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q free on inner surface - q free on inner surface Interior points electric field must be zero - q bound + q bound Symmetry – fields must be uniform – field lines perpendicular to plates
conductordielectric Gauss’s Law
frequency dielectric constant
V = 0
B Fe H Fe B gap H gap B air H air i coil windings gap region iron core
width L thickness t area A q = - e electrons are the charge carriers in copper
dy F +q+q -q-q
Induced dipole moment – helium atom -e +2e Zero electric field – helium atom symmetric zero dipole moment -e +2e -e A B effectively charge +2e at A and -2e at B dipole moment p = 2 e d
-q-q +q+q r 1 r – (d/2)cos r 2 r + (d/2)cos r P ErEr EE (d/2)cos
f+f -f-f dA -b-b +b+b
+f+f -b-b +b+b - f O r S
- dd r Pcos S The area of the shaded ring between and + d is equal to
a +Ze a d d << a
q free on inner surface - q free on inner surface Interior points electric field must be zero - q bound + q bound Symmetry –
B Fe H Fe B gap H gap B air H air i coil windings gap region iron core.
Q free on inner surface - Q free on inner surface Interior points electric field must be zero - q bound + q bound Symmetry –
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