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Personal work and learning practices - Four forms of negotiation Raymond Smith Griffith University Brisbane, Australia.

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Presentation on theme: "Personal work and learning practices - Four forms of negotiation Raymond Smith Griffith University Brisbane, Australia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Personal work and learning practices - Four forms of negotiation Raymond Smith Griffith University Brisbane, Australia

2 Work and learning practices: The participation and practice paradigm Work and learning are synonymous as workers’ personal interactive engagement or participation in socially derived practices The range of terms used to qualify the nature of this socio- personal conceptualisation includes; communities of practice, co-participation, networks, knotworks, co- configuration, relational interdependence and negotiation.

3 Negotiation: Learning and work practices are -  Lave & Wenger (1991) – “always based on situated negotiation and re-negotiation of meaning in the world”  Billett (2006) – the negotiation between individuals, their experience and social experience encountered through work”  Dall’Alba & Sandberg (2010) – “patterns of social behaviour which we learn to negotiate as part of our making our way in the world” True – but under theorised and under specified – reliant on generic and taken for granted understandings of the concept of negotiation

4 Negotiation: Some specificities  Wenger (1998) – “I intend the term negotiation to convey a flavour of continuous interaction, of gradual achievement, and of give and take”.  Billett & Smith (2006) – “both the process and legacy [of learning] are shaped by negotiations, acts of recognition, mutuality and orientation between the personal and the social”. Such qualifications elaborate some of the generic meanings negotiation carries but remain general and ambiguous

5 Work and learning practices: are purposeful and goal directed Workers’ actions can be considered –  along a continuum of purpose as Deliberate Accidental  Along a continuum of goal realisation as Resolved Unresolved

6 The four contingent forms of negotiation

7 Quadrant 1: Realised negotiations Characterised by workers’ deliberate action that accomplishes some form of resolution associated with the goals and purposes guiding the interactions E.g., Robert’s negotiation of catering contracts and schedules “I keep asking questions, clarifying the customers needs and situation and don’t commit until all is well and confident”

8 Quadrant 2: Discovered negotiations Characterised by unexpected discovery of outcomes that were unplanned and emerged from incidental actions E.g., Robert’s unanticipated negotiation of the business partnership offer “I was bored … I knew the man who owned the restaurant very well, so I said that to him. I was very open about it all and suddenly I had an opportunity to broaden my horizon and get into the business”

9 Quadrant 3: Concealed negotiations Enacted accidentally and characterised by a lack of resolution, a not knowing about what and where actions are directed and what will eventuate E.g., Robert’s uncertainty about his vocational identity as business man “I used to be a chef and I still am a chef, but now I’m a business man and I’m still not sure what that’s about – I guess you just have to improvise”

10 Quadrant 4: Protracted negotiations Characterised by repeated and deliberate actions in efforts to secure resolutions as yet unrealised because of difficulties that cannot be overcome E.g., Robert’s efforts to alter persistent casual staff practices that are not as he instructed “You can be telling someone how to do something until you’re black and blue in the face, but if you’re not teaching them the right way … that strong determination is useless”

11 Negotiation: Assisting the description and explanation of learning in work The four contingent forms of negotiation: Realised Discovered Concealed Protracted  Present ways of categorising workers’ work and learning practices as types of negotiation that differentiate the processes and outcomes involved  Bring a simultaneous focus to what and why workers’ do their work the way they do it – this personalises work and illuminates ‘how’ negotiated practice is enacted  Reduce the generic and taken for granted meanings of the concept and so enable a more explicit conceptualisation of work and learning practices as negotiation – which is always more than a synonym for interaction or co-participation


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