Presentation on theme: "The Odyssey By: Homer Robert Fitzgerald Translation"— Presentation transcript:
1The Odyssey By: Homer Robert Fitzgerald Translation Summary and Discussion of Books 1-8
2The Trojan War We just watched the movie clip from the movie Troy Who won the Trojan War?Who thought of the idea of the Trojan horse?How long have they been fighting?Now what? Where are the Greeks headed to? Who is their leader?
3MapCheck out the map at the beginning of your novel – where is Troy located?Where are Odysseus and his men headed?Locate Ithaka (Ithaca) on your map and circle it and draw a line to Troy.
4Terms to know…Muse - in Greco-Roman religion and mythology, any of a group of sister goddesses of obscure but ancient origin. There were nine Muses as early as Homer's Odyssey, and Homer invokes either a Muse or the Muses collectively from time to time.Nymph-any of a large class of minor female divinities; Nymphs were usually associated with features of the natural world, such as trees and water. Though not immortal, they were extremely long-lived, and they tended to be well disposed toward humans.Bard - a poet, especially one who writes impassioned, lyrical, or epic verse.Minstrel - Wandering musician of the Middle Ages, often of low status.Odyssey - a long wandering or voyage usually marked by many changes of fortune; an intellectual or spiritual wandering or questSuitor - one who courts a woman or seeks to marry herThe Greeks believed in hospitality and honoring their Gods (making sacrifices)
5Book I – A Goddess Intervenes Pages 1-15 (you read as homework) Summary – Athena (who is Athena?) convinces Zeus (who is Zeus?) to release Odysseus from Calypso (Kalypso) and Athena gives advice to Telemachus (who is he?)What is a nymph? What is a muse?Athena visits Telemachus disguised as a family friend (Mentes) and tells him to go find out about his father
6Book II Summary – A Hero’s Son Awakens Pages 19-31 Telemachus faces the suitors and then sets sail to find his father (how long has he been gone?)Foreshadowing – he prays to Zeus for vengeance against the suitorsWhat is a suitor?How do the suitors treat Telemachus?
7Book III Summary – The Lord of the Western Approaches Telemachus visits Prince Nestor from Pylos that fought with his father in Troy to inquire about his father, but does not receive much information.He then leaves (by horse) Pylos at the end of this chapter to Lakedaimon to visit with Menelaus and see if he has heard anything – he also fought in Troy with his fatherPeisistratos, Prince Nestor’s son joins him on his journey to Lakedaimon
8Book 4 Summary – The Red-Haired King and his lady Telemachus visits with Menelaus and he learns of the suitors. He then tells Telemachus where Odysseus is (Kalypso’s island) and he is alive. The suitors plan an assassination upon Telemachus’ return homeAthena appears disguised to Penelope in a dream and she learns of the plans by the suitors and Athena gives her hope for her son and OdysseusRead Page 78 only
9Book 5 – Sweet Nymph and Open Sea Pages 81-95 Book 5 – (we will read most of Book 5 together as a class) Zeus agrees to send Hermes to Calypso’s island upon Athena’s plea to demand Odysseus’ release. He is provided with provisions as he leaves, but Poseidon sets a huge storm that nearly kills Odysseus. He washes up on the shore of the Phaecians.Who is Hermes? How long has Odysseus been with Calypso (Kalypso)?? So…that means he has been away from home how long…
10Question Why would Odysseus leave immortality? The Odyssey is often viewed as a metaphor as a whole and then with each adventure along the way.What is Calypso’s island a metaphor for and what universal truth can you come up with for his visit on her island?
11Book 6 – The Princess at the River Pages Where does Odysseus end up and how did he get there? (Page 94 & 95)Why did the Phaecians (Phaiakians) migrate to Skheria (Scheria)? Page 99Nausikaa found Odysseus – daughter of Alkinoos (Read page )Does Athena reveal herself to Odysseus at the end of this chapter?
12Book 7 – Gardens and Firelight Read Book 7 and 9 on your own for homeworkBook 7 is story telling time…they are all interested in Odysseus and he is telling them of his journey…this literary element is called a ______________Focus on the culture of the PhaeciansRead closely about how Odysseus ended up on their island
13Book 8 – The Songs of the Harper A blind bard (Demodocus) sings of the battle of Troy and everyone listens except Odysseus because it is too painfulWhy is it too painful?There are games “Olympics” and Odysseus defeats themThis chapter was mainly about entertainment and to again tell of the emotional condition of OdysseusWhere is he still?
14Book 9 – New Coasts and Poseidon’s Son Who is Laertes?He finally reveals who he (Odysseus) is and we have a FLASHBACKHe describes his homeland which is….First he lands where…then where…create a timeline in your notesYou read on your own tonight! Please annotate as you read.
15Book 9 What happened at Ismaros where the Kikones live? What would be a metaphor or a universal truth for this island?Next stop was where?
16Book 9 ContinuedWhat is Odysseus’ motive for staying at the Kyklops’ island? (page 151)What was problem # 1 that they faced with the Kyklops?Does the Kyklops honor strangers and respect the gods?What is ironic at the bottom of page 158?How do Odysseus and his men escape?Does Odysseus just leave after they escape…what does he do next?What is Polyphemus’ prayer? (page 161)Did Odysseus make an offering to the gods and what was the result? (page 161)Odysseus lost some of his men to Polyphemus because of…
20FYI You can print these notes off of my website in outline form. Go to my website under The Odyssey and click on this powerpoint.Click on “outline view” and print.
21Epic Simile Simile Explicit comparison, often using “like” or “as” Reveals unexpected likeness between twoseemingly disparate thingsNot just literary embellishment, but toolof thought, way of seeingJeremy M. DownesAuburn University
22Epic Simile – also known as Homeric Simile Most prestigious kind of simileLengthy comparison between two highlycomplex objects, actions, or relationsInvention attributed to Homeric poemsCreates contrastEstablishes digressionAmplifies themesLater poets make it integral to epicstructure and tradition
23Example: Iliad 6.146-49 “As is the generation of leaves, so is that of humanity. The wind scatters the leaves onthe ground, but the live timber burgeonswith leaves again in the season of springreturning. So one generation of men willgrow while another dies.”
24Odyssey Book 12 - Skylla Just as an angler poised on a jutting rock flings his treacherous bait in the offshore swell,whips his long rod—hook sheathed in an oxhorn lure—and whisks up little fish he flips on the beach-break,writhing, gasping out their lives so now theywrithed,gasping as Scylla swung them up her cliff and thereat her cavern’s mouth she bolted them down raw—screaming out, flinging their arms down toward me,lost in that mortal struggle . . .
25Odyssey Book 12 - Kharybdis “But I held on, dead set waiting for herto vomit my mast and keel back up again—Oh how I ached for both! And back they came,late but at last, at just the hour a judge at court,who’s settled the countless suits of brash youngclaimants,rises, the day’s work done, and turns home forsupper—that’s when the timbers reared back up fromKharybdis”