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the Adult Learning Process

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Presentation on theme: "the Adult Learning Process"— Presentation transcript:

1 the Adult Learning Process
Understanding the Adult Learning Process Understanding the adult learning process - psychological perspectives WELCOME Learning can be defined as a relatively permanent change in behaviour or knowledge. It includes observable activity and internal processes such as thinking, attitudes and emotions. To begin to plan to design and deliver the training, it is useful that the facilitator has an understanding of adult learning, and a range of teaching strategies to effectively meet each individual participant’s learning preferences Using an understanding of adult learning psychology to enhance teaching and learning 2014

2 Activity Icebreaker What are your expectations from today’s session?
Activities: Butchers Paper – Make a list of what you want to learn What are your expectations for your learning today? 1) Butchers paper on entry: 2) Participants to complete Kolb’s Learning Style/Learning Preference Questionnaire Skills: • verbal and non-verbal communication techniques • interpersonal skills • literacy skills • technology skills • observation skills • time-management • planning skills Knowledge: • learner characteristics and needs • content and requirements of the relevant learning program • sources and availability of relevant learning resources and learning materials and their content • training techniques that enhance learning and when to use them • introductory knowledge of educational psychology, learning principles and learning styles, models of delivery

3 Activity Curiosity Exercise How do you learn?
1) Participants to complete Kolb’s Learning Style/Learning Preference Questionnaire Skills: • verbal and non-verbal communication techniques • interpersonal skills • literacy skills • technology skills • observation skills • time-management • planning skills Knowledge: • learner characteristics and needs • content and requirements of the relevant learning program • sources and availability of relevant learning resources and learning materials and their content • training techniques that enhance learning and when to use them • introductory knowledge of educational psychology, learning principles and learning styles, models of delivery Activity: Complete Kolb’s Learning Style/Learning Preference Questionnaire Latter we will analyse your results!!

4 Today … Introduction GLOSS
Welcome every one … This workshop builds on your learning from the CIV TAE and aims to extend your knowledge of the application of the principles of adult learning and aspects of learning, learning retention and, the transfer of learning within the VET experience. Topics will include: Approaches in psychology: Various educational psychology theories and perspectives Teaching for Retrieval: Memory, retention, forgetting Teaching for Transfer of learning: Development of expertise and the acquisition of skills Applying adult learning principles to teaching and learning Activities will include … a Learning style questionnaire, a Memory Test, a Retention exercise, This workshop is for Sydney TAFE teachers who need to know about the principles of educational psychology in order to understand adult learning principles and their application to the learning process. Topics will include: Various educational psychology theories; Memory, retention and forgetting; Reception and Discovery Learning; and The Development of expertise and the acquisition of skills - Transfer of learning. This is an interactive workshop and participants are requested to bring or have access to a current lesson plan or series of lesson plans and the relevant associated training package Unit/s of Competence in order to undertake the various workshop activities. Gain attention - a) TAFE teachers work in a highly regulated environment. b) Smart and Skilled is being implemented by NSW State Training Services (STS). On 28 October 2013, STS announced revisions to the staged implementation of Smart and Skilled, now to commence on 1 January 2015. c) It is important to continually build up our teaching and assessment knowledge to enable us to be able to attract, retain and grow repeat business to ensure the Institute’s sustainability as an RTO Link This session follows from previous Smart Skilled and Savvy Programs and builds on what you learned through the Certificate IV TAE Program O bjectives and Aims and Outcomes of session Slide 4 S tructure of session Subjects/Topics Educational psychology theories, and perspectives Androgogy: adult learning theory and learning principles (Malcolm Knowles) Learning Perspectives: Cognitive, Behavioural, Constructivist, social Memory, retention, transfer of learning Motivation The development of expertise and the acquisition of skills (Discovery learning, experiential learning - Kolb) Applying adult learning principles to teaching and learning S timulate, motivate and arouse interest This workshop builds on your learning from the CIV TAE and will extend your knowledge of the application of the principles of adult learning and aspects of learning, learning retention and, the transfer of learning within the VET experience. The presentation includes a very brief overview of a selection of theories, models and concepts concerning adult learning. In combination these components aim to draw your attention to gaining an understanding as to how and why individual adult learners process and retain new information differently and consolidate this into knowledge and transferable skills. Resource used: “Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching, and Technology”, Michael Orey,Editor. Department of Educational Psychology and Instructional Technology, University of Georgia Webpage can be found at: Basic Training for trainers: Gary Kroehnert

5 What will you achieve today GLOSS
By the end of this session you should be able to: Gain a knowledge of educational psychology and its application to adult learning theory and adult learning principles Understanding of psychological perspectives of learning Characteristics of the adult learner The function memory plays in learning An overview of learning models Knowledge to apply educational psychology to your planning for training and assessment Aim Your aim today is to develop an awareness and understanding of educational psychology. The session will address the basic elements necessary for the effective preparation, implementation and evaluation of training and assessment Objectives By the end of this session you should be able to: Gain a knowledge of educational psychology and its application to adult learning theory and adult learning principles Understanding of psychological perspectives of learning Characteristics of the adult learner The function memory plays in learning An overview of learning models Knowledge to apply educational psychology to your planning for training and assessment

6 Meta cognition: Effective Adult Learning
The goal of the Smart, Skilled and Savvy Teacher – Preparing the learner to be a Life Long Expert Learner Motivate Retain Apply Transfer The role of a good teaching Preparing the learner to be a Life Long Expert Learner (metacognition): • knowledge, motivation to learn and will power and self-discipline. • Self-regulated and directed; • Process of activating and monitoring thoughts, behaviours and emotions in order to reach goals • Combination of learning skills and self-control that makes learning easier Metacognition awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes.

7 Educational and teaching Body
What is educational psychology? Role of educational psychology Dimensions of educational psychology Role of the highly effective Sydney TAFE Teacher Andragogy as a study of adult learning originated in Europe in 1950's and was then pioneered as a theory and model of adult learning from the 1970's by Malcolm Knowles an American practitioner and theorist of adult education, who defined andragogy as "the art and science of helping adults learn" (Zmeyov 1998; Fidishun 2000). Andragogy emphasises the value of the process of learning. It uses approaches to learning that are problem-based and collaborative rather than didactic, and also emphasises more equality between the teacher and learner. The role of a good teacher Preparing the learner to be a Life Long Expert Learner (metacognition): • knowledge, motivation to learn and will power and self-discipline. • Self-regulated and directed; • Process of activating and monitoring thoughts, behaviours and emotions in order to reach goals • Combination of learning skills and self-control that makes learning easier What is educational psychology? Educational psychology is the study of human learning. This involves studying learning and the teaching processes. There are a multitude of theories applicable to adult learning. For each theory, there are many independent factors brought to the environment by the learner and facilitator. Role of educational psychology The study of learning processes, both cognitive and affective, allows you as a teacher to better understand individual learner differences in behaviour, personality, intellect, and self-concept. The interaction between learner and facilitator and the learning environment brings a vast amount of variables to the equation nevertheless all theories should be taken under consideration by facilitators and learners. The understanding and improvement of education is a primary goal of an effective VET Practitioner. Dimensions of educational psychology Educational psychology encompasses the study of memory, conceptual processes, and individual differences (via cognitive psychology) in conceptualizing new strategies for learning processes in humans. Educational psychology has been built upon theories of operant conditioning, functionalism, structuralism, constructivism, humanistic psychology, information processing Gestalt psychology - a movement in psychology founded in Germany in 1912, seeking to explain perceptions in terms of gestalts rather than by analysing their constituents. Gestalt – "essence or shape of an entity's complete form") Information Processing Model Memory The best articulated and most heavily researched model is the information processing model (IPM), developed in the early 1950s. The IPM consists of three main components, sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory (see Figure 1). Sensory and working memory enable people to manage limited amounts of incoming information during initial processing, whereas long-term memory serves as a permanent repository for knowledge. In this entry, the information processing model will be used as a metaphor for successful learning because it is well supported by research and provides a well-articulated means for describing the main cognitive structures (i.e., memory systems) and processes (i.e., strategies) in the learning cycle.

8 Educational psychology Body
What is educational psychology ? The study of human learning Involves studying the learning and the teaching processes Multitude of theories applicable to adult learning What is educational psychology? Educational psychology is the study of human learning. This involves studying learning and the teaching processes. There are a multitude of theories applicable to adult learning. For each theory, there are many independent factors brought to the environment by the learner and facilitator. Role of educational psychology The study of learning processes, both cognitive and affective, allows you as a teacher to better understand individual learner differences in behaviour, personality, intellect, and self-concept. The interaction between learner and facilitator and the learning environment brings a vast amount of variables to the equation nevertheless all theories should be taken under consideration by facilitators and learners. The understanding and improvement of education is a primary goal of an effective VET Practitioner. Dimensions of educational psychology Educational psychology encompasses the study of memory, conceptual processes, and individual differences (via cognitive psychology) in conceptualizing new strategies for learning processes in humans. Educational psychology has been built upon theories of operant conditioning, functionalism, structuralism, constructivism, humanistic psychology, information processing Gestalt psychology - a movement in psychology founded in Germany in 1912, seeking to explain perceptions in terms of gestalts rather than by analysing their constituents. Gestalt – "essence or shape of an entity's complete form") Information Processing Model Memory The best articulated and most heavily researched model is the information processing model (IPM), developed in the early 1950s. The IPM consists of three main components, sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory (see Figure 1). Sensory and working memory enable people to manage limited amounts of incoming information during initial processing, whereas long-term memory serves as a permanent repository for knowledge. In this entry, the information processing model will be used as a metaphor for successful learning because it is well supported by research and provides a well-articulated means for describing the main cognitive structures (i.e., memory systems) and processes (i.e., strategies) in the learning cycle.

9 Educational psychology Body
What is the role of educational psychology ? better understand individual learner differences in behaviour, personality, intellect, and self-concept interaction between learner and facilitator and the learning environment improvement of education outcomes Role of educational psychology The study of learning processes, both cognitive and affective, allows you as a teacher to better understand individual learner differences in behaviour, personality, intellect, and self-concept. The interaction between learner and facilitator and the learning environment brings a vast amount of variables to the equation nevertheless all theories should be taken under consideration by facilitators and learners. The understanding and improvement of education is a primary goal of an effective VET Practitioner. Dimensions of educational psychology Educational psychology encompasses the study of memory, conceptual processes, and individual differences (via cognitive psychology) in conceptualizing new strategies for learning processes in humans. Educational psychology has been built upon theories of operant conditioning, functionalism, structuralism, constructivism, humanistic psychology, information processing Gestalt psychology - a movement in psychology founded in Germany in 1912, seeking to explain perceptions in terms of gestalts rather than by analysing their constituents. Gestalt – "essence or shape of an entity's complete form") Information Processing Model Memory The best articulated and most heavily researched model is the information processing model (IPM), developed in the early 1950s. The IPM consists of three main components, sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory (see Figure 1). Sensory and working memory enable people to manage limited amounts of incoming information during initial processing, whereas long-term memory serves as a permanent repository for knowledge. In this entry, the information processing model will be used as a metaphor for successful learning because it is well supported by research and provides a well-articulated means for describing the main cognitive structures (i.e., memory systems) and processes (i.e., strategies) in the learning cycle.

10 Learning Behaviourism and Cognitivism
Body Learning is really what the educational process is all about! Learning can be defied as changes in behaviour resulting from experience. Two major groups of learning theories are: Behaviourism and Cognitivism Taxonomy is just a framework Blooms Learning Domains Learners need to be supported in developing knowledge, skills and changed behaviours. One way of considering what the training is about is Blooms taxonomy model. This model is in 3 parts or overlapping domains: Cognitive domain – intellectual capacity, i.e. knowledge, or “think” Affective domain – feelings, emotions and behaviour, i.e. attitude, or “feel” Psychomotor domain – manual and physical skills, i.e. skills or “do”

11 Learning domains Cognitive domain – intellectual capacity,
Body Learners need to be supported in developing knowledge, skills and changed behaviours. One way of considering what the training is about is Blooms taxonomy model. This model is in 3 parts or overlapping domains: Cognitive domain – intellectual capacity, i.e. knowledge, or “think” Affective domain – feelings, emotions and behaviour, i.e. attitude, or “feel” Psychomotor domain – manual and physical skills, i.e. skills or “do” Taxonomy is just a framework Blooms Learning Domains Learners need to be supported in developing knowledge, skills and changed behaviours. One way of considering what the training is about is Blooms taxonomy model. This model is in 3 parts or overlapping domains: Cognitive domain – intellectual capacity, i.e. knowledge, or “think” Affective domain – feelings, emotions and behaviour, i.e. attitude, or “feel” Psychomotor domain – manual and physical skills, i.e. skills or “do”

12 Approaches in psychology
Body There are many educational perspectives: Cognitive - Cognitive learning theorists believe that learning is an internal process in which information is integrated or internalized into one’s cognitive or intellectual structure. Cognitivism - the study of mental events. Acquiring, processing, storing and retrieving information Behavioural - Behavioural learning theorists believe that learning has occurred when you can see changes in behaviour. Behavioral learning theorists believe that learning has occurred when you can see changes in behavior. The behavioral learning model learning is the result of conditioning Behaviourism – the study of human behaviour and of the ways in which behaviour is influenced by its consequences Humanist - Humanist learning theorists view learning as a function of the whole person and believe that learning cannot take place unless both the cognitive and affective domains are involved. Constructivist - Constructivism is a category of learning theory in which emphasis is placed on the agency and prior "knowing" and experience of the learner, and often on the social and cultural determinants of the learning process. Agency can be defied in a “bare bones” way as “the socioculturally mediated capacity to act”

13 Approaches in learning Body
Cognitive - learning is an internal process Behavioural - learning is the result of conditioning Humanist - learning cannot take place unless both the cognitive and affective domains are involved Constructivist – learning is constructed on agency and prior "knowing" and experience of the learner, together with social and cultural determinants Activity: Matching Exercise There are many educational perspectives: Cognitive - Cognitive learning theorists believe that learning is an internal process in which information is integrated or internalized into one’s cognitive or intellectual structure. Behavioural - Behavioural learning theorists believe that learning has occurred when you can see changes in behaviour. Behavioral learning theorists believe that learning has occurred when you can see changes in behavior. The behavioral learning model learning is the result of conditioning Humanist - Humanist learning theorists view learning as a function of the whole person and believe that learning cannot take place unless both the cognitive and affective domains are involved. Constructivist - Constructivism is a category of learning theory in which emphasis is placed on the agency and prior "knowing" and experience of the learner, and often on the social and cultural determinants of the learning process. Agency can be defied in a “bare bones” way as “the socioculturally mediated capacity to act”

14 Kolb - Experiential Learning Model
Learning models Body Skinner – Operant learning Behaviourist * fixed body of knowledge * reward and punishment Ausubel - Reception learning Cognitive * verbal learning * organised hierachically * rote Bruner - Discovery learning Constructivist * problem solving situations * guided discovery Kolb - Experiential Learning Model Cognitive and Constructivist * knowledge created thru the transformation of experience Learning models Ausubel - Reception learning Ausubel focused on verbal learning. He dealt with the nature of meaning, and believes the external world acquires meaning only as it is converted into the content of consciousness (cognitive structures) by the learner. Information is subsumed into the learner's cognitive structure it is organized hierarchically. This provides a framework into which the new learning is related to the previous information or concepts in the individual's cognitive structure. When one encounters completely new unfamiliar material, then rote learning, as opposed to meaningful learning, takes place. This rote learning may eventually contribute to the construction of a new cognitive structure which can later be used in meaningful learning. Ausubel believed meaningful reception learning to be the best form of learning in a classroom. Bruner’s Discovery learning Discovery learning is an inquiry-based, constructivist learning theory that takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his or her own past experience and existing knowledge to discover facts and relationships and new truths to be learned. Students interact with the world by exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments. As a result, students may be more likely to remember concepts and knowledge discovered on their own. Other models that are based upon discovery learning model include: guided discovery, problem-based learning, simulation-based learning, case-based learning, and incidental learning. Kolb's Experiential Learning Model the idea of experiential learning drawing heavily on the work of John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, and Jean Piaget. According to Kolb, learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience and transforming it. Kolb proposes that experiential learning has six main characteristics: • Learning is best conceived as a process, not in terms of outcomes. • Learning is a continuous process grounded in experience. • Learning requires the resolution of conflicts between dialectically opposed modes of adaptation to the world (learning is by its very nature full of tension). • Learning is a holistic process of adaptation to the world. • Learning involves transactions between the person and the environment. • Learning is the process of creating knowledge that is the result of the transaction between social knowledge and personal knowledge. Cognitive: Information processing Piaget's Constructivism Bloom's Taxonomy Vygotsky's constructivism Situated Cognition Social Constructivism

15 Kolb’s Learning Cycle and Experiential Learning Model
Body Kolb’s Learning Cycle Experiential Learning Workshop Activity: Questionnaire Refer to handout on Kolb’s learning styles definitions and descriptions Activity at commencement of session Activity after slide: Analysing your score This matrix provides a learning cycle that involves four processes that must be present for learning to occur. Note that this part of Kolb's model is more useful in that rather than trying to pinpoint a learning style, he provides a model learning program. Kolb called this Experiential Learning since experience is the source of learning and development (1984). See below Each ends of the continuums (modes) provide a step in the learning process: Diverging (concrete, reflective) - Emphasizes the innovative and imaginative approach to doing things. Views concrete situations from many perspectives and adapts by observation rather than by action. Interested in people and tends to be feeling-oriented. Likes such activities as cooperative groups and brainstorming. Assimilating (abstract, reflective) - Pulls a number of different observations and thoughts into an integrated whole. Likes to reason inductively and create models and theories. Likes to design projects and experiments. Converging (abstract, active)- Emphasizes the practical application of ideas and solving problems. Likes decision-making, problem-solving, and the practical application of ideas. Prefers technical problems over interpersonal issues. Accommodating (concrete, active) - Uses trial and error rather than thought and reflection. Good at adapting to changing circumstances; solves problems in an intuitive, trial-and-error manner, such as discovery learning. Also tends to be at ease with people. Each learning style is located in a different quadrant of the cycle of learning: Watching Thinking Doing Feeling Kolb's Experiential Learning Model According to Kolb, learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience and transforming it. Kolb proposes that experiential learning has six main characteristics: • Learning is best conceived as a process, not in terms of outcomes. • Learning is a continuous process grounded in experience. • Learning requires the resolution of conflicts between dialectically opposed modes of adaptation to the world (learning is by its very nature full of tension). • Learning is a holistic process of adaptation to the world. • Learning involves transactions between the person and the environment. • Learning is the process of creating knowledge that is the result of the transaction between social knowledge and personal knowledge.

16 Teaching for Retrieval of learning Accessing long term memory Body
Learner as information storing and processor Emphasising meaningfulness – learned more easily and remembered for longer periods Organisation – Frames and Schemata, identify main ideas, summaringing tables Visual material – impact 90% images remebered Rehersal – simple repetition, highlight all important points in a text Overlearning – serves as insurance against forgetting Teaching for Transfer of learning

17 Information processing What is it? Body
Memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored and retrieved Encoding: allows information from the outside world to reach our senses Storage: secondary memory stage, retention of information Retrieval: locating stored information Retention: Information retained long enough to be taken into the workplace or a real life situation Short Term Memory (STM) takes over when the information in our sensory memory is transferred to our consciousness or our awareness (Engle, SENSORY MEMORY Sensory memory processes incoming sensory information for very brief periods of time, usually on the order of 1/2 to 3 seconds. The amount of information held at any given moment in sensory memory is limited to five to seven discrete elements such as letters of the alphabet or pictures of human faces. Thus, if a person viewed 10 letters simultaneously for 1 second, it is unlikely that more than five to seven of those letters would be remembered. The main purpose of sensory memory is to screen incoming stimuli and process only those stimuli that are most relevant at the present time. Cantor, & Carullo, 1993; Laming, 1992).  Short Term Memory (STM) takes over when the information in our sensory memory is transferred to our consciousness or our awareness (Engle, Cantor, & Carullo, 1993; Laming, 1992).  This is the information that is currently active such as reading this page, talking to a friend, or writing a paper. Short term memory can definitely last longer than sensory memory (up to 30 seconds or so), but it still has a very limited capacity. According to research, we can remember approximately 5 to 9 (7 +/- 2) bits of information in our short term memory at any given time (Miller, 1956). If STM lasts only up to 30 seconds, how do we ever get any work done?  Wouldn't we start to lose focus or concentrate about twice every minute?  This argument prompted researchers to look at a second phase of STM that is now referred to as Working Memory.  Working Memory is the process that takes place when we continually focus on material for longer than STM alone will allow (Baddeley, 1992). Why We Remember What We Remember Short Term Memory.  There are typically six reasons why information is stored in our short term memory. primacy effect - information that occurs first is typically remembered better than information occurring later.  When given a list of words or numbers, the first word or number is usually remembered due to rehearsing this more than other information. recency effect - often the last bit of information is remembered better because not as much time has past; time which results in forgetting. distinctiveness - if something stands out from information around it, it is often remembered better.  Any distinctive information is easier to remember than that which is similar, usual, or mundane. frequency effect - rehearsal, as stated in the first example, results in better memory.  Remember trying to memorize a formula for your math class.  The more you went over it, the better you knew it.   associations - when we associate or attach information to other information it becomes easier to remember.  Many of us use this strategy in our professions and everyday life in the form of acronyms.   reconstruction - sometimes we actually fill in the blanks in our memory.  In other words, when trying to get a complete picture in our minds, we will make up the missing parts, often without any realization that this is occurring. Long Term Memory.  Information that passes from our short term to our long term memory is typically that which has some significance attached to it.  Imagine how difficult it would be to forget the day you graduated, or your first kiss.  Now think about how easy it is to forget information that has no significance; the color of the car you parked next to at the store or what shirt you wore last Thursday.  When we process information, we attach significance to it and information deemed important is transferred to our long term memory. There are other reasons information is transferred.  As we all know, sometimes our brains seem full of insignificant facts.  Repetition plays a role in this, as we tend to remember things more the more they are rehearsed.  Other times, information is transferred because it is somehow attached to something significant.  You may remember that it was a warm day when you bought your first car.  The temperature really plays no important role, but is attached to the memory of buying your first car Finally, there is long term memory (LTM), which is most similar to the permanent storage of a computer. Unlike the other two types, LTM is relatively permanent and practically unlimited in terms of its storage capacity. Its been argued that we have enough space in our LTM to memorize every phone number in the U.S. and still function normally in terms of remembering what we do now. Obviously we don’t use even a fraction of this storage space. There are several subcategories of LTM. First, memories for facts, life events, and information about our environment are stored in declarative memory. This includes semantic memory, factual knowledge like the meaning of words, concepts, and our ability to do math (Lesch & Pollatsek, 1993, Rohrer et al., 1995) and episodic memory, memories for events and situations (Goldringer, 1996; Kliegel & Lindberger, 1993). The second subcategory is often not thought of as memory because it refers to internal, rather than external information. When you brush your teeth, write your name, or scratch your eye, you do this with ease because you previously stored these movements and can recall them with ease. This is referred to as nondeclarative (or implicit) memory. These are memories we have stored due to extensive practice, conditioning, or habits.

18 Memory Storage - Keeping it somewhere Body
We have three distinct memory storage capabilities . Sensory memory: referring to the information we receive through the senses. This memory is very brief lasting only as much as a few seconds (20) Short term memory: takes over when the information in our sensory memory is transferred to our consciousness or our awareness ( discrete items) Working memory: the process that takes place when we continually focus on material for longer than STM alone will allow Long term memory: Information that passes from our short term to our long term memory by encoding and is typically that which has some significance attached to it. Short Term Memory (STM) takes over when the information in our sensory memory is transferred to our consciousness or our awareness (Engle, SENSORY MEMORY Sensory memory processes incoming sensory information for very brief periods of time, usually on the order of 1/2 to 3 seconds. The amount of information held at any given moment in sensory memory is limited to five to seven discrete elements such as letters of the alphabet or pictures of human faces. Thus, if a person viewed 10 letters simultaneously for 1 second, it is unlikely that more than five to seven of those letters would be remembered. The main purpose of sensory memory is to screen incoming stimuli and process only those stimuli that are most relevant at the present time. Cantor, & Carullo, 1993; Laming, 1992).  Short Term Memory (STM) takes over when the information in our sensory memory is transferred to our consciousness or our awareness (Engle, Cantor, & Carullo, 1993; Laming, 1992).  This is the information that is currently active such as reading this page, talking to a friend, or writing a paper. Short term memory can definitely last longer than sensory memory (up to 30 seconds or so), but it still has a very limited capacity. According to research, we can remember approximately 5 to 9 (7 +/- 2) bits of information in our short term memory at any given time (Miller, 1956). If STM lasts only up to 30 seconds, how do we ever get any work done?  Wouldn't we start to lose focus or concentrate about twice every minute?  This argument prompted researchers to look at a second phase of STM that is now referred to as Working Memory.  Working Memory is the process that takes place when we continually focus on material for longer than STM alone will allow (Baddeley, 1992). Why We Remember What We Remember Short Term Memory.  There are typically six reasons why information is stored in our short term memory. primacy effect - information that occurs first is typically remembered better than information occurring later.  When given a list of words or numbers, the first word or number is usually remembered due to rehearsing this more than other information. recency effect - often the last bit of information is remembered better because not as much time has past; time which results in forgetting. distinctiveness - if something stands out from information around it, it is often remembered better.  Any distinctive information is easier to remember than that which is similar, usual, or mundane. frequency effect - rehearsal, as stated in the first example, results in better memory.  Remember trying to memorize a formula for your math class.  The more you went over it, the better you knew it.   associations - when we associate or attach information to other information it becomes easier to remember.  Many of us use this strategy in our professions and everyday life in the form of acronyms.   reconstruction - sometimes we actually fill in the blanks in our memory.  In other words, when trying to get a complete picture in our minds, we will make up the missing parts, often without any realization that this is occurring. Long Term Memory.  Information that passes from our short term to our long term memory is typically that which has some significance attached to it.  Imagine how difficult it would be to forget the day you graduated, or your first kiss.  Now think about how easy it is to forget information that has no significance; the color of the car you parked next to at the store or what shirt you wore last Thursday.  When we process information, we attach significance to it and information deemed important is transferred to our long term memory. There are other reasons information is transferred.  As we all know, sometimes our brains seem full of insignificant facts.  Repetition plays a role in this, as we tend to remember things more the more they are rehearsed.  Other times, information is transferred because it is somehow attached to something significant.  You may remember that it was a warm day when you bought your first car.  The temperature really plays no important role, but is attached to the memory of buying your first car Finally, there is long term memory (LTM), which is most similar to the permanent storage of a computer. Unlike the other two types, LTM is relatively permanent and practically unlimited in terms of its storage capacity. Its been argued that we have enough space in our LTM to memorize every phone number in the U.S. and still function normally in terms of remembering what we do now. Obviously we don’t use even a fraction of this storage space. There are several subcategories of LTM. First, memories for facts, life events, and information about our environment are stored in declarative memory. This includes semantic memory, factual knowledge like the meaning of words, concepts, and our ability to do math (Lesch & Pollatsek, 1993, Rohrer et al., 1995) and episodic memory, memories for events and situations (Goldringer, 1996; Kliegel & Lindberger, 1993). The second subcategory is often not thought of as memory because it refers to internal, rather than external information. When you brush your teeth, write your name, or scratch your eye, you do this with ease because you previously stored these movements and can recall them with ease. This is referred to as nondeclarative (or implicit) memory. These are memories we have stored due to extensive practice, conditioning, or habits.

19 Activity Memory Memory test 1 Instructions You will be presented with a series of shapes, letters words and pictures. Each of these items will appear on your screen for 10 seconds. You will then be asked a question to test your memory on each item. Memory test 3 Learning models Ausubel - Reception learning Ausubel focused on verbal learning. He dealt with the nature of meaning, and believes the external world acquires meaning only as it is converted into the content of consciousness (cognitive structures) by the learner. Information is subsumed into the learner's cognitive structure it is organized hierarchically. This provides a framework into which the new learning is related to the previous information or concepts in the individual's cognitive structure. When one encounters completely new unfamiliar material, then rote learning, as opposed to meaningful learning, takes place. This rote learning may eventually contribute to the construction of a new cognitive structure which can later be used in meaningful learning. Ausubel believed meaningful reception learning to be the best form of learning in a classroom. Bruner’s Discovery learning Discovery learning is an inquiry-based, constructivist learning theory that takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his or her own past experience and existing knowledge to discover facts and relationships and new truths to be learned. Students interact with the world by exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments. As a result, students may be more likely to remember concepts and knowledge discovered on their own. Other models that are based upon discovery learning model include: guided discovery, problem-based learning, simulation-based learning, case-based learning, and incidental learning. Kolb's Experiential Learning Model According to Kolb, learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience and transforming it. Kolb proposes that experiential learning has six main characteristics: • Learning is best conceived as a process, not in terms of outcomes. • Learning is a continuous process grounded in experience. • Learning requires the resolution of conflicts between dialectically opposed modes of adaptation to the world (learning is by its very nature full of tension). • Learning is a holistic process of adaptation to the world. • Learning involves transactions between the person and the environment. • Learning is the process of creating knowledge that is the result of the transaction between social knowledge and personal knowledge. Cognitive: Information processing Piaget's Constructivism Bloom's Taxonomy Vygotsky's constructivism Situated Cognition Social Constructivism

20 Forgetting How not to lose it Body
Chunking It is easier to memorize information when you break it up into small chunks. Recency Learners remember best the content at the end of a session or review or freshest in their mind Primacy Learners remember best the things learned first Activity: Chunking Memory Tips and Tricks Although memory doesn't usually improve when a learner practices memorizing things it can get better by using memory techniques such: Sequencing https://www.teachervision.com/skill-builder/reading-comprehension/48779.html Sequencing is one of many skills that contributes to students' ability to comprehend what they read. Sequencing refers to the identification of the components of a story, such as the beginning, middle, and end, and also to the ability to retell the events within a given text in the order in which they occurred. Chunking Chunking of information can lead to an increase in short term memory capacity Association - Visualization - Create a story - Item pairs - Method of loci - Number rhyme - Foreign language - Image-name Other memory techniques - Acrostics - Antonyms Cramming Mnomics

21 Chunking Activity 1. issheilagoingtobuythenewphone
Activity: Chunking Use the process of chunking to divide the following bits of information: 1. issheilagoingtobuythenewphone 3. canyouchunktheselettersintowords Chunking Use “chunking” to divide the following bits of information. 1. issheilagoingtobuythenewphone is sheila going to buy the new phone 3. canyouchunktheselettersintowords can you chunk these letters into words

22 The primacy and recency effects of active memory Activity – Experiment in memory
Candle Maple Subway Poison Tiger Ceiling Lawyer Ocean Paper Garbage Thunder Sofa Mountain Dollar Wagon Doorbell Chunking discusses the tendency for items at the beginning and end of a list to be remembered more readily than items in the middle of the list. This can be readily illustrated by the following demonstration: Instructions: After distributing the protocol sheet, tell the class: "This is an experiment in memory in which I am going to read you a series of unrelated nouns. Try to recall as many of those words as you can, regardless of the order in which I read them. Please begin to write them down only after I have read the entire list and have given you the signal, 'Go."' Begin by saying, 'Ready?' Then read the list (at a rate of about one per second). Here is the suggested list: Candle Maple Subway Poison Tiger Ceiling Lawyer Ocean Paper Garbage Thunder Sofa Mountain Dollar Wagon Doorbell Ask how many students remembered Candle (primacy) or Doorbell (recency). Then ask who remembered Ocean or Paper. If you ask students to raise their hands, everyone can see the effects very easily.

23 Sequencing Activity – Following a recipe
refers to the identification of the components of a learning event, such as the beginning, middle, and conclusion It is important that information is sequenced so that topics and subtopics are delivered in a logical order Chunking discusses the tendency for items at the beginning and end of a list to be remembered more readily than items in the middle of the list. This can be readily illustrated by the following demonstration: Instructions: After distributing the protocol sheet, tell the class: "This is an experiment in memory in which I am going to read you a series of unrelated nouns. Try to recall as many of those words as you can, regardless of the order in which I read them. Please begin to write them down only after I have read the entire list and have given you the signal, 'Go."' Begin by saying, 'Ready?' Then read the list (at a rate of about one per second). Here is the suggested list: Candle Maple Subway Poison Tiger Ceiling Lawyer Ocean Paper Garbage Thunder Sofa Mountain Dollar Wagon Doorbell Ask how many students remembered Candle (primacy) or Doorbell (recency). Then ask who remembered Ocean or Paper. If you ask students to raise their hands, everyone can see the effects very easily.

24 Forgetting Losing it! Body
Decay Repression Encoding specificity Retrieval Failure Tips and Tricks There are many reasons we forget things and often these reasons overlap. Like in the example above, some information never makes it to LTM. Other times, the information gets there, but is lost before it can attach itself to our LTM. Other reasons include decay, which means that information that is not used for an extended period of time decays or fades away over time. It is possible that we are physiologically pre- programmed to eventually erase data that no longer appears pertinent to us. Decay - information that is not used for an extended period of time decays or fades away. Repression - we purposefully (albeit subconsciously) push a memory out of reach because we do not want to remember the associated feelings. Encoding specificity - transforming the data into a meaningful form such as an association with an existing memory, an image, or a sound. Retrieval Failure - Normally retrieval is the final process which is bringing the memory out of storage and reversing the process of encoding. In other words, return the information to a form similar to what we stored this process may fail due to psychological or physiologi cal reasons There are many reasons we forget things and often these reasons overlap. Memory Tips and Tricks Although memory doesn't usually improve when a learner practices memorizing things it can get better by using memory techniques such: Chunking Chunking of information can lead to an increase in short term memory capacity Association - Visualization - Create a story - Item pairs - Method of loci - Number rhyme - Foreign language - Image-name Other memory techniques - Acrostics - Antonyms Cramming Mnomics

25 Memory and Retention Specific memory aids Activity
Motivation give a reason why they should know something; positive feedback Understanding making a connection between what they are learning and what they have experienced Sequencing refers to the identification of the components of a learning event, such as the beginning, middle, and conclusion Graphic Organizers https://www.teachervision.com/graphic-organizers/printable/6298.html facilitate understanding of key concepts by allowing students to visually identify key points and ideas eg VEN , Cycle diagrams Mnemonics I before E except after C Acronym a word made up from the first letters of a list of words Acrostics The first letters of a list of words represent an item of information Schemata/Frames Metaphores for the organisation of knowledge of information Memory Tips and Tricks Although memory doesn't usually improve when a learner practices memorizing things it can get better by using memory techniques such: Motivation give a reason why they should know something; positive feedback Understanding making a connection between what they are learning and what they have experienced Sequencing refers to the identification of the components of a learning event, such as the beginning, middle, and conclusion Graphic Organizers https://www.teachervision.com/graphic-organizers/printable/6298.html facilitate understanding of key concepts by allowing students to visually identify key points and ideas eg VEN , Cycle diagrams Mnemonics I before E except after C Acronym a word made up from the first letters of a list of words Acrostics The first letters of a list of words represent an item of information Schemata/Frames Metaphores for the organisation of knowledge of information https://www.teachervision.com/graphic-organizers/printable/6293.html

26 Teaching for transfer of learning Body
Transfer of learning is the influence of previously learned material on new material. Transfer occurs when a rule, fact or skill learned in one situation is applied in another situation. Types of transfer include: Low level - spontaneous and automatic transfer of highly practiced skills; High level – application of abstract knowledge learned in one situation to a different situation; and Over learning – practising a skill beyond the point of mastery. Transfer of learning Transfer of learning is the influence of previously learned material on new material. Transfer of learning occurs when a rule, fact or skill learned in one situation is applied in another situation. Woolfolk and Margetts (2002) suggest that successful transfer of learning from a VET course to work contexts is evidence of superior teaching. Types of transfer include Low level - spontaneous and automatic transfer of highly practiced skills; High level – application of abstract knowledge learned in one situation to a different situation and Over learning – practising a skill beyond the point of mastery.

27 Teaching for skill development Body
‘ … expertness, practised ability, facility in doing something dexterity …’ Oxford dictionary Nine defining characteristics: Skill is learned Skill involves motivation, purpose and goals Schemas are required Skills are context specific Skills involve problem solving relevant to the context Skills involve relative judgements with individual differences in skilled performance evident Standards of excellence are integral to judgements about the existence of skill and degree of excellence Considerable periods of time are required to achieve high levels of skill (Cornford 1999)

28 Knowles’ adult learning principles http://www. youtube. com/watch
Knowles identified the six principles of adult learning outlined below. Adults are internally motivated and self-directed Adults bring life experiences and knowledge to learning experiences Adults are goal oriented Adults are relevancy oriented Adults are practical Adult learners like to be respected Malcolm Knowles - Andragogy Six principles of adult learning Activity:watch video and identify adult learning principles Activity Activity : Adult Learning in Under 3 Minutes Just stumbled across these whilst doing my activity: Here are two to keep for next time: Episode 1 Episode 2 Malcolm Knowles Andragogy (Andragogy v Pedagogy?) Six principles of adult learning What do you mean by 'adult learning principles'? Knowles identified the six principles of adult learning outlined below. Adults are internally motivated and self-directed •Adults bring life experiences and knowledge to learning experiences •Adults are goal oriented •Adults are relevancy oriented •Adults are practical •Adult learners like to be respected Activity : Adult Learning in Under 3 Minutes

29 Adult learner characteristics Body
Existing knowledge skills and experience Special needs such as child care, language, reasonable adjustment Work/home/community environment Preferred learning style Adult Learner Characteristics Existing knowledge skills and experience Special needs such as child care, language, reasonable adjustment Work/home/community environment Preferred learning style Types of teaching to match? Learner-centered In general, a learner-centered approach works best when the learners are relatively mature and possess significant related knowledge, or where sequencing of material is less critical. Teacher centered Teacher centered presentation is more appropriate when learners are less mature and lack necessary prior knowledge. Learners who are immature or lack necessary prior knowledge frequently make poor instructional choices if left on their own (e.g., they are unlikely to estimate correctly whether practice is needed, when sufficient mastery has been attained, etc.).

30 Adult learning styles Body
Learning through the senses (Kolb – Visual, Aural, Reading, Kinesthetic, Olfactory, Haptic) Holistic learning Personality traits Focused (why and how approach) Personal (who and why approach) Active (want to be doing) Practical (what if)

31 Planning Effective Adult Learning Formal teaching steps
Quality Teaching Body Planning Effective Adult Learning Formal teaching steps Adult learning principles

32 Jane Vella's 12 Principles for Planning Effective Adult Learning
1. Needs Assessment: Participation of the learner in naming what is to be learned. 2. Safety in the environment between teacher and learner for learning and development. 3. A sound relationship between teacher and learner for learning and development. 4. Careful attention to sequence of content and reinforcement. 5. Praxis: Action with reflection or learning by doing. 6. Respect for learners as subjects of their own learning. 7.Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor aspects: ideas, feelings, actions. 8. Immediacy of the learning. 9. Clear roles and role development. 10. Teamwork: Using small groups. 11. Engagement of the learners in what they are learning. 12. Accountability: How do they know they know? Jane Vella describes the process of designing a course, a seminar, or a work-shop for adult learners and by becoming aware and understanding certain adult educational principles a facilitator can make informed decisions that will work for learners by referring to these principles, which also apply across cultures. From her research she has identified twelve basic principles that are deeply interconnected and intrinsically related one to the other. In her earlier work Training Through Dialogue (Vella, 1995) she names fifty such principles and practices that work to make dialogue education effective. Although these principles and practices have been tested in community education settings, she claims they can also offer insight into educational processes for teachers and professors in more formal systems of education. These 12 principles have been proven to work under diverse and sometimes extraordinarily difficult conditions. One basic assumption in all this is that adult learning is best achieved in dialogue. Source: From: Vella, J. (1994). Learning to Listen, Learning to Teach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 3-22

33 Herbart’s 5 formal teaching steps Body
1. Review material that has already been learned by the teacher 2. Prepare the student for new material by giving them an overview of what they are learning next 3. Present the new material 4. Relate the new material to the old material that has already been learned 5. Show how the student can apply the new material and show the material they will learn next. Johann Herbart - ( ) 5 formal teaching steps 1. Review material that has already been learned by the teacher 2. Prepare the student for new material by giving them an overview of what they are learning next 3. Present the new material 4. Relate the new material to the old material that has already been learned 5. Show how the student can apply the new material and show the material they will learn next. Learner-centered In general, a learner-centered approach works best when the learners are relatively mature and possess significant related knowledge, or where sequencing of material is less critical. Teacher centered Teacher centered presentation is more appropriate when learners are less mature and lack necessary prior knowledge. Learners who are immature or lack necessary prior knowledge frequently make poor instructional choices if left on their own (e.g., they are unlikely to estimate correctly whether practice is needed, when sufficient mastery has been attained, etc.).

34 Putting it all together Applying principles of adult learning
RAMP 2 FAME R Recency – things that are learned last are best remembered A Appropriateness – all training and resources must be appropriate to the learners needs M Motivation – learners must want to learn P Primacy - things that are learned first are usually learned best 2 2 way communication – communication with learners not at them F Feedback – both need information from each other A Active learning – learners learn from doing M Multi-sense learning – use all five senses, multi media E Exercise – things that are practiced are best remembered The term ‘learning’ has many interpretations but generally it is about changing behaviour. Typical training model incorporating adult learning principles into a lesson plan include: (13) Key learning principles (a) R egency (Learners remember best the content at the end of a session or review or freshest in their mind – chunking and sequencing) (b) A ppropriateness (learners learn more effectively when resources suit their needs so that they can tie new information into existing information) (c) M otivation (learners must want to learn) in learning and teaching p 372 (d) P rimacy (Learners remember best the things learned first – chunking and sequencing) (e) 2 way communication (communication with learners not at them) Barriers to communication (f) F eedback (learners need feedback on their progress – formative assessment) (g) A ctive learning (learners need to be involved in their learning) (h) M ulti-sense learning (learners use all of their senses to learn) Confucius I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understand (i) E xercise (learners need the opportunity to practice new skills and apply new information)

35 Good teachers apply educational psychology and key adult learning principles to their practice
Recency principle Appropriateness Motivation Primacy principle 2 way communication Feedback Active learning Multi-sense learning Exercise The term ‘learning’ has many interpretations but generally it is about changing behaviour. Typical training model incorporating adult learning principles include: (13) Key learning principles (a) R egency (Learners remember best the content at the end of a session or review or freshest in their mind – chunking and sequencing) (b) A ppropriateness (learners learn more effectively when resources suit their needs so that they can tie new information into existing information) (c) M otivation (learners must want to learn) in learning and teaching p 372 (d) P rimacy (Learners remember best the things learned first – chunking and sequencing) (e) 2 way communication (communication with learners not at them) Barriers to communication (f) F eedback (learners need feedback on their progress – formative assessment) (g) A ctive learning (learners need to be involved in their learning) (h) M ulti-sense learning (learners use all of their senses to learn) Confucius I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understand (i) E xercise (learners need the opportunity to practice new skills and apply new information) RAMP2FAME Learning Planning Model Kroehnert, G ., Basic Training for trainers, McGraw Hill 1993.

36 Smart Skilled and Savvy Teacher Program
Sydney TAFE Smart Skilled and Savvy Teacher Program Understanding the adult learning process Using an understanding of adult learning psychology to enhance teaching and learning Facilitators John Zervos Head Teacher, Electronic Trades And Gerard Kell Manager Workforce Services April 2014 Summary Recap significant concepts knowledge of educational psychology and its application to adult learning theory and adult learning principles psychological perspectives of learning Characteristics of the adult learner Memory plays in learning Learning models Planning for training and assessment Review main Points The adult learner Cognitive and constructionist models of learning Motivation to learn Memory and retention Applying adult learning principles that incorporate adult learning principles Reinforce key skills Remember to incorporate adult learning principles Apply to different learning environment Face to face On line Work place Check whether session outcomes have been achieved Gain a knowledge of educational psychology and its application to adult learning theory and adult learning principles Understanding of psychological perspectives of learning The function memory plays in learning An overview of learning models Knowledge to apply educational psychology to your planning for training and assessment Link to past and future sessions Preparing for a skills session Effective teaching More SSS Programs in 2013 Classroom management theme Researching your topic


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