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The Odyssey By: Homer Robert Fitzgerald Translation

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1 The Odyssey By: Homer Robert Fitzgerald Translation
Summary and Discussion of Books 1-8

2 The Trojan War We just watched the movie clip from the movie Troy
Who won the Trojan War? Who thought of the idea of the Trojan horse? How long have they been fighting? Now what? Where are the Greeks headed to? Who is their leader?

3 Map Check out the map at the beginning of your novel – where is Troy located? Where are Odysseus and his men headed? Locate Ithaka (Ithaca) on your map and circle it and draw a line to Troy.

4 Terms to know… Muse - in Greco-Roman religion and mythology, any of a group of sister goddesses of obscure but ancient origin. There were nine Muses as early as Homer's Odyssey, and Homer invokes either a Muse or the Muses collectively from time to time. Nymph-any of a large class of minor female divinities; Nymphs were usually associated with features of the natural world, such as trees and water. Though not immortal, they were extremely long-lived, and they tended to be well disposed toward humans. Bard - a poet, especially one who writes impassioned, lyrical, or epic verse. Minstrel - Wandering musician of the Middle Ages, often of low status. Odyssey - a long wandering or voyage usually marked by many changes of fortune; an intellectual or spiritual wandering or quest Suitor - one who courts a woman or seeks to marry her The Greeks believed in hospitality and honoring their Gods (making sacrifices)

5 Book I – A Goddess Intervenes Pages 1-15 (you read as homework)
Summary – Athena (who is Athena?) convinces Zeus (who is Zeus?) to release Odysseus from Calypso (Kalypso) and Athena gives advice to Telemachus (who is he?) What is a nymph? What is a muse? Athena visits Telemachus disguised as a family friend (Mentes) and tells him to go find out about his father

6 Book II Summary – A Hero’s Son Awakens Pages 19-31
Telemachus faces the suitors and then sets sail to find his father (how long has he been gone?) Foreshadowing – he prays to Zeus for vengeance against the suitors What is a suitor? How do the suitors treat Telemachus?

7 Book III Summary – The Lord of the Western Approaches
Telemachus visits Prince Nestor from Pylos that fought with his father in Troy to inquire about his father, but does not receive much information. He then leaves (by horse) Pylos at the end of this chapter to Lakedaimon to visit with Menelaus and see if he has heard anything – he also fought in Troy with his father Peisistratos, Prince Nestor’s son joins him on his journey to Lakedaimon

8 Book 4 Summary – The Red-Haired King and his lady
Telemachus visits with Menelaus and he learns of the suitors. He then tells Telemachus where Odysseus is (Kalypso’s island) and he is alive. The suitors plan an assassination upon Telemachus’ return home Athena appears disguised to Penelope in a dream and she learns of the plans by the suitors and Athena gives her hope for her son and Odysseus Read Page 78 only

9 Book 5 – Sweet Nymph and Open Sea Pages 81-95
Book 5 – (we will read most of Book 5 together as a class) Zeus agrees to send Hermes to Calypso’s island upon Athena’s plea to demand Odysseus’ release. He is provided with provisions as he leaves, but Poseidon sets a huge storm that nearly kills Odysseus. He washes up on the shore of the Phaecians. Who is Hermes? How long has Odysseus been with Calypso (Kalypso)?? So…that means he has been away from home how long…

10 Question Why would Odysseus leave immortality?
The Odyssey is often viewed as a metaphor as a whole and then with each adventure along the way. What is Calypso’s island a metaphor for and what universal truth can you come up with for his visit on her island?

11 Book 6 – The Princess at the River Pages
Where does Odysseus end up and how did he get there? (Page 94 & 95) Why did the Phaecians (Phaiakians) migrate to Skheria (Scheria)? Page 99 Nausikaa found Odysseus – daughter of Alkinoos (Read page ) Does Athena reveal herself to Odysseus at the end of this chapter?

12 Book 7 – Gardens and Firelight
Read Book 7 and 9 on your own for homework Book 7 is story telling time…they are all interested in Odysseus and he is telling them of his journey…this literary element is called a ______________ Focus on the culture of the Phaecians Read closely about how Odysseus ended up on their island

13 Book 8 – The Songs of the Harper
A blind bard (Demodocus) sings of the battle of Troy and everyone listens except Odysseus because it is too painful Why is it too painful? There are games “Olympics” and Odysseus defeats them This chapter was mainly about entertainment and to again tell of the emotional condition of Odysseus Where is he still?

14 Book 9 – New Coasts and Poseidon’s Son
Who is Laertes? He finally reveals who he (Odysseus) is and we have a FLASHBACK He describes his homeland which is…. First he lands where…then where…create a timeline in your notes You read on your own tonight! Please annotate as you read.

15 Book 9 What happened at Ismaros where the Kikones live?
What would be a metaphor or a universal truth for this island? Next stop was where?

16 Book 9 Continued What is Odysseus’ motive for staying at the Kyklops’ island? (page 151) What was problem # 1 that they faced with the Kyklops? Does the Kyklops honor strangers and respect the gods? What is ironic at the bottom of page 158? How do Odysseus and his men escape? Does Odysseus just leave after they escape…what does he do next? What is Polyphemus’ prayer? (page 161) Did Odysseus make an offering to the gods and what was the result? (page 161) Odysseus lost some of his men to Polyphemus because of…

17 Book 9 Continued His pride Arrogance Curiosity

18 Book 9 Continued What would the metaphor be for the Kyklops adventure or the universal truth?

19 Map of The Odyssey

20 FYI You can print these notes off of my website in outline form.
Go to my website under The Odyssey and click on this powerpoint. Click on “outline view” and print.

21 Epic Simile Simile Explicit comparison, often using “like” or “as”
Reveals unexpected likeness between two seemingly disparate things Not just literary embellishment, but tool of thought, way of seeing Jeremy M. Downes Auburn University

22 Epic Simile – also known as Homeric Simile
Most prestigious kind of simile Lengthy comparison between two highly complex objects, actions, or relations Invention attributed to Homeric poems Creates contrast Establishes digression Amplifies themes Later poets make it integral to epic structure and tradition

23 Example: Iliad 6.146-49 “As is the generation of leaves, so is that of
humanity. The wind scatters the leaves on the ground, but the live timber burgeons with leaves again in the season of spring returning. So one generation of men will grow while another dies.”

24 Odyssey Book 12 - Skylla Just as an angler poised on a jutting rock
flings his treacherous bait in the offshore swell, whips his long rod—hook sheathed in an oxhorn lure— and whisks up little fish he flips on the beach-break, writhing, gasping out their lives so now they writhed, gasping as Scylla swung them up her cliff and there at her cavern’s mouth she bolted them down raw— screaming out, flinging their arms down toward me, lost in that mortal struggle . . .

25 Odyssey Book 12 - Kharybdis
“But I held on, dead set waiting for her to vomit my mast and keel back up again— Oh how I ached for both! And back they came, late but at last, at just the hour a judge at court, who’s settled the countless suits of brash young claimants, rises, the day’s work done, and turns home for supper— that’s when the timbers reared back up from Kharybdis”

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