Presentation on theme: "ISSUE 4 INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL THREATS TO THE REVOLUTION AND HOW THEY WERE DEALT WITH."— Presentation transcript:
ISSUE 4 INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL THREATS TO THE REVOLUTION AND HOW THEY WERE DEALT WITH
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL THREATS FEB REVOLUTION INTERNAL General chaos Lenins Return Kornilov Conspiracy October Revolution EXTERNAL Foreign Forces
INTERNAL TO THE FEBURARY REVOLUTION
GENERAL INTERNAL CHAOS PROBLEM: ongoing peasant rebellion Continuing violence amongst soldiers Repeated calls from Soviets to End War Disagreements between SRs and the Liberals in government about street fights, and controlling mutinies in the Army RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT The liberals resigned. A socialist revolutionary, Alexander Kerensky formed a new government
LENINS RETURN PROBLEM: Lenin returned with help from the Germans, with the aim to overthrow the Feb Revolution. He issued his April Thesis, Bolsheviks took control of Soviets, slogan of LAND, PEACE, BREAD RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT The Provisional Government were unable to stop Lenin, until the July Days – only temporarily
KORNILOV CONSPIRACY PROBLEM: Kornilov was the commander of the army, he had demanded death of rioters and the freedom to choose his own officers, but he was refused by Kerensky. He ordered resignation of Kerensky (Kerensky refused) RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT When Kornilov tried to march on Petrograd, Kerensky called upon the Bolsheviks to support quashing Kornilov. They were successful
Bolshevik forces marching on Red Square
OCTOBER REVOLUTION PROBLEM: (final threat to the Provisional Gov) After overthrow of Kornilov Bolshevik membership increased. Leon Trotsky joined the Bolsheviks and took control of planning for revolution Bolsheviks over took key areas of Petrograd, stormed the winter palace and arrested members of the PG The take over was highly skilled and methodical RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT The revolution thus ended with the downfall of the Provisional Government
EXTERNAL TO THE FEBURARY REVOLUTION
FOREIGN FORCES PROBLEM: The provisional Government continued Russias involvement in with the war They tried to boost support from citizens and foreign allies. Russia as a result suffered further losses from enemies. RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT It was disastrous for Russia, PG continued but this inturn created greater support for Lenin and Bolsheviks
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL THREATS OCT REVOLUTION INTERNAL Election failure Continuation of the War Opposition from national groups Counter Revolutionary Forces Economic chaos Political Problems EXTERNAL Foreign troops
INTERNAL TO THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION
ELECTION FAILURE PROBLEM: The first threat was the loss of majority in the election after he established power RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT Lenin refused to hand over power and disbanded the Constituent Assembly and declared him and the Bolsheviks the Government. In 1918 they also forced left SRs out for opposing him.
CONTINUATION OF THE WAR PROBLEM: Next threat was the continuation of war with Germany. Lenin predicted further losses and needed to obtain the support of common people and counter revolutionaries. RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT The Bolsheviks believed if they signed a peace treaty the price would be too high, and they needed to keep fighting to establish their communist regime. but Lenin went against them and sent Trotsky to sue for peace with Germany. He enacted this to fulfil and election promise.
OPPOSITION FROM NATIONAL GROUPS PROBLEM: National groups were a threat as they opposed Lenins rule RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT Lenin issued a decree giving self determination to non Russian people. (The poles and the Baltic were under German control, Finland was given independence and other countries were allowed to have own government if friendly to Russia. Lenin incorporated Georgia and Ukraine and became the USSR
COUNTER REVOLUTIONARY FORCES PROBLEM: Soon after Revolution, counter revolutionaries were formed. Monarchists – (large landowners, leading church figures, former generals, merchants, big industrialists) Constitutional Monarchists – (middle class and middle class intellectuals) Mensheviks – (although they believed in Marxism, they believed with working with existing authorities) Socialist Revolutionaries- The Bolsheviks had regarded this group as traitors) Nationalist Groups- (opposed Soviet control)
RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT Lenin wanted to quash the counter revolutionaries so he established: Soviet Investigation Committee and Peoples revolutionary court Established the Extraordinary Commission for Struggle with Counter revolution and sabotage (CHEKA) Had Trotsky take over the Red Army, of which he became commander in chief and instituted what was known as War communism. Under War Communism the state took over the whole economic life of the country (industry, land, transport ect) private trading was abolished, they all bartered rather than using cash, food went to the army, strikes were outlawed. Trade unions were set up to spy on workers.
ECONOMIC CHAOS PROBLEM: (AFTERMATH OF CIVIL WAR) After war there was a famine, strikes in industry, inflation and shortages of raw materials. Industrial production was at a standstill- factories had been destoryed and transport was basically non exsistent Disease was rife – approx 20 million died. RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT Lenins solution was to introduce the New economic Policy (NEP)
POLITICAL PROBLEMS PROBLEM: (AFTERMATH OF CIVIL WAR) Kronstadt Revolt – sailors protested war communism, lack of freedom, called for new elections. Red Guards massacred protestors RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT Lenin was convinced that he has pursued the aims of communism too quickly. Instead he had to consolidate what had been achieved. New economic Policy (NEP)
EXTERNAL TO THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION
FOREIGN TROOPS PROBLEM: Foreign troops joined the whites in the civil war. These included Britain, Australians, French, Americans, Japanese and Czechs. The whites and foreigners controlled the USSR except the region around Moscow (Petrograd) they joined to eradicate Bolshevism, which they felt could effect their own countries. They also believed with Bolsheviks removed Russia could re enter the war RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT Soviet Investigation Committee CHEKA Red Army War Communism By 1921 the whites and foreign troops had been driven out of the USSR and the Bolsheviks won.
Activities Matching game on board Students take the role of a threat and play charades. Sale of the century