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U64006 INTRODUCTION TO SCREENWRITING WEEK 4 Narrative paradigms (2): Voglers 12-step heros journey Case study – Shrek 2.

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Presentation on theme: "U64006 INTRODUCTION TO SCREENWRITING WEEK 4 Narrative paradigms (2): Voglers 12-step heros journey Case study – Shrek 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 U64006 INTRODUCTION TO SCREENWRITING WEEK 4 Narrative paradigms (2): Voglers 12-step heros journey Case study – Shrek 2

2 THE FULL MONTY - THEMES Cultural stereotypes on men and women (challenged and reversed) Old role of men as breadwinners Men are repressed, inexpressive and deceptive Self-defeating, disappointing as fathers/husband Cross-section representation: labour/management, white/black, hetero/gay, lean/stout, older/younger Gaz is the protagonist, but plot(s) and shared problems make the story focus on men in general Women are pragmatic/practical Women as the new breadwinners Reversal of stereotypes (and plot) In order to succeed in their goal, men must emulate what women used to do U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

3 CHARACTERS & THEMES Theme(s): relate to main problem and its possible or actual consequences i.e. NOT just love, passion, revenge, friendship, etc. BUT context (setting) disturbance problem consequences THROUGH: characters growth (what have they learnt) + subplots (what they could lose) + plot resolution (values embraced) U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

4 STORYLINES / PLOTLINES (from wk3) Action line = series of events change on protagonist External enemy/antagonist More physical problem Relationship line = character relationships, internal changes Through external behaviour of 2 (or more) chars. Public interaction Events in the action trigger conflict/problems in the relationship line Internal conflict U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

5 TYPES OF CHARACTERS (from wk3) PRIMARY CHARACTERS Protagonist(s)/hero Antagonist(ic force)/villain SECONDARY CHARACTERS Helper(s)/sidekicks/allies Mentor Mentor antagonist Messenger/dispatcher BIT PLAYERS Minor characters U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

6 CHARACTER – SUMMARY (from wk3) Ontologic: gender, race, class, family background, name Experience: education, abilities, own family, sexuality, back-story Now: age, occupation, friends/enemies, appearance, world view, beliefs, manners, sense of humour, tension levels, language, pastimes/passions, delusions U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

7 CHARACTERIZATION (from wk3) Ontologic traits (nature) Cultural traits (nurture + experience) Present life of character = Now BUT Script Characters arc challenge/change? U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

8 CHARACTERIZATION (from wk3) CHARACTERS ARC Protagonists (and other characters) internal journey Emotional Psychological Spiritual Caused by (and in response to) events in both the AL and RL Throughout whole film Setting (furthest point from change) Climax (moment of final change) The bigger the arc, the more dramatic the film U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

9 CHARACTERIZATION CHARACTERS ARC Character transformation (problem change problem solved, or not) essential to understanding of the narrative Character want (physical journey) Vs. Character need (emotional journey) In contradiction, but also complementary Audience response to characters (structure of sympathy), 3 stages: Recognition (perception of elements identifying character) Alignment (access to characters action, feelings, etc. – knowledge) Allegiance (moral evaluation of character) U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

10 MODELS Fields 3-act paradigm (Aristotle) Voglers 12-step heros journey 7-step pattern (comedy) Krevolins 15-step pattern (crime) Short formats (TV) [check diagrams] Fields 3-act paradigm (Aristotle) Voglers 12-step heros journey 7-step pattern (comedy) Krevolins 15-step pattern (crime) Short formats (TV) [check diagrams] U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

11 THE HEROS JOURNEY U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting Based on Joseph Campbells monomyth archetypal protagonist goes through a journey (separation, initiation, return) meaning

12 THE HEROS JOURNEY U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

13 THE HEROS JOURNEY – 1. ORDINARY WORLD Serves for later comparison with Special World (only special if in contrast to mundane world of everyday affairs); familiarity Vs. unknown (but also opportunity). Sets characters and setting (when/where); world seen through his eyes Create identification via universal goals, drives, desires, needs. Establishes routines, rules, patterns of living (often with negative associations) physical want to escape stated Establishes stakes: what does the hero stands to gain/lose (consequences) U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

14 THE HEROS JOURNEY – 2. CALL TO ADVENTURE Usually in form of unexpected event/message/messenger- herald Ordinary world called into question, characters need to transform Foresees danger/reassurance, trial, passage Both positive and negative Problem, challenge, adventure to undertake can no longer remain in the comfort of the Ordinary World establishes the goal (and path of action to be taken) Action, sci-fi, epic: quest/mission to restore balance of the universe Revenge plots: offense against natural order of things, wrong to be set right Detective stories: crime to solve to right wrongs Romantic comedies: first encounter with special but (initially) annoying someone U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

15 THE HEROS JOURNEY – 3. REFUSAL OF THE CALL Immediately after the call If call is positive TP alluding to wondrous journey of possible change, then Refusal suspends it into a negative (through dialogue and action) Mull over options (torn between two worlds, reluctance, fear of the unknown): stay or go, fail or succeed, wonder or find out and how much able to invest Detective story: turn down the case Romantic comedy: pain of a previous relationship U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

16 THE HEROS JOURNEY – 4. MEETING W/MENTOR Mentor (wise old man): symbolic value, parent/child, teacher/student, doctor/patient, god/man bond Protects, teach (advice), tests, trains, equips, prepares the hero (tools, weapon, guidance, a kick in the pants) Wisdom/experience/knowledge gained in previous story (hero) Emotional relationship with hero (?) Eventually the hero will have to face the unknown alone U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

17 THE HEROS JOURNEY – 5. CROSSING THE 1 st THRESHOLD Threshold: into the Special World, unknown, or belly of the whale (e.g. Pinocchio, Finn MacCool, Red Riding Hood) Character tested physically and emotionally when approaching threshold give up ego, relinquish normal life Act of final commitment, decision to act (start of the real journey) the story takes off (the ships sails, the spaceship soars off, the romance begins, etc.) Frequent metaphoric function of physical barriers: doors, gates, arches, bridges, deserts, canyons, walls, cliffs, oceans, rivers, etc. U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

18 THE HEROS JOURNEY – 6. TESTS, ALLIES, ENEMIES Path literally laden with (progressive) obstacles and dangers (Road of trials) First encounters with enemy forces (agents) Lessons learned (rules of the Special World) Different feel/rhythm, values Importance of locations Importance secondary characters Friends can be made and help, but especially emotional relationships are developed U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

19 THE HEROS JOURNEY – 7. Approach to the inmost cave Dangerous place or situation, where the object of the quest is hidden Towards first climax and crisis (two halves of story) Usually downward spiral, pushes characters to limit mentors tools and newly acquired knowledge (from step 6) to react Face to face with deepest fears (and enemy forces), everything to lose U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

20 THE HEROS JOURNEY – 8. Ordeal Direct confrontation with fears/antagonistic force black moment hero at the bottom hold tension and suspense live or die, win or lose, succeed or give up Death of the ego (death or near-death moment) Blackest moment, but hero reborn (new life, new knowledge) physically and emotionally healed Hero understands problem, confronts own emotional turmoil experiences (or seeds) change Death of past / Birth of new future U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

21 THE HEROS JOURNEY – 9. Reward Immediately after (or ending) the Ordeal Object, love (reconciliation), greater knowledge, justice/order restored hero becomes a hero Emotional (universal value) Physical (specific to characters situation) U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

22 THE HEROS JOURNEY – 10. The Road Back OR, Refusal to return (to the Ordinary World); OR, Last threshold Pace revved up again to escape the Special World, usually with physical pursuit Deal with the consequences of confronting the vengeful forces chase scenes Propelled by emotional growth / change, from physical to emotional danger Chooses wisdom/knowledge vs. tools, clear will to overcome dangers (goal now achievable) shift from physical want to emotional need U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

23 THE HEROS JOURNEY – 11. Resurrection Often, final moment of 10 (Road back) Second life-and-death moment, final exam/test/hurdle Final purification (catharsis), hero is reborn (new with new insights/internal growth highlighted) Providing proof/outward sign of change (e.g. sacrifice, old Self is dead) Re-entering Ordinary World U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

24 THE HEROS JOURNEY – 12. Return with the elixir Elixir = treasure, love, knowledge, crime punished, etc. Sometimes a physical token represents change, knowledge gained comparison with beginning Absorbed back into society and share experience New life (forever different) commences Sense of closure U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

25 THE HEROS JOURNEY U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

26 PLOTTING / STORYLINES Prologue - Summary of Shrek 1 Antagonist AL, Plot A (main plot) action (goal/quest) Charming / Fairy Godmother Romance RL, Plot B (subplot) themes (moral, change) Fiona / Family Themes and character pattern/relations structure (parallel threads A/B) U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

27 WHY SHREK? -Shrek (2001) (Elliot, Rossio, Stillman, Schuman, Cameron, Miller, Vernon) -Budget: $60M -Gross: $455M -Won Oscar. Another 29 wins & 44 nominations -Shrek 2 (2004) (Adamson, Stillman, Weiss, Stem, Miller) -Budget: $150M -Gross: $880M -Nominated for 2 Oscars. Another 13 wins & 34 nominations -Shrek the Third (2007) (Miller, Adamson, Price, Seaman, Warner, Gohrn, Zack, Gould, Klausner, Cameron, Porter, Smith) -Budget: $160M -Gross: $790M -Nominated for 2 Oscars. Another 13 wins & 34 nominations U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

28 HOMEWORK FOR WK 5 SEMINAR -Watch/Analyse George Lucass Star Wars (IV: A New Hope) -Prepare presentations (booked students) -3-act structure (both action and relationship lines) -Characters (functions, arcs, dynamics, etc.) -Heros journey pattern LECTURE -Watch When Harry Met Sally U64006 Introduction to Screenwriting

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