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models 1/22 Broadbent Geoffrey (1973). Design in Architecture: architecture and the human sciences, John Wiley and Sons, London E = mc 2

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what is a model ? ● a representation ● an analogy ● Spenser ● transport systems/blood 2/22

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why model ? 3/22

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4/22 model describes usefulness theory explains

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what do we model ? things processes stir add milk add chocolate 5/22

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characteristics of models ●not complete 1:1 mapping ●want to focus on certain aspects ●different views of same thing 6/22

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types of models iconic analogue symbolic

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iconic model ●‘look’s like what it represents ●specific relationship to what it represents ●e.g. scale – down or up ●can never share all properties 8/22

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9/22 iconic model

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analogue model ●iconic model not convenient ●properties of a different kind ●economy - bath 10/22

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analogue model

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12/22 symbolic model ● abstract ● uses symbols ●words, numbers, variables, graphical ● can handle large complex descriptions

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12/22 symbolic model E = mc 2 y = x 2 + 4x + 2 words, words, words $$$

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computers use symbolic models 14/22 must use a formal model

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not always clear 15/22

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variables 16/22 ●quantitative - qualitative ●temperature - comfort ●evaluation ●prediction

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model building ●what has to be modelled ●select kind of model for purpose ●decide on components ●test and validate 17/22

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model building 18/22 if model not adequate then results will not match reality

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model building 19/22 ●model must represent all variables ●if something missing - distortion ●all variables must be relevant ●not just because data available ●be aware of distortions ● use of different materials ● be careful of data entered ●G I GO

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logic models 20/22 reasoning not computation

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logic models ●deduction ●(a, a b) (b) ●induction ●(a, b) (a b) ●abduction ●(b, a b) p(a) 21/22

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logic and design deduction induction abduction 22/22 logic design analysis learning synthesis

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