Presentation on theme: "MUSC1010 – WEEK 6 MIDI and Sound Synthesis. Controlling Track Levels (to prevent clipping) Sometimes you may find that certain instruments (particularly."— Presentation transcript:
Controlling Track Levels (to prevent clipping) Sometimes you may find that certain instruments (particularly those that use a sweeping filter or flanger) clip in the track volume stage, even when they are turned down considerably. In this instance you may consider adding a limiter to help control the peaks. Use the MAXIM plugin or the Digidesign Compressor/Limiter III, with the preset “Brickwall limiter”. Adjust the Threshold and Gain as necessary.
Mixing Down Select the amount of time that you want to mix down (use GRID mode, and enable minutes/seconds view) File > Bounce > to Disk Change the Format to “Stereo Interleaved” Use File Type “WAV” 16 bit, 44.1kHz Convert After or Bounce
Types of waveform This waveform contains all harmonics and produces a bright and rich sound. The Sawtooth is perhaps the most "general purpose" of all the available waveforms. A square wave only contains odd number harmonics, which produces a distinct, hollow sound. The Triangle waveform generates only a few harmonics, spaced at odd harmonic numbers. This produces a flute- like sound, with a slightly hollow character. The sine wave is the simplest possible waveform, with no harmonics (overtones). The sine wave produces a neutral, soft timbre. Noise can be white, pink or red/brown. The most common noise used in synthesizers is white. White noise is the sum of random frequencies across a specified bandwidth. Noise
Filter controls harmonic content Overtones and Harmonics are “waves within waves”. They are of greater frequency than the fundamental frequency of the wave. Different harmonic content is why a sine wave at 440Hz sounds so different to a sawtooth wave at 440Hz. Harmonics are generally the integer multiples of the fundamental frequency of the wave (2f, 3f, 4f etc.) Low Pass Filter Most common type is the Increasing the resonance setting accentuates frequencies around the filter cutoff point
Amplifier controls the dynamics of sound production via a volume envelope The variables of the envelope are (A) Attack (D) Decay (S) Sustain (R) Release By varying the Attack, Decay, Sustain and release you can imitate the sound production of various instruments; InstrumentAttackDecaySustainRelease Smooth strings10%5%90%10% Pizzicato strings2%0% 10% Piano (hold pedal)2%0% 50% Church organ2%0%100%2%
Common Abbreviations Osc - Oscillator. LPF - Low Pass Filter. HPF - High Pass Filter. Amp - Amplifier Env - Envelope. Mod - Modulation. LFO - Low Frequency Oscillator: usually used for modulation. ADSR - Attack, Decay, Sustain & Release: the typical components of an envelope It is possible to use a filter and an envelope to create percussion sounds. A snare sound can be created by using a short, sharp envelope on white noise. A kick drum sound can be created by combining a very short, low-pass- filtered white noise attack, with a low frequency sine wave.
Fairlight CMI “Digital Sampling Instrument” As used by; John Farnham – You’re The Voice Peter Gabriel – Shock the Monkey Stevie Wonder Michael Jackson Duran
Roland TR 808 Drum Machine Beastie Boys – Brass Monkey Afrika Bambaata – Planet Rock Kelis - Bossy
Clavia - Nord Lead As used by; Fatboy Slim Nine Inch Nails Depeche Mode Mouse on Mars Maroon 5 Dr. Dre
FOURIER It was the mathematician Jean Baptiste Fourier (1768-1830) that first postulated that a complex waveform could be expressed as the sum of a series of sinusoidal waves. The mathematics behind modern day digital equalizers is heavily rooted in Fourier’s theory. Two applets that demonstrate Fourier’s theory; http://www.falstad.com/fourier/ http://www.nst.ing.tu-bs.de/schaukasten/fourier/en_idx.html Polyphony is the number of simultaneous notes that can be sounded A monophonic sound (polyphony set to 1) is usually used for bass lines. If you are using a monophonic sound the Portamento setting determines the amount of “slide” or “glide” in pitch occurs between successive notes. The Amplitude Envelope What settings would you use to imitate the sound of; 1.an acoustic piano? 2.a church organ? 3.a violin? 4.A harpsichord?
ADDITIONAL SOUND SAMPLES You are invited to explore the extensive collection of free sound samples available at www.freesound.org. This is an excellent source of sound samples for non- commercial purposes. If you use one of these samples in assignment 3, please acknowledge the sample's author in the "comments" section for that track.