4GENERAL INTERNAL CHAOS PROBLEM:ongoing peasant rebellionContinuing violence amongst soldiersRepeated calls from Soviets to End WarDisagreements between SR’s and the Liberals in government about street fights, and controlling mutinies in the ArmyRESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALTThe liberals resigned. A socialist revolutionary, Alexander Kerensky formed a new government
5LENIN’S RETURN PROBLEM: Lenin returned with help from the Germans, with the aim to overthrow the Feb Revolution.He issued his April ‘Thesis’, Bolsheviks took control of Soviets, slogan of LAND, PEACE, BREADRESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALTThe Provisional Government were unable to stop Lenin, until the July Days – only temporarily
7KORNILOV CONSPIRACY PROBLEM: Kornilov was the commander of the army, he had demanded death of rioters and the freedom to choose his own officers, but he was refused by Kerensky. He ordered resignation of Kerensky (Kerensky refused)RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALTWhen Kornilov tried to march on Petrograd, Kerensky called upon the Bolsheviks to support quashing Kornilov. They were successful
9OCTOBER REVOLUTION PROBLEM: (final threat to the Provisional Gov) After overthrow of Kornilov Bolshevik membership increased.Leon Trotsky joined the Bolsheviks and took control of planning for revolutionBolsheviks over took key areas of Petrograd, stormed the winter palace and arrested members of the PGThe take over was highly skilled and methodicalRESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALTThe revolution thus ended with the downfall of the Provisional Government
11FOREIGN FORCES PROBLEM: The provisional Government continued Russia’s involvement in with the warThey tried to boost support from citizens and foreign allies.Russia as a result suffered further losses from enemies.RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALTIt was disastrous for Russia, PG continued but this inturn created greater support for Lenin and Bolsheviks
12INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL THREATS OCT REVOLUTION Election failureContinuation of the WarOpposition from national groupsCounter Revolutionary ForcesEconomic chaosPolitical ProblemsEXTERNALForeign troops
14ELECTION FAILURE PROBLEM: The first threat was the loss of majority in the election after he established powerRESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALTLenin refused to hand over power and disbanded the Constituent Assembly and declared him and the Bolsheviks the Government. In 1918 they also forced left SR’s out for opposing him.
15CONTINUATION OF THE WAR PROBLEM:Next threat was the continuation of war with Germany. Lenin predicted further losses and needed to obtain the support of common people and counter revolutionaries.RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALTThe Bolsheviks believed if they signed a peace treaty the price would be too high, and they needed to keep fighting to establish their communist regime. but Lenin went against them and sent Trotsky to sue for peace with Germany. He enacted this to fulfil and election promise.
16OPPOSITION FROM NATIONAL GROUPS PROBLEM:National groups were a threat as they opposed Lenin’s ruleRESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALTLenin issued a decree giving self determination to non Russian people. (The poles and the Baltic were under German control, Finland was given independence and other countries were allowed to have own government if friendly to Russia.Lenin incorporated Georgia and Ukraine and became the USSR
17COUNTER REVOLUTIONARY FORCES PROBLEM:Soon after Revolution, counter revolutionaries were formed.Monarchists – (large landowners, leading church figures, former generals, merchants, big industrialists)Constitutional Monarchists – (middle class and middle class intellectuals)Mensheviks – (although they believed in Marxism, they believed with working with existing authorities)Socialist Revolutionaries- The Bolsheviks had regarded this group as traitors)Nationalist Groups- (opposed Soviet control)
18RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT Lenin wanted to quash the counter revolutionaries so he established:Soviet Investigation Committee and People’s revolutionary courtEstablished the ‘Extraordinary Commission for Struggle with Counter revolution and sabotage (CHEKA)Had Trotsky take over the Red Army, of which he became commander in chief and instituted what was known as War communism.Under War Communism the state took over the whole economic life of the country (industry, land, transport ect) private trading was abolished, they all bartered rather than using cash, food went to the army, strikes were outlawed. Trade unions were set up to spy on workers.
19ECONOMIC CHAOS PROBLEM: (AFTERMATH OF CIVIL WAR) After war there was a famine, strikes in industry, inflation and shortages of raw materials.Industrial production was at a standstill- factories had been destoryed and transport was basically non exsistentDisease was rife – approx 20 million died.RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALTLenin’s solution was to introduce the New economic Policy (NEP)
20POLITICAL PROBLEMS PROBLEM: (AFTERMATH OF CIVIL WAR) Kronstadt Revolt – sailors protested war communism, lack of freedom, called for new elections.Red Guards massacred protestorsRESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALTLenin was convinced that he has pursued the aims of communism too quickly. Instead he had to consolidate what had been achieved.New economic Policy (NEP)
22FOREIGN TROOPS PROBLEM: RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT Foreign troops joined the ‘whites’ in the civil war. These included Britain, Australians, French, Americans, Japanese and Czechs.The whites and foreigners controlled the USSR except the region around Moscow (Petrograd) they joined to eradicate Bolshevism, which they felt could effect their own countries. They also believed with Bolsheviks removed Russia could re enter the warRESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALTSoviet Investigation CommitteeCHEKARed ArmyWar CommunismBy 1921 the whites and foreign troops had been driven out of the USSR and the Bolsheviks won.
23Activities Matching game on board Students take the role of a threat and play charades.Sale of the century