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design formulation ● design disciplines ● differences ● commonalities ● formulation 1/24
nature of design ●aim of design ●to create (a description of) an entity to satisfy some need ●creative cognitive act ●modifies existing state ●problem solving?? 2/24
problem solving ●what is a problem ? ●what is a design problem ? 3/24
problems X + Y = 12 2X – Y = 3 X = ? Y = ?
nature of problems ●single correct solution ●well-defined ●analytic – deduction ●problem in same terms as solution 6/24
nature of design problems ●many solutions ●no necessarily right answer ●ill-defined - wicked ●synthesis – abduction ●problem in conceptual terms – solution in ‘concrete’ terms 8/24
needs ●design fulfils a human need ●begin with a realization of a need ●dissatisfaction with existing conditions ●needs – wants – desires ●course of action must be taken 9/24
goals ●attainment of state of satisfaction for a need ●action to achieve this goal ●image of desired or ideal state goal – directed activity 10/24
image of desired or ideal state state of dissatisfaction
without ability to conceive goal cannot prescribe course of actions to achieve it 12/24
values ●values prescribe goals ●goals reflect value system ●subjective ●value system - framework 13/24
objectives ●end goal usually too vague ●e.g. “public good” ●decompose to subgoals ●objectives – operational subgoals ●in a form where evaluation possible ●performance criteria 14/24
objective... 14/24... subgoal goal
assumption that objectives true reflection of goals 15/24
●transition to product ●achieve ends – use means ends and means the design is the means to the end goal 16/24
aim of design is to describe a product which when realised will achieve goals 17/24
means ●system & system variables ●shift from conceptual space to ‘physical’ space 18/24
aim of design is to select system variables and values such that behaviour attributes performance satisfied & objectives & goals attained means 19/24
need - problem goals – purpose / function objectives – behaviour attributes / performance criteria system variables & values – structure problem formulation synthesis ENDS MEANS
constraints ●means subject to constraints ●available resources ●social / individual ●design process itself ●hard and soft constraints 21/24
design problem formulation ●clients – users - designers ●designer introduced problems ●clarification - development ●mix of means and ends 23/24
design problem formulation ●pays to think about problem ●right goals, objectives ●preconceived solutions? ●exploration required 24/24
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