Presentation on theme: "Sydneytafe.edu.aureal skills, endless possibilities Understanding the Adult Learning Process Using an understanding of adult learning psychology to enhance."— Presentation transcript:
sydneytafe.edu.aureal skills, endless possibilities Understanding the Adult Learning Process Using an understanding of adult learning psychology to enhance teaching and learning 2014
Activity Icebreaker 2 What are your expectations from today’s session? Activities: Butchers Paper – Make a list of what you want to learn
Activity Curiosity Exercise How do you learn? 3 Activity: Complete Kolb’s Learning Style/Learning Preference Questionnaire Latter we will analyse your results!!
Today … Introduction GLOSS Welcome every one … This workshop builds on your learning from the CIV TAE and aims to extend your knowledge of the application of the principles of adult learning and aspects of learning, learning retention and, the transfer of learning within the VET experience. Topics will include: Approaches in psychology: Various educational psychology theories and perspectives Teaching for Retrieval: Memory, retention, forgetting Teaching for Transfer of learning: Development of expertise and the acquisition of skills Applying adult learning principles to teaching and learning Activities will include … a Learning style questionnaire, a Memory Test, a Retention exercise, 4
What will you achieve today GLOSS By the end of this session you should be able to: Gain a knowledge of educational psychology and its application to adult learning theory and adult learning principles Understanding of psychological perspectives of learning Characteristics of the adult learner The function memory plays in learning An overview of learning models Knowledge to apply educational psychology to your planning for training and assessment
Meta cognition: Effective Adult Learning The goal of the Smart, Skilled and Savvy Teacher – Preparing the learner to be a Life Long Expert Learner Motivate Retain Apply Transfer
Educational and teaching Body What is educational psychology? Role of educational psychology Dimensions of educational psychology Role of the highly effective Sydney TAFE Teacher http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ru7kYlpu2PQ
Educational psychology Body What is educational psychology ? The study of human learning Involves studying the learning and the teaching processes Multitude of theories applicable to adult learning
Educational psychology Body What is the role of educational psychology ? better understand individual learner differences in behaviour, personality, intellect, and self- concept interaction between learner and facilitator and the learning environment improvement of education outcomes
Learning is really what the educational process is all about! Learning can be defied as changes in behaviour resulting from experience. Two major groups of learning theories are: Behaviourism and Cognitivism 10 Learning Body
Learners need to be supported in developing knowledge, skills and changed behaviours. One way of considering what the training is about is Blooms taxonomy model. This model is in 3 parts or overlapping domains: Cognitive domain – intellectual capacity, i.e. knowledge, or “think” Affective domain – feelings, emotions and behaviour, i.e. attitude, or “feel” Psychomotor domain – manual and physical skills, i.e. skills or “do” 11 Learning domains Body
Approaches in learning Body Cognitive - learning is an internal process Behavioural - learning is the result of conditioning Humanist - learning cannot take place unless both the cognitive and affective domains are involved Constructivist – learning is constructed on agency and prior "knowing" and experience of the learner, together with social and cultural determinants Activity: Matching Exercise
Learning models Body Skinner – Operant learning Behaviourist * fixed body of knowledge * reward and punishment Ausubel - Reception learning Cognitive * verbal learning * organised hierachically * rote Bruner - Discovery learning Constructivist * problem solving situations * guided discovery Kolb - Experiential Learning Model Cognitive and Constructivist * knowledge created thru the transformation of experience
15 Kolb’s Learning Cycle and Experiential Learning Model Body Kolb’s Learning Cycle Experiential Learning Workshop Activity: Questionnaire Kolb’s Learning Cycle Experiential Learning Workshop Activity: Questionnaire
Teaching for Retrieval of learning Accessing long term memory Body Learner as information storing and processor Emphasising meaningfulness – learned more easily and remembered for longer periods Organisation – Frames and Schemata, identify main ideas, summaringing tables Visual material – impact 90% images remebered Rehersal – simple repetition, highlight all important points in a text Overlearning – serves as insurance against forgetting
Information processing What is it? Body Memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored and retrieved Encoding: allows information from the outside world to reach our senses Storage: secondary memory stage, retention of information Retrieval: locating stored information Retention: Information retained long enough to be taken into the workplace or a real life situation
Memory Storage - Keeping it somewhere Body We have three distinct memory storage capabilities. Sensory memory: referring to the information we receive through the senses. This memory is very brief lasting only as much as a few seconds (20) Short term memory: takes over when the information in our sensory memory is transferred to our consciousness or our awareness (7 +- 2 discrete items) Working memory: the process that takes place when we continually focus on material for longer than STM alone will allow Long term memory: Information that passes from our short term to our long term memory by encoding and is typically that which has some significance attached to it.
Activity Memory http://www.intelligencetest.com/stmemory/games/index.htm Memory test 1 http://www.intelligencetest.com/stmemory/games/test1/index.htm Instructions You will be presented with a series of shapes, letters words and pictures. Each of these items will appear on your screen for 10 seconds. You will then be asked a question to test your memory on each item. Memory test 3 http://www.intelligencetest.com/stmemory/games/test3/index.htm Instructions You will be presented with a series of shapes, letters words and pictures. Each of these items will appear on your screen for 10 seconds. You will then be asked a question to test your memory on each item.
Forgetting How not to lose it Body Chunking It is easier to memorize information when you break it up into small chunks. Recency Learners remember best the content at the end of a session or review or freshest in their mind Primacy Learners remember best the things learned first Activity: Chunking
Chunking Activity Activity: Chunking Use the process of chunking to divide the following bits of information: 1. issheilagoingtobuythenewphone 2. 1776200119951970179219402007 3. canyouchunktheselettersintowords 4. 510152025303540 5. 300305310320330340350
The primacy and recency effects of active memory Activity – Experiment in memory Candle Maple Subway Poison Tiger Ceiling Lawyer Ocean Paper Garbage Thunder Sofa Mountain Dollar Wagon Doorbell
Sequencing Activity – Following a recipe Sequencing refers to the identification of the components of a learning event, such as the beginning, middle, and conclusion It is important that information is sequenced so that topics and subtopics are delivered in a logical order
Forgetting Losing it! Body Decay Repression Encoding specificity Retrieval Failure Tips and Tricks
Memory and Retention Specific memory aids Activity Motivation give a reason why they should know something; positive feedback Understanding making a connection between what they are learning and what they have experienced Sequencing refers to the identification of the components of a learning event, such as the beginning, middle, and conclusion Graphic Organizers https://www.teachervision.com/graphic-organizers/printable/6298.html https://www.teachervision.com/graphic-organizers/printable/6298.html facilitate understanding of key concepts by allowing students to visually identify key points and ideas eg VEN, Cycle diagrams Mnemonics I before E except after C Acronym a word made up from the first letters of a list of words Acrostics The first letters of a list of words represent an item of information Schemata/Frames Metaphores for the organisation of knowledge of information
Teaching for transfer of learning Body Transfer of learning is the influence of previously learned material on new material. Transfer occurs when a rule, fact or skill learned in one situation is applied in another situation. Types of transfer include: Low level - spontaneous and automatic transfer of highly practiced skills; High level – application of abstract knowledge learned in one situation to a different situation; and Over learning – practising a skill beyond the point of mastery.
Teaching for skill development Body ‘ … expertness, practised ability, facility in doing something dexterity …’ Oxford dictionary Nine defining characteristics: Skill is learned Skill involves motivation, purpose and goals Schemas are required Skills are context specific Skills involve problem solving relevant to the context Skills involve relative judgements with individual differences in skilled performance evident Standards of excellence are integral to judgements about the existence of skill and degree of excellence Considerable periods of time are required to achieve high levels of skill (Cornford 1999)
Knowles’ adult learning principles http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8lvkJhXnEZk Knowles identified the six principles of adult learning outlined below. Adults are internally motivated and self-directed Adults bring life experiences and knowledge to learning experiences Adults are goal oriented Adults are relevancy oriented Adults are practical Adult learners like to be respected Activity : Adult Learning in Under 3 Minutes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8lvkJhXnEZk Malcolm Knowles - Andragogy Six principles of adult learning
Adult learner characteristics Body Existing knowledge skills and experience Special needs such as child care, language, reasonable adjustment Work/home/community environment Preferred learning style
Adult learning styles Body Learning through the senses (Kolb – Visual, Aural, Reading, Kinesthetic, Olfactory, Haptic) Holistic learning Personality traits Focused (why and how approach) Personal (who and why approach) Active (want to be doing) Practical (what if)
Jane Vella's 12 Principles for Planning Effective Adult Learning 1. Needs Assessment: Participation of the learner in naming what is to be learned. 2. Safety in the environment between teacher and learner for learning and development. 3. A sound relationship between teacher and learner for learning and development. 4. Careful attention to sequence of content and reinforcement. 5. Praxis: Action with reflection or learning by doing. 6. Respect for learners as subjects of their own learning. 7.Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor aspects: ideas, feelings, actions. 8. Immediacy of the learning. 9. Clear roles and role development. 10. Teamwork: Using small groups. 11. Engagement of the learners in what they are learning. 12. Accountability: How do they know they know?
Herbart’s 5 formal teaching steps Body 1. Review material that has already been learned by the teacher 2. Prepare the student for new material by giving them an overview of what they are learning next 3. Present the new material 4. Relate the new material to the old material that has already been learned 5. Show how the student can apply the new material and show the material they will learn next.
Putting it all together Applying principles of adult learning RAMP 2 FAME R Recency – things that are learned last are best remembered A Appropriateness – all training and resources must be appropriate to the learners needs M Motivation – learners must want to learn P Primacy - things that are learned first are usually learned best 2 2 way communication – communication with learners not at them F Feedback – both need information from each other A Active learning – learners learn from doing M Multi-sense learning – use all five senses, multi media E Exercise – things that are practiced are best remembered
Good teachers apply educational psychology and key adult learning principles to their practice 35 Recency principle Appropriateness Motivation Primacy principle 2 way communication Feedback Active learning Multi-sens e learning Exercise RAMP2FAME Learning Planning Model Kroehnert, G., Basic Training for trainers, McGraw Hill 1993.
Sydney TAFE Smart Skilled and Savvy Teacher Program Understanding the adult learning process Using an understanding of adult learning psychology to enhance teaching and learning Facilitators John Zervos Head Teacher, Electronic Trades Sydney TAFE And Gerard Kell Manager Workforce Services Sydney TAFE April 2014