Presentation on theme: "Introduction to SDD and SDD’s project methodology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to SDD and SDD’s project methodology Note: the policy examples in this document are for illustrative purposes only
2 The best policy advice is strategic Good policy is clear about the objectives and outcomes the policy is trying to achieve andthe means by which those objectives and outcomes will be achieved.Formulating the best policy advice requires the taking of a strategic approachA strategic approach has numerous characteristics, most notably:Long term thinking;Holistic analysis;Using a strong evidence base; andAnalysing underlying problemsWhat do we mean by‘Strategic approach’?To assist in taking a strategic approach, strategic policy projects may be instigatedintensive strategic focus on a particular policy problem, often with a dedicated team of policy officers from a range of multidisciplinary perspectivesStrategic policy projects
3 Strategic policy projects often address complex public policy problems Complex problems have common characteristics1Examples of complex problems:Complex problems have:No definitive formulation (defining complex problems is a complex problem)No stopping ruleSolutions that are better or worse (rather than true or false)No immediate test of a solutionNo enumerable (or an exhaustively describable) set of potential solutionsWithin them, symptoms of other problemsHigh stakes - the planner has no right to be wrong (planners are liable for the consequences of their actions)Water reformCOAG architectureSchools reformMicro-economic reformClosing the gapCongestion in citiesBehavioural change to drive energy efficiencyHealth and hospitalsFederalismJobs and the economy of the futureLocal government reformCyber-crimePolicy formulation does not start with a clean slateWe rarely get the chance to engage in policy design from scratch (e.g. design a new tax system from the ground up)More often we are asked to look at an area with a range of policies, programs, incentives and disincentives at play and ask the questions : Where Australia could go from here? How could we improve upon our current situation? What are some steps we could take to move forward?Doing this well requires people to combine both a sense of realism with innovative thinkingSource: 1) The characteristics of complex problems are not unique and there are many variants. These characteristics are drawn from the work of Rittel and Webber on ‘wicked problems’ – an early conceptualisation of this approach, see Rittel, Horst, and Melvin Webber; "Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning," pp. 155–169, Policy Sciences, Vol. 4, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Inc., Amsterdam, 1973.
4 Solving these complex public policy problems requires a strategic approach Thinking beyond the next incremental decisionConsider how government may position the nation for the future through actions todayThinking beyond any government silosConsideration of issues from whole of government/society perspectivesinvolves ‘inter-systems’ thinking – thinking beyond any particular portfolio or disciplinary perspectiveThese represent some of the key elements associated with taking a strategic approach to policyNot all elements will be relevant to any given policy issueGiven time and resourcing constraints, it is simply not possible to always consider all policy issues using an intensive strategic approachUse of the strategic approach should be based on the complexity of the problem, resource and time constraintsMost of the projects SDD undertakes are complex and require a strategic approach to be takenLonger-term horizonsHolistic perspectiveUnderlying problemsInnovative and creative solutionsStrong evidence baseShape the future debateInclusively engage stakeholdersConsideration of implementationCompellingly communicatedMulti-disciplinary perspectivePersuasiveCommunicated in a simple and logical fashion which is compelling to the readerSound rationale and use of narrative to aide communicationGoing beyond treating the symptoms to understand what is truly driving a problem and in turn how it can be addressed.Taking the time to ensure that the right question is being answeredPlan to manage and mitigate implementation risks.Consider how best to implement change through the whole delivery system, connecting front-line service delivery to cabinet room policy decision makingConsider and take on board ideas that may seem radicalTransformational change is consideredNew approaches that can be used or solutions that can be borrowed from other domainsEnsure a range of viewpoints are understood and accounted for.This should lead not only to more informed policy advice, but also more innovative and creative solutionsApplying the most robust analysis to the best available evidence, in order to develop informed answers to the questions posedCreate a space for new debates and new discussions to take place
5 STAIR is an approach to problem solving and policy development To complete strategic policy projects rigorously to tight deadlines, our approach has five broad componentsProjects are set up for success with concrete deliverablesRegular meeting rhythm and processNarrative and storytelling used to communicate efficiently and effectivelyCommunication a focus right from day one, never just at the end of a projectCompellingly communicatedDedicated project managementTo make sure our recommendations and ideas are understood and acted uponTo ensure projects with tight deadlines are delivered on timeSTAIR is an approach to problem solving and policy developmentSTAIR employs private-sector techniques adjusted for a complex policy environment to State, Test, Analyse, Iterate and ResolveEngaging stakeholdersFocus on scopingTo make sure we are asking the right question, and solving the right problemTo ensure we get input from those that matter, and get to the right answer for all concernedCritical to our approach is bringing people along the journey and getting input from the startComplex and wide-ranging policy projects require input from a broad range of people‘Nailing the question’ is a key feature of SDD’s distinctivenessComplex strategic policy projects require a significant amount of time spent just getting the question rightThe way each of these components is used varies across different projects andSDD’s approach is evolving and is not ‘set in stone’.
6 Strategic project teams need to build a culture of trust, collaboration and innovation People should feel comfortable to speak up and put their ideas on the tableThis happens when:Team members are encouraged to put their views forward and they are discussed respectfullyThe confidentiality of sensitive information and viewpoints is maintainedA sense of shared ‘team ownership’ for the project and its outcomes is cultivatedCollaborationCollaboration is vital both within the team and with external stakeholdersThis happens when:Project management harnesses team member’s different skill sets and experiences effectivelyA common sense of the policy narrative for the project is developed while capitalising on the different perspectives of team membersOngoing SDD staff are paired up effectively with secondees and internsExpectations for the project are clearly outlined to team members and external stakeholdersInnovationLeft-field or ‘out-of-the-square thinking should be encouragedThis happens when:Project teams ask the question: ‘what is the piece of really interesting work or analysis we could do here?’There is time to read widely and test whether policy solutions can be borrowed from other domainsPeople take a ‘citizen-centred’ approach and think about what the problems are for people on the ground and how any proposed solutions would impact on them
7 The best way to understand SDD’s project methodology is to apply it using a case study scenario Over the course of the day your group will complete five activities that echo the first key steps of a typical SDD project:An information gathering activity where you will identify the precise nature of the problem and its context, and familiarise yourself with current thinking;A project scoping activity where you will develop an ‘issues tree’ to systematically break the problem down into its component issues and use this analysis to generate a project plan;A statement generation activity where you will have a ‘first crack at the answer’, tease-out your core assumptions and identify the most effective analytical methods to test these assumptions;A stakeholder mapping activity where you will identify the individuals/groups most affected by your project and consider how best to identify, balance and respond to, their competing needs and interests; andA ‘ghost deck’ activity where you will use narrative techniques to ‘storyboard’ your project’s aims, assumptions and analyses and present your argument to your project sponsor.Commissioning Brief:Hypothetical example – Women’s workforce participation projectThe Prime Minister recently attended a dinner where an academic gave a speech on women’s participation in Australia, noting that Australia has slipped to number 50 on the 2009 World Economic Forum Gender Global Index of women’s labour market participation.The Secretary has asked for a strategic policy project to consider ways in which the workforce participation rate of women in Australia could be increased.The Secretary has stressed that he would like the project to consider all the issues and drivers associated with the problem, rather than focusing purely on economic issues.This will be a twelve week project for SDD involving five staff (three ongoing and two secondees).
8 Focus on scopingSTAIR approach to problem solving and policy developmentInclusively engaging stakeholdersCompellingly communicatedDedicated project management
9 Project scoping is our opportunity to really nail the question – and identify the different approaches we can bringWhat is the problem?What is in and out of scope?Can the problem be solved?What is the interesting piece of work we can do?What is the real goal or outcome that we want to achieve? And therefore, what is the real question we are being asked?What has been tried in the past? Is there a better question to be asked?What are the constraints? And which of these constraints are truly binding?Complex problems cross multiple dimensions – to make the project tractable we need to agree on what is out of scope.Some things may be out of scope for political or practical reasonsClarifying scope is important in managing stakeholder expectations.Sometimes the combination of constraints and scope mean that we cannot make a meaningful contribution – we should be honest and say thatWe can still maximise our contribution by providing clarity on the issue and identifying the barriers to solving the problemIn most projects we need to do more than review existing literature or data.What is the different approach that we can take?What is the distinctive piece of analysis or modeling that will illustrate an aspect of the problem in a different way – leading to a distinct solution?We are in the privileged position to be able to challenge the question we are being asked to solve – we should use this privilege effectively in the scoping stage. Then we can deliver a solution to the real problem
10 The first step is to get a preliminary understanding of the problem Read background informationDiscuss with colleagues & teamSearch for relevant information‘Get smart’ on the topicPM&C LibraryAsk questions!
11 Case study exercise: Information Gathering Task: Read the available background information and discuss to develop a preliminary understanding of the issue and contextTips:Read all the materials providedThink through the questions providedAlways keep in mind, ‘how big is this issue’ and ‘what am I really trying to address here?’Discuss within your team, this brings out opinions and different ways of looking at information very quicklyTime: This should take about 45 minutes, read through the material yourself and then discuss for 30 minutes
12 For illustrative purposes only Once familiar with the problem and its context, we break it down into its component parts to structure our thinkingWhat equipment/appliances are the main sources of GHGs?Travel (34%)Home appliances (59%)Other uses (7%)Which citizens are creating GHGs?(audience)Segment 1Where are the main sources of GHGs omitted (geography)?Segment 2Which behaviours are currently creating household GHGs?Segment 3How are citizen GHG emissions distributed throughout the year?Other segmentsWhy are citizens indulging in GHG behaviour when alternatives exist?Others?Can we change some citizen behaviour to stop energy use?Can citizens stop using energy?Can we eliminate an appliance?Issue trees can be used for identifying and/or clarifying the problemCan we change some citizen behaviour to use less?Can we optimise the running of the appliance/ equipment?Can citizens use energy more efficiently?How can the government use non-traditional behavioural change tools to influence citizens to reduce GHGs when using energy?Can we switch to appliances/equipment that is more efficient?What changes can citizens make to produce less GHGs?Can we move citizens to all clean energy?Can citizens move to cleaner sources of energy?Can we move some citizens in part to cleaner energy?Can they buy carbon offsets?Can they contribute to others buying carbon offsets?Can citizens remove GHGs from the atmosphere?Can they buy charcoal to remove carbon?Can they remove carbon from other ways?Who was targeted?What new proposals can we conceive (including drawn from non-energy efficiency initiatives)?What has been done (or is planned ) in Australia to reduce household GHG emissions?What has been done internationally to reduce citizen’s GHG?How was it measured?What tools was used?How effective was it?What new behavioural change levers could be used to influence citizens to reduce GHG?Who was targeted?How was it measured?For illustrative purposes onlyWhat tools was used?How effective was it?Who will be targeted?Can we use financial tools?Can we use motivational tools?Can we use norm tools?Can we use effort tools?MEL-AAA
13 Stakeholder Engagement Governance and team resources Capturing all the relevant information on a single scoping slide supports a focused discussion with the sponsor or clientOverall question/problemContextProbably the hardest part of the projectWhat precisely is the problem – which is often very different to the problem that we have been presented withWhat precisely is the question that our project will seek to answerContext is important as it illustrates that we have sufficient understanding of the issues to have a credible crack at the problemIt also allows us to check that we have correctly defined and understood the ‘universe’ in which the problem is situatedScopeStakeholder EngagementThere are three key things in defining our scope:What issues are we going to focus onWhat issues are we not going to focus on (possibly more important)What is the ‘cool’ piece of analysis we are going to do that will separate our work from other work in the areaThe focus of this section is on identifying the key stakeholders that we need to engageA more detailed stakeholder engagement plan needs to be developed once the scope has been agreedGovernance and team resourcesEnd productsThis is the “bottom line” of the scope for the sponsor and senior management. It tells them the resource cost, and the cost in their time to make the project a success. Don’t ‘cost pad’, but don’t fall into the trap of underestimating the true cost of the workA clear focus on the end products is critical in framing all the work - it needs to identify the product and the audienceCabinet Submission;Briefing for the PMHaving a clear scoping document and then getting it agreed with the project sponsor and steering group is critical in ensuring that expectations are met on all sides
14 Case study exercise: Project Scoping Task: Break the problem down into manageable components by building an issue treeTips:Use the MECE principle, trying to ensure that the branches of the tree are Mutually Exclusive and Collectively Exhaustive, so that the solution space is covered efficientlyThere’s no single correct answer, there are many ways to break up any problemCan you break it down by cohort, by barrier, by action, or some other categorisation?Time: This should take about 60 minutes, though in a normal project it might be revised many times over!
15 Focus on scopingSTAIR approach to problem solving and policy developmentInclusively engaging stakeholdersCompellingly communicatedDedicated project management
16 Our STAIR methodology employs private-sector techniques adjusted for our complex policy environment Resolve......the project by agreeing recommendations & identifying next stepsIterate......to progressively refine your statement to reflect new knowledgeYou will need to step up and down to refine your thinking.This is not a simple linear process.Analyse......the assumptions that underlie your statement by gathering evidenceTest......your statement with key stakeholdersState......what you think is the root cause of/ solution to, the problemYou may find that you revisit the statement generation step as you gather more evidence and your thinking evolves – this is not evidence that your project is failing, to the contrary, it is a fundamental quality of the STAIR model.
17 What is the STAIR approach? Strengths of the STAIR approach In the STAIR approach we quickly generate an initial answer as a way of identifying key elements and then iteratively improve on that answerWhat is the STAIR approach?Strengths of the STAIR approachThe STAIR approach involves making the best assessment of the answer very early, and then undertaking the necessary analysis to see if the answer is supportedThe initial answer statement is heavily informed by early consultation with senior stakeholders and subject matter experts. This approach brings the key elements to the surface quickly.The process is iterative – the answer statement guides the analysis, but then the analysis usually leads to an amendment of the answer statement. Supporters of this kind of approach argue that this iterative approach closes on the right answer much more rapidly than a more comprehensive approachBy focusing on the statement, analysis is prioritised, so time is not wasted researching areas well away from the actual solution, nor is time wasted on ‘interesting’ areas of analysis that are not central to the real problemAllows the team to come to a position quickly and to communicate an answer throughout the projectComing to a position early on means it is constantly tested – e.g. against beliefs, existing positions, data, stakeholders – which helps strengthen the veracity of the positionWell targeted to the problem under considerationMore flexible to changing commissioning environment (which often occurs in high stakes projects)Close and constant liaison with stakeholders means they are part of developing the solution, rather than merely being consumers of the end productClose liaison with stakeholders allows a more immediate assessment of which constraints are actually binding.The key to the STAIR approach is that it surfaces rapidly the key issues and elements of the problem, by focusing stakeholders attention on whether they agree or disagree with your answer statement
18 Risks of a STAIR approach How to manage these risks While the STAIR approach has many benefits, we must account for the pitfalls and counter them wherever possibleRisks of a STAIR approachHow to manage these risksDoes not provide a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis of all the options – which makes the approach inherently more risky.If there are multiple possible solutions we are not guaranteed of finding the best solutionChoosing the initial (and often obvious) solution may preclude us from exploring the genuinely innovative solutionsThe team may become overly attached to the initial statement, which runs the risk of not fully interrogating all possible answersSenior stakeholders may become overly attached to the initial solution – particularly if it is compellingly communicated and they announce it publiclyThe approach runs the risk of generating “policy-based evidence” to support the initial disposition of project sponsors or key clientsThe STAIR approach requires the team to take risks – to have a go at the answer with only limited knowledge. To be successful there needs to be a trusting relationship between the team, the project sponsor and the steering/reference groupDeep and broad consultations with a diverse range of stakeholders is critical in developing the issues tree and the initial answer statement. The statement needs to be tested with project sponsors and subject matter experts before detailed analysis begins.Management practices need to support ‘left field thinking’ – particularly at the scoping stage. Alternative views can also be sought through broad consultations – not just talking to the usual expertsSenior stakeholders and team members need to be familiar with the STAIR approach and the importance of iteration when they are using it – although even the strongest warnings to senior stakeholders will not fully mitigate this riskAvoiding demands for “policy-based evidence” is a challenge for all policymakers. The STAIR approach just makes this risk more explicitSponsors and steering/reference group members need to be familiarised with the strengths and weaknesses of the STAIR approach – including that the first ‘go’ at the answer is to surface the key issues as much as to get it rightThe STAIR approach is not without risks, but if these are well mitigated it provides a highly effective way to tackle complex problems against tight deadlines
19 We develop a statement tree to rapidly develop a testable answer that brings out the key elements of the problemStatement ofthe problemSatisfaction with service delivery is decliningTips for statement treeGovernment should automate service deliveryThere’s nothing wrong with being wrong! The point of the answer statement is to test it and refine it, not get it right the first goThe statement and ‘facts’ (its underlying assumptions) need to be clear and testableBe prepared to share you statement with as many people as possible, and get their input on what needs to changeHave your best go at getting it right, drawing on as much expertise as you can, but don’t anchor yourself to it; your first statement will change!Statement of the answer:Citizens prefer government services to be automatedWe can identify services that should be automatedThe benefits for government outweigh the costsThis is feasible in the current legislative framework‘Facts’ to test answer statement:Sub elements:Source: BCG experience
20 How you are going to find out? Savings From Branch Closure The STAIR approach supports good work planning and output managementWhat you need to prove?How you are going to find out?What will you produce?Who will do it by when?Answer statementSub-IssueAnalysisOutputResp/Due DateIt is feasible to reduce the number of factoriesSome factories have excess capacityDetermine capabilities on an ‘equivalent unit’ basisCapacity(Kg 13mm Equiv)Demand is not rising at a significant rate to require new factoriesDetermine demand on an ‘equivalent unit’ basisDemand(Proj)Closing a factory saves more money that the cost of shutting downFrom previous analysisDetermine which factory provides greatest savingsSavings From Branch Closure(Branch A)There are no significant risks to shutting down factoriesDetermine risk of having fewer than three locationsCapacity can be increased in remaining factoriesAbility to shift machineryUlvMMSDTotal91929394KgReduction in FCVC SavingsIn Other PlantOther Trans-portetcTotal Sav-ings
21 1 2 3 We can test our statements using three broad sources of data We can draw upon existing analysesWe can perform our own analyses using existing dataWe can generate / commission our own data123Potential sources include:DomesticDepartments and agencies (e.g. Treasury, the Productivity Commission)Research organisations (e.g. ABS, CSIRO)Longitudinal data sets (e.g. HILDA)InternationalOECDWorld BankUN OrganisationsWe can build on existing data by:Undertaking new modellingScrutinising and then amending the assumptions underpinning dataBuilding ‘driver trees’ and using the data to solve our specific questionsTesting other people’s research findings with stakeholdersPotential methods include:SurveysFocus groupsWorkshopsCase studiesInterviewsDiscourse/textual analysisWe should consider innovative ways to approach analyses and drawon both quantitative and qualitative methodologies
22 These perspectives are not mutually exclusive and overlap When testing statements it also helps to consider them from different perspectivesTop- down (e.g. institutional perspective)Bottom-up (e.g. individual citizen’s perspective)1Multi-disciplinary perspectives(e.g. economic, administrativeanthropological and legal)2Multi-cohort perspectives(e.g. majority/minority groups)3These perspectives are not mutually exclusive and overlap
23 Statements can be tested using both top-down and bottom-up perspectives 1Top down – focus on systemsBrings a system-wide perspective to policy problems and solutionsIt assess the costs and benefits of policy options in aggregateFocuses on international, national and state/territory actorsHypothetical Statement: The GST needs to be increasedFrom a top down perspective, the policy maker might consider:How might business groups (e.g. the Business Council of Australia) react?From a bottom up perspective, the policy maker might consider:What impact might an increase in the GST have on Joanne, a working mum from Wollongong?Would an increase in the GST create further administrative burden for a particular small business operating in the retail sector?How would the increase in GST be explained to this particular small business?Bottom up – focus on individualsBrings an individual’s perspective to policy problems and solutionsIt assesses the costs and benefits of policy options for particular individualsFocuses on local level circumstances and encourages thinking about what might be achieved on the ground for a particular individual or group of individuals
24 Statements can be tested using multi-disciplinary perspectives – applying different problem-solving frames to a single issue2Hypothetical Statement: There is a lack of financial services in remote Indigenous communitiesPolicyProblemInstitutionalMap institutions and their functionsExplore connections and disconnections between institutionsAdministrativeMap the processes that exist around a problemConsider issues of system capabilityLegalConsider the rules, regulations and sanctions that may apply to a problemExplore whether there are too many rules or not enoughAnthropologicalExamine the social and cultural conditions that underpin a problemSeek to understand the history of a group of peopleEconomicExplore the operation of markets and incentivesIdentify market failures and consider interventions and their consequencesInstitutionalWhich financial institutions have a presence in remote communities and what services are they providing?LegalAre there any legal obligations on financial institutions to provide services in remote locations?Are appropriate regulatory and law enforcement arrangements in place to prevent fraud associated with financial products?AnthropologicalHow do particular remote Indigenous communities currently save and trade money? How have they saved and traded resources in the past?AdministrativeWhat processes do people undertake to access, save and spend Centrelink payments?EconomicWhat is the market failure leading to a lack of financial services in communities?What incentives might lead to the provision and use of these services?Statements that are proved valid from a number of disciplinary perspectives are more likely to be correct and hold significant weight in a policy development process
25 Statements can be tested using a multi-cohort perspective, exploring the views of majority and minority groups3Majority PerspectiveA majority perspective would ask whether the proposed policy provides an overall benefit to the community.‘The greatest good for the greatest number’Minority PerspectiveA minority group perspective would ask what impact the policy has on groups in the community, and whether particular groups are advantaged or disadvantaged more than others by the policy.Hypothetical Statement: We should create more jobs in service industries to reduce unemploymentFrom a majority group perspective, the policy maker might consider:Are the majority of Australians now employed in service industries?Will inflation increase?When considering various minority groups the policy maker might consider:Will this measure assist older Australians?Are there more casual / part-time workers in service industries?Will this measure work to improve unemployment rates in the bush?MajorityGroupAge groupEthnic groupPolicyProblemIncome bracketFamily typeGeographic group
26 First answer statement First draft of your deck Iteration is an important component of our approach—we will revise our answer many times before the final versionSDD experience tells us there will be MANY iterations This is normal – if the solution to the problem was known, we wouldn’t be working in this space!AnswerCabinet In ConfidenceStrategy and Delivery First Draft of deck2 July 2010Cabinet-In-ConfidenceCabinet In ConfidenceStrategy and Delivery Final Version of Deck24 September 2010Cabinet-In-ConfidenceSituationComplicationResolutionFirst answer statementStructureFirst draft of your deckSuccessive revisionsFinal version
27 Case study exercise: Statement Generation Resolve...Task: Have a first attempt at the answer by converting the issue tree into a statement tree. Then decide what analysis might be necessary to prove each statement correct or incorrectTips:Turn your issue tree from questions into statementsUse the first three steps of the STAIR methodBe creative about the way you can prove each statement correct or incorrect—this is the time to decide what the real work you will do is, and how you will do itThere are many different ways to prove your point, think of qualitative and quantitative methodsTime: This is the most important part of problem solving, it should take about 45 minutes today, but may take a week in a normal projectIterate...Analyse...Test...State...
28 Focus on scopingSTAIR approach to problem solving and policy developmentInclusively engaging stakeholdersCompellingly communicatedDedicated project management
29 Good stakeholder management means we engage effectively with people with an interest in, or an influence on, our projectStakeholders are often thought to be the senior people in key decision-making roles, but in reality they are a subset of our stakeholdersA stakeholder is anyone who has an interest in, has influence on, or is impacted by the outcomes of a decision or actionStakeholder management can be thought of as the planning and execution of how we engage with stakeholdersStakeholder management links to and supports other parts of the SDD methodology:STAIR approach – helps form and test the answerEvidence-based approach – helps gather evidence and ensure representativenessSystems thinking – helps manage complexity
30 Good stakeholder management is important The complexity of the issues, the tight deadlines and our iterative approach put a higher premium on good stakeholder engagementOur issues are often complexGood stakeholder management is importantfor good policySo we need to engagemore deeplyWe need to place a higher premium on good stakeholder management and ensure that we do it in a systematic and effective wayWe also need to do it in the right way to ensure that we build the relationship of trust that underpins the use of a STAIR approachIdentifying and working closely with content experts delivers a higher quality productWorking with the key decision- makers to build their support is critical to getting any proposals acceptedEngaging with opponents mean that their concerns can either be addressed or rebuttedWe work to tight deadlinesBUTSOSo we need to engagemore frequentlyWe take an iterative approachSo our answers can change significantly and rapidly
31 Who are our stakeholders and why do we engage with them? The nature of the engagement will depend on how the project is set upThe purposes of engagement will varyWho stakeholders are may range from project sponsor to end usersGoalsAudienceTimeframeSubjectIncrease the quality of inputs (evidence) for our workNeed varying perspectives on complex problems to get a comprehensive understanding of issues (and solutions)Communication and selling of ideasDemonstrate breadth of input (inclusiveness)Get people onsideGet commitment of resourcesAchieve consensus where we canWhere we can’t get consensus, clearly identify the points of difference – and propose optionsProject sponsorWithin PM&CWithin the CommonwealthStates and TerritoriesImplementers, workforceInterest groups, end usersAny others affected by a decision
32 There are a range of tools that we use Stakeholder heat mapUnderstand support and challengesVenn diagramUnderstand how interests overlapNetwork mapUnderstand connections and nodes of influenceDegree of buy in-ImportanceofstakeholdersAttention needed – manage riskLimit input – filter unneeded informationChampions – actively involveSupporters – keep engagedStakeholder engagement ladderDecide on the appropriate level of engagementDecision treesUnderstand the consequences of decisionsStakeholder frameworkUnderstand where tradeoffs can be madeIt is important to note there is no set way, or mandated tools to do stakeholder management as each project will have a unique set of stakeholders
33 Case study exercise: Stakeholder Mapping (Group exercise) Task: Identify important stakeholders for the project and how you will engage them using the ladder modelTips:Think of this broadly, not just in terms of the process of doing the project, but also in terms of content—who will be impacted by your recommendations, which citizens does the project affectList both those that will be in favour as well as those you will have to work hard to convinceDiscuss how you will engage each group of stakeholdersTime: 30 minute group discussion
34 Focus on scopingSTAIR approach to problem solving and policy developmentInclusively engaging stakeholdersCompellingly communicatedDedicated project management
35 Storytelling is a critical element to SDD’s methodology Why we tell storiesIncreasingly, advice must look to persuade as well as informStories are relatable and compellingPresenting evidence in a story makes complex things easier to understand and more memorableHow we tell storiesThere is an appropriate blend of structure and flow, evidence and anecdoteInvolves arguing why the recommended approach is more compelling than alternative recommendationsEmphasises what is new, different and innovative in our recommendations – because this is ultimately more interesting than the status quo and will stay with the readerGood stories should...Situates the decision maker within the storyProvide an impetus to their actionAssist the decision maker visualise new possibilities and anticipate future reform directionsOpen up vision and imaginationHowever, evidence must always drive the storyThere is a fine balance between evidence dictating story and story dictating evidence – and it is imperative this is managed to ensure evidence always informs the story being toldAnd we don’t omit critical information to support a more compelling story
36 Good analysis is not enough – it needs to be communicated compellingly to stand up against well communicated poor analysisIn a contestable environment, policy advice has to be persuasive. Good policy advice is compelling. It is embraced by Ministers, even if not immediately, and is impervious to the assaults of other players in the game, including those motivated by vested interests.Public policy advisers who appreciate this point pay as much attention to the construction and presentation of an argument as they do the quality of the analytical content and the soundness of its strategic perspective.To deliver change, it is not enough to just be right – we need to communicate our ideas and secure buy-inKen HenrySecretary of the Treasury, 2007
37 Though we use different formats, the approach to communication must always be clear and compelling Slide decksPublic policy papersSpeechesCabinet submissionsBriefs to PMsSOME TIPSSet out your argument in one line: what is the one idea you want people to take from your work?Write for an intelligent outsider. Write as if you’re talking to someone at a dinner party.Stories stick: are there any stories that can enliven your work?
38 Good writing is good story-telling: a template for our work We are here:We want to go there:Why do we want to go there?How do we get there?What difficulties lie along the way?How will we know when we have got there?The Secretary: what will success look like?This template can be modified or embellished but it is the basic structure of many (perhaps most) stories, and of our policy work
39 Why do we want to go there? Difficulties along the way? Two stories: very different and yet the same a) Health policy b) Lord of the RingsWe are here:We want to go there:Why do we want to go there?Our health system is under pressure and faces mounting challengesSauron wants his Ring of Power but Frodo has itWe need to build a health system for the 21st centuryFrodo must throw the Ring into Mount DoomBecause a strong health system is essential to a strong, fair societyBecause it is good to save the world from evilHow do we get there?Difficulties along the way?How will we know?By an alliance with states, a stronger Commonwealth role, better hospitals, and a good mapBy an alliance with elves, dwarves and wizards, and a good mapPotential cost blowouts, arguments with the states, a shrinking budgetBlack Riders, orcs, and a giant spider – all require rigorous policy responsesPatients get excellent service at an acceptable cost; society is healthyThe Ring destroyed, Middle Earth saved
40 Storyboarding the titles and then preparing a simple ghost deck lets you check whether you have a good story
41 Case study exercise: Ghost Deck Task: Put together a ghost deck to describe your early narrative, and to give an outline of what analysis you will do throughout the projectTips:This is not a final answer, it is a first attempt at how you will describe the problem and the solutionThere are different methods to writing a story, discuss a number of them, for example ‘situation, complication, resolution’ or ‘where are we, where to we want to be, how do we get there’Time: 1 hour, but leave some time to discuss how you will present it to your project sponsor and other stakeholders to get their early input
42 Focus on scopingSTAIR approach to problem solving and policy developmentInclusively engaging stakeholdersCompellingly communicatedDedicated project management
43 Good project management is critical if we are going to find solutions to complex problems in tight timeframesThere are a number of factors that mean ourprojects require dedicated project managementOur projects are often extremely complexWe work in multi-disciplinary teams with people from diverse backgrounds including other departments, other divisions and the private sectorWe work to tight deadlines, our projects require rapid responsesWe need input from a wide range of experts to get to the right answerWe need to engage a large number of stakeholders along the way to ensure agreementEach project is unique—there is no set formula for getting to the right answerThere is always more work that could be done on a difficult problem. Good project management ensures that we consciously choose what level of resourcing to invest – and that we get the best answer we can with that investment
44 Project planning requires thinking through all the interactions and deliverables ahead of time Good project planning is more than just a Gantt chart (pictured)The chart is a tool to help sequence and arrange all of the activities and considerations for a projectGood project planning requiresConsideration of resourcingBooking meetings in calendarsConsidering of the project ‘rhythm’—can it be achieved on time, how hard will the team be workingAgreeing on interim deliverables and datesInterim products and interim deadlines play a critical role in our project approach – we use them to drive our output and drive our stakeholder engagement . We know we will have to iterate, so let’s plan for it