Frequently Asked Questions? Is it compulsory? What if I cannot afford it? Will my child be disadvantaged by not attending? Will my child be advantaged by attending? If my child does not attend will we need to pay for the fourth day? Will there be any local research done on the benefits or otherwise of the fourth day? Will children develop an aversion or resistance to going to school if they are going four days? What will the children do on the 4 th day. The future?
Research links YouTube Full Day Kindergarten Charles Pascal Jim Grieve Alana Mitchell Fraser Mustard AEDI Google Fraser Mustard – “Early Childhood Development and Experience based brain development…: Nov 2006 James Heckman Trevor Parry
03- 080 Health Learning Behaviour Experience-Based Brain development in the early years of life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:
Brain Pathways “Higher levels of brain circuits depend on precise, reliable information from lower levels in order to accomplish their function. Sensitive periods for development of lower level circuits ends early in life. High level circuits remain plastic for a longer period.” Knudsen 2004 07-123
03-012 Synaptic Density Rethinking the Brain, Families and Work Institute, Rima Shore, 1997. At Birth6 Years Old14 Years Old
0 1 481216 AGE Human Brain Development – Language and Cognition Sensing Pathways (vision, hearing) Language Higher Cognitive Function 3 6 9 -3 -6 MonthsYears C. Nelson, in From Neurons to Neighborhoods, 2000. Conception 01-003
Early Child Development and Language Starts early – first 7 months Sets capability for mastering multiple languages Sets literacy and language trajectories 04-200
02-001 0 600 1200 12162024283236 High SES Middle SES Low SES Age - Months Vocabulary Growth – First 3 Years B. Hart & T. Risley, Meaningful Differences in Everyday Experiences of Young American Children, 1995 Vocabulary
08-022 Levels of Literacy: A Reflection of ECD Level 1: Level 2: Level 3: Level 4: indicates persons with very poor skills. people can deal with material that is simple. is considered a suitable minimum for coping with the demands of everyday life. people who demonstrate command of higher-order processing skills. Level 5:competence in sophisticated reading tasks, managing information and critical thinking skills.
Socioeconomic Gradients for Adult Document Literacy Scores OECD, 2000 06-114 Mean Scores Parents’ Education (years) 39571513111917 0 270 230 190 350 310 U.S. Canada Australia Sweden Finland Intern’l Mean Chile
Stress Pathway and Sensory Stimuli Touch in the Early Period is Critical Rats – Mothers licking pups (High versus Low Grooming) Monkeys – Peer vs mother rearing Humans - Attachment 05-213
Individual differences in stress reactivity of the adult are determined by maternal behaviour during infancy HIGH Licking & Grooming LOW Licking & Grooming Development of Stress Reactivity Modest Stress Reactivity Reduced Risk for Disease Increased Stress Reactivity Increased Risk for Heart Disease, Type II Diabetes, Alcoholism, Affective Disorders, Brain Aging, etc. M. Szyf 05-056
Epigenetics The process by which normal gene expression is altered by experience. Genotype vs Phenotype 08-014
Hippocampal GR(1 7 ) Region 16 (5’ NGFI-A RE) Methylation Timeline 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 Mean C-Methylation Embryo Day 20 Birth Day 1 Pup Day 6 Adult Day 90 Weaning Day 21 Licking Low Licking High Age M. Szyf 05-059
03-089 Serotonin Transporter Gene Experience in Early Life - Depression Age 26 No AbuseModerate AbuseSevere Abuse.30.50.70 A. Caspi, Science, 18 July 2003, Vol 301. Depression Risk LL SS SL S = Short Allele L = Long Allele Early Childhood
Early Experience and Brain Architecture and Function Affects gene expression and neural pathways Shapes emotion, regulates temperament and social development Shapes perceptual and cognitive ability Shapes physical and mental health and behaviour in adult life Shapes physical activity (e.g. skiing, swimming, etc.) Shapes language and literacy capability 07-001
Romanian Adoption Project Scores at 10.5 Years CB EA RO IQ1089985 Language Score1069988 Behaviour13% 9%43% CB - Canadian Born – middle class families EA - Early Adopted – middle class families RO - Romanian Orphanage – middle class families L. Le Mare 05-115
Healthy BrainUnhealthy Brain Front Back Most ActiveLeast Active Normal ChildRomanian Orphan
Romania – BEIP Project The cognitive outcome of children who remained in the orphanages was markedly below that of non orphanage children and children taken out of the orphanage and placed in foster care. Nelson et al. 2007. Science, v. 318 08-010
1958 British Birth Cohort Age 45 Cortisol pathway response correlates with ECD. Children with poor math skills at 7-16 years have dysfunctional cortisol secretion patterns at age 45. 06-003 Power and Hertzman
High Scope – Age 40 Age 3 Early Child Development Program Program No Program % % Arrested 5+ times 36 53 Graduated High School 63 45 Earnings > $20K at age 40 60 40 Schweinhart, 2005 05-231
Success by Ten Early Child Development Intervene early Intervene often Intervene effectively 06-001 Ludwig and Sawhill, Brookings Institution
07-055 What Provides the Best Results? Centre Based Programs that: Start Early Involve Parents Home Visiting Qualified Staff in Neuroscience and Development
99-004 0123456 parent-oriented child-oriented Source of Brain Stimulation age Components of Early Childhood Development and Parenting Centres: ECD & care (parental and non-parental) arrangements Play-based learning Resources Prenatal & postnatal supports Nutrition programs
Early Child Development and Parenting Centres Offer from conception to school entry Provide support for parents Learn parenting by doing Provide non-parental care Link to and integrate with primary schools Detect development problems early 05-029
07-062 Staff Six Key Areas of Work 1.Quality of Adult Child Verbal Interaction 2.Touch & Adult Holding 3.Knowledge of Experience-Based Brain Development 4.Understanding that Appropriate Play is Problem-Based Learning 5.Helping Children’s Emotional Development 6.Helping Parents Learn Parenting in the Centre
03-085 Early Development Instrument (EDI) Physical health and well-being Communication skills and general knowledge Social knowledge and competence Emotional health/maturity Language and cognitive development
Australia – AEDI Children 5-6 yrs. 07-027 % Vulnerable SES - Income Q1 Q4 Q3 Q2 Q6 Q5 10 30 20 40
Vancouver EDI Numeracy # of % Failing % Not Passing Vulnerabilities Grade 4 Grade 4 07.5 12.3 1 11.8 22.2 2-3 18.7 33.8 4-5 27.5 55.6 Hertzman, HELP, 2006 06-148
Suburb AEDI and School Performance Suburb AEDI Tests Year 3 Students % Children Reading Writing Numeracy Vulnerable % below benchmark on One AEDI Test Port Augusta 43.1 27 43 33 * 16 32 23 ** Alberton 10.5 13.1 11.7 10 * 11.6 10.2 8 ** 07-161 * includes exempted ** excludes exempted
Decrease in the % of vulnerable children as a result of improved ECD in Western Australia Year 2003 2006 Floreat47.22%14.3% Wembley47.11% 11.8% AEDI 07-204
AEDI Regional data Percent at risk or vulnerable
Vulnerable on 1 or more domains = 20% Vulnerable on 2 or more = 7%
Heckman - Education Schools contribute little to test score gaps among children. Later schooling has little effect in reducing the gaps that appear early. Criminal rehabilitation and adult literacy programs have limited effect. 06-078
02-056 Policies to Foster Human Capital "We cannot afford to postpone investing in children until they become adults nor can we wait until they reach school - a time when it may be too late to intervene." Heckman, J., 2001 (Nobel Prize Economics, 2000)
Rates of Return to Human Development Investment Across all Ages Pre-school Programs School Job Training Return Per $ Invested R 2 4 6 8 0618 Age Pre- School Post School 03-074 Carneiro, Heckman, Human Capital Policy, 2003
Council for Early Child Development Objective: To establish ECD and Parenting Centres linked to the school system, supported by all sectors of society, including business and government, that is universally available to all families with young children. 04-046
07-098 Council for Early Child Development “From Early Child Development to Human Development: Capacity of our Future population depends on what we do now to support Early Child Development.”. 07-101
Council for Early Child Development Chair – Dr. Robin Williams Vice Chair – Dr. Frieda Granot Vice Chair – Jim Grieve President – Dr. Clyde Hertzman C.O.O. – John Doherty 401 Richmond St. W., Suite 277 Toronto, ON, M5V 3A8 email@example.com For more information: http://www.councilecd.ca 04-045
Phasing in 1 Additional Day in Kindergarten 2013 Term 4 - 1 x day voluntary, user pays. 2014 Term 3 & 4 - 1 x day voluntary, user pays. 2015 Term 3 & 4 - 1 x day voluntary, user pays.
Fees Fee in 2013 for Term 4, 1 additional day attendance = $40- $50 Payable up front in full prior to term 3 finish. Attendance voluntary. The health card discount is already passed on to qualifying families so cannot be used again. The fee for the additional day will be invoiced with two payment options: Option 1 - 100% up front payment. Option 2 – two installments of 50% each. Any outstanding amount at the end of the year will be rolled over to the following year. Those who are carrying forward an outstanding balance will be required to enter the Direct Debit payment option.
Fee in 2014 - $40 -$60 depending on numbers. Expressions of Interest sought in Term 1. Commitment by end of Term 1. Fees distributed across Term 2 and 3 accounts. No refund for withdrawal. Attendance voluntary. The health card discount is already passed on to qualifying families so cannot be used again. The fee for the additional day will be invoiced with two payment options: Option 1 - 100% up front payment. Option 2 – two installments of 50% each. Outstanding amount at the end of the year rolled over to following year. Those carrying forward an outstanding balance required to enter Direct Debit payment option.
Fee in 2015 - $40 -$60 depending on numbers. Expressions of Interest sought in Term 1. Commitment by end of Term 1. Fees distributed across Term 2 and 3 accounts. No refund for withdrawal. Attendance voluntary. No Health card discount Fee for the additional day will be invoiced with 2 payment options: Option 1 - 100% up front payment. Option 2 – two installments of 50% each. Outstanding amount at end of year rolled over to following year. Those carrying forward outstanding balance required to enter the Direct Debit payment option.
Per Day Costs based on 19 students 1 x Teacher Salary 1 x Teacher Assistant Salary Oncosts Consumables & Classroom expenses TOTAL COSTS - $38,000 per year Divided by 19 Students - $2,000 pa Divided by 40 weeks - $50 per week Per Day Costs based on 20 students 1 x Teacher Salary 2 x Teacher Assistant Salaries Oncosts Consumables & Classroom expenses TOTAL COSTS - $48,000 per year Divided by 20 Students - $2,400 pa Divided by 40 weeks - $60 per week
Per Day Costs based on 25 students 1 x Teacher Salary 2 x Teacher Assistant Salaries Oncosts Consumables & Classroom expenses TOTAL COSTS - $48,000 per year Divided by 25 Students - $1,920 per year Divided by 40 weeks - $48 per week Per Day Costs based on 30 students 1 x Teacher Salary 2 x Teacher Assistant Salaries Oncosts Consumables & Classroom expenses TOTAL COSTS - $48,000 per year Divided by 30 Students - $1,600 per year Divided by 40 weeks - $40 per week