either by Oracle ASM or by HP-UX LVM, but not both. Care should be taken not to attempt inadvertently to manage an ASM disk by a traditional volume manager or vice versa. Configure async I/O (Please consult the Oracle Administration Guide documentation). Use "insf" instead of "insf -e" to create the devices associated with new hardware because "insf -e" will reset the ownership to user "bin“. 50

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