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1 Example title for notes and handouts
6 April 2017 Increasing community awareness of aphasia This educational resource has been developed by six final year La Trobe University Speech Pathology students in conjunction with the Australian Aphasia Association, under the supervision of Dr Robyn O’Halloran (La Trobe University). The aim of this resource is to raise awareness of the condition, aphasia. This resource is designed to be used by a speech pathologist and an individual with aphasia to facilitate community talks. Amy Porter, Caitlin Wise, Erica Tilley, Lucy Sweeney, Natallie Moussaka and Bryan Chan. (final year La Trobe University Speech Pathology students) Example footer for notes and handouts

2 Example title for notes and handouts
6 April 2017 Imagine waking up one day having lost your ability to use and understand language welcome to the world of aphasia Example footer for notes and handouts

3 Incidence and prevalence
Example title for notes and handouts 6 April 2017 Incidence and prevalence Aphasia has a high incidence 8600 people per year acquire aphasia SCRIPT- Aphasia is a little known, little understood disorder. Approximately only 7% of the general population have an understanding of what the disorder is, when compared to other conditions of a similar prevalence such as Parkinson’s disease. Incidence refers to how many people develop the disorder or illness over a certain period of time. It is currently estimated that the incidence of aphasia is 8600 people per year. This estimate was drawn from a study that looked primarily at stroke as the cause of aphasia and whilst this is the leading cause of the disorder, it needs to be clear that it is not the only cause. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR ‘INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE OF APHASIA- Websites: ‘Facts and Figures’, Australian Aphasia Association website: This website page provides brief information about incidence and prevalence of aphasia in Australia. ‘About Aphasia’, Aphasia Association of New Zealand: This website page provides brief, easy to understand information on aphasia. This website also contains facts about the incidence and prevalence of aphasia in New Zealand. ‘About aphasia’, Ukconnect: This website page provides brief statistics about the number of people with aphasia in the United Kingdom. ‘Aphasia information’, The international stroke centre: This website page provides statistics about the number of people with aphasia in the United States and worldwide REFERENCES- Australian Aphasia Association (2006) Facts and Figures. Retrieved June 20, 2011 from The National Aphasia Association. Aphasia frequently asked questions. Retrieved August 18, 2011 from Code, C., Simmons Mackie, N., Armstrong, E., Lillian, S., Armstrong, J., Bush, E. et al. (2001). The public awareness of aphasia: an international survey. , International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 36 (Supplement). 3 3 Example footer for notes and handouts

4 Example title for notes and handouts
6 April 2017 Funding There is a direct relationship between the public awareness of a condition and the funding and services that are provided for that condition. SCRIPT- It is important to encourage awareness in the community about aphasia as it has been found that there is a direct relationship between the public awareness of a condition and the funding and services that are provided for that condition. For example, aphasia is a condition that has a comparable incidence and prevalence to Parkinson disease, yet the services provided for aphasia and the funding that is allocated to research and support is much lower than that of Parkinson’s disease. REFERENCES- Elman, R.J., Ogar, J., & Elman, S.H. (2000). Aphasia: Awareness, advocacy and activism. (2000), Aphasiology, 14 (5), p 4 4 Example footer for notes and handouts

5 What is aphasia? Aphasia is a language disorder 5 5
SCRIPT- Basic script: Aphasia is a language disorder. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR- ‘WHAT IS APHASIA?’ - Websites: ‘About Aphasia’, Australian Aphasia Association: This website page provides a brief and simple explanation about what aphasia is, how it can affect individuals, and additional brief facts about aphasia. Suitable for anyone looking for a clear, brief summary of aphasia ‘About aphasia’, Aphasia help: This website page provides a list of topic links covering numerous topics of information about aphasia. This website is designed for people with aphasia and is written in simple, clear language and is very useful in helping individuals understand about the many different aspects of aphasia ‘Aphasia DVDs’, Australian Aphasia Association A DVD developed by the Australian Aphasia Association and 4th year La Trobe University students. It contains general information as to what aphasia is in the first chapter ‘what is aphasia.’ ‘What is aphasia’, Aphasia Institute: This website page contains moderately detailed information regarding what aphasia is and how it impacts on the individual. ‘Aphasia information’, Speakability: This website page provides easy to understand, moderately detailed information about what aphasia is, the types of problems someone with aphasia might present with and brief descriptions from people with aphasia about how they would describe the condition ‘Summary for people with Aphasia’, Speakability: This website page provides a brief summary of aphasia, which has been written specifically for people who have aphasia ‘Facts about aphasia’, Adler aphasia centre: This website page provides brief, easy to understand information explaining what aphasia is and the difficulties people with aphasia might have. ‘About Aphasia’, Aphasia Association of New Zealand: This website page provides brief, easy to understand information explaining aphasia. This website also contains facts about aphasia in New Zealand ‘Aphasia: frequently asked questions’, The United States National Aphasia Association: This website page contains moderately detailed information responding to frequently asked questions about aphasia. It provides a simple explanation of what aphasia is. ‘Aphasia’, Brain foundation: This website page provides a very detailed, in-depth description of aphasia, including categories/types of aphasia and treatment ‘About aphasia’, Ukconnect: This website page provides moderately detailed information about aphasia, the difficulties someone may present with, types of aphasia and statistics about the number of people with aphasia in the United Kingdom. ‘Aphasia’, National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders: This website page provides very detailed information about aphasia. It contains information including what is aphasia, who can acquire it, causes, types of aphasia, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, current research and links to additional information. Website videos: ‘Understanding aphasia easier’ - This video provides detailed definitions of aphasia including both expressive and receptive aphasia including video speech samples for patients with aphasia. This video would ideally be used as a summary (e.g. At the end of a presentation) as information is presented in a written form and at a reasonably quick pace. Provides examples of patients which may assist with understanding of symptoms. ‘Inside Aphasia: Part 1 of 3-’ . This video provides insights about aphasia from people with aphasia and their families. Includes a detailed description of stroke and site of damage of stroke. This video is ideal for an introduction to stroke and aphasia for people with no previous neuroanatomical knowledge. Blogs: Rosin, K. What is Aphasia? Loss of Language Skills due to Brain Illness. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Kenneth Rosen creates a blog informing viewers about aphasia. The blog includes information about the different types of aphasia and the causes of aphasia. Raza, M. Medical Phase: Aphasia. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Mohsin Raza creates a blog about aphasia. The blog informs viewers about the signs and symptoms of aphasia, the diagnosis and the strategies that can help communicating with someone who has aphasia. Robbins, K. Masking Your Aphasia. Retrieving September 9, 2011, from Kimberly Robbins creates an aphasia support group blog informing viewers on aphasia and recovery. This blog supplies viewers with articles and magazines inform participants on all the different aspects of aphasia. Goldstein, E. The Birth of the Adler Aphasia Center. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from Elissa Goldstein creates a blog that encourages people with aphasia to actively live while recovering which can improve their speech and self-confidence meaningfully even years after a stroke. Speech Impediment blog. Wernicke’s Aphasia. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from The Speech Impediment website creates a blog that informs viewers about Wernicke’s aphasia, the causes, symptoms and treatment. Dinusha. Difference between Apraxia and Aphasia. Retrieved September 8, 2011, from Dinusha creates a blog that describes and highlights the differences between apraxia and aphasia. Journals: Bakheit, A.; & Gatehouse, C. (2006). Therapy of Aphasia. Aging Health, 2(3),  This journal article reviews the assessment of aphasia and the use of drugs in conjunction with speech therapy in treatment of aphasia. The content also includes a brief description, statistics, and prognosis of living with aphasia. E-books: Code, C. (2010). Aphasia, In J. S. Damico, N. Müller and M. J. Ball, (Ed.). The Handbook of Language and Speech Disorders (pp. 317 – 336) This e-book describes the state of the art in speech, language, and cognitive/intellectual disorders, including aphasia. The content includes statistics on aphasia, history, clinical features, recovery and management of aphasia. REFERENCES- Aphasiahelp. (2002) What is aphasia? Retrieved June 29, 2011 from Australian Aphasia Association. About Aphasia. Retrieved August 10, 2011 from Royal Rehabilitation Centre Sydney. (2006) Aphasia Speech Pathology . Retrieved from 5 5

6 Aphasia can involve difficulties with..
Talking Reading SCRIPT- Basic script: Having Aphasia can involve difficulties with: Talking Listening Reading Writing People experience problems: Speaking and finding the right words to say Understanding what other people say The severity of aphasia varies from person to person. Some people may have mild problems, whereas other people with aphasia may have very severe difficulties in the areas of talking, listening, reading and writing. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR- ‘WHAT ARE THE DIFFICULTIES EXPERIENCED BY SOMEONE WITH APHASIA’ - Websites: ‘About Aphasia’, Australian Aphasia Association:  http://www.aphasia.org.au/AboutAphasia.htm This website page provides a brief and simple explanation about what aphasia is, how it can affect individuals, and additional brief facts about aphasia. Suitable for anyone looking for a clear, brief understanding of aphasia ‘Aphasia DVDs’, Australian Aphasia Association A DVD developed by the Australian Aphasia Association and 4th year La Trobe University students. It contains easy to understand information as to what aphasia is in the first chapter ‘what is aphasia.’ ‘About aphasia’, Aphasia help: This website page provides a list of topic links covering numerous topics of information about aphasia. This website is designed for people with aphasia and is written in simple, clear language and is very useful in helping individuals with aphasia and others understand about the many different aspects of this condition. ‘What is aphasia’, Aphasia Institute: This website page contains moderately detailed information regarding what aphasia is and how it impacts on the individual. ‘Aphasia information’, Speakability: This website page provides easy to understand, moderately detailed information about what aphasia is, the types of problems someone with aphasia might present with, and brief descriptions from people with aphasia about how they would describe the condition. ‘Summary for people with Aphasia’, Speakability: This website page provides a brief summary of aphasia, which has been written specifically for people who have aphasia ‘About aphasia’, UK Connect: This website page provides moderately detailed information about aphasia, the difficulties someone may present with, types of aphasia and statistics about the number of people with aphasia in the United Kingdom. ‘Facts about aphasia’, Adler Aphasia Centre: This website page provides brief, easy to understand information explaining what aphasia is and the difficulties people with aphasia might encounter. ‘About Aphasia’, Aphasia Association of New Zealand: This website page provides brief, easy to understand information explaining aphasia. ‘Aphasia: frequently asked questions’, The United States National Aphasia Association: This website page contains moderately detailed information responding to frequently asked questions about aphasia. It provides a simple explanation of what aphasia is. ‘Aphasia information’, The international stroke centre: This website page provides strategies for family members to use when communicating with a person with aphasia. ‘Aphasia simulations’, Aphasia corner: This website provides simulated examples of the difficulties which someone with aphasia may have in speaking, listening, reading and writing. This website is useful in providing individuals with visual and auditory examples of the various symptoms of aphasia. Website videos: ‘Understanding aphasia easier’ - This video provides detailed definitions of aphasia including both expressive and receptive aphasia including video speech samples for patients with aphasia. ‘Inside Aphasia: Part 1 of 3-’ . This video provides insights about aphasia from people with aphasia and their families. Includes a detailed description of stroke and effects of different sites of damage in stroke. ‘Aphasia and Apraxia’ - This video provides a clear explanation of the difference between aphasia and apraxia, including a great basic analogy to help people understand aphasia. This video is ideal for people with no previous knowledge of aphasia or apraxia.  Blogs: Rosin, K. What is Aphasia? Loss of Language Skills due to Brain Illness. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Kenneth Rosen creates a blog about aphasia. The blog includes information about the different types of aphasia and the causes of aphasia. Journals: Cherney, L. R. (2004). Aphasia, Alexia, and Oral Reading. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 11(1): This journal article presents an overview of the classification of the alexias from a neuroanatomical and psycholinguistic perspective. This article also includes assessment procedures and treatment approaches for alexia. Marshall, R. S. Lazar, R. M. Mohr, J. P. (1998). Neurology Update: Aphasia. Medical Update for Psychiatrists 3(5) : This journal article describes in detail and differentiates between the key features of the various aphasic syndromes and their corresponding neuroanatomical correlates. E-Books:  Code, C. (2010). Aphasia, In J. S. Damico, N. Müller and M. J. Ball, (Ed.). The Handbook of Language and Speech Disorders (pp. 317 – 336) The chapter in this e-book describes the state of the art in speech, language, and cognitive/intellectual disorders, including aphasia. The content includes statistics on aphasia, history, clinical features, recovery and management of aphasia. Schoenberg, M. R. & Scott, J. G. (2011). Aphasia Syndromes, In Schoenberg, M. R. & Scott, J. G. (Eds.). The Little Black Book of Neuropsychology : A Syndrome-based Approach (pp ) The chapter in this e-book provides a comprehensive description of aphasia from a neuropsychological perspective. It includes clinical features, neuroanatomical correlates, and assessment and treatment considerations for the condition. REFERENCES- Aphasiahelp. (2002) What is aphasia? Retrieved June 29, 2011 from Australian Aphasia Association. About Aphasia. Retrieved August 10, 2011 from Speakability. (2011)Aphasia information retrieved June 29, 2011 from Stroke connection magazine. (2003) The Language of Aphasia”. Retrieved September 12, 2011, from The National Aphasia Association. Aphasia frequently asked questions. Retrieved August 18, 2011 from Listening Writing 6 6

7 Symptoms of aphasia 7 7 Difficulties with: Putting thoughts into words
Understanding words Reading and writing Speaking fluently SCRIPT- There are many symptoms that an individual with aphasia may present with. Some of the main symptoms include: Difficulty putting their thoughts into words: they may have trouble finding the words they want to say Or they may have difficulty putting words and sentences together Difficulty understanding what others are saying. For example when people are speaking to them it may seem as though it is a foreign language. Difficulty reading and/or writing Difficulty speaking fluently- speech may be slow and halting For the person with aphasia it is a very frustrating experience, they go from being very capable of talking to experiencing extreme difficulties with it. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR ‘SYMPTOMS OF APHASIA’- Websites: ‘Aphasia DVDs’, Australian Aphasia Association A DVD developed by the Australian Aphasia Association and 4th year La Trobe University students. It contains easy to understand information about the symptoms of aphasia in the first chapter ‘what is aphasia.’ ‘About aphasia’, Aphasia help: This website is designed for people with aphasia and is written in simple, clear language. This website provides a list of topic links covering the different symptoms of aphasia. This website provides brief, clear information on difficulties someone with aphasia may have in talking, listening and understanding, reading, writing and using numbers. This website is very useful in providing information for people with aphasia and families. ‘Facts about aphasia’, Adler aphasia centre: This website provides brief, easy to understand information about aphasia, including information about the symptoms of aphasia. ‘Varieties and special features of aphasia’, The United States National Aphasia Association: This website page provides detailed information on different presentations of aphasia. It lists the different types of aphasia and discusses the symptoms a person may present with for each type. ‘Aphasia Simulations’, Aphasia Corner: This website provides simulated examples of the difficulties which someone with aphasia may have in speaking, listening, reading and writing. This website is useful in providing individuals with visual and auditory examples of the various symptoms of aphasia. Website videos: ‘Inside Aphasia: Part 1 of 3’:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jh3OhgYvjVo . This video provides insights about aphasia from people with aphasia and their families. Includes a detailed description of stroke and site of damage of stroke. This video is suitable for people with no previous knowledge about Aphasia and describes not only the symptoms of aphasia but discusses the personal experiences of people with aphasia. ‘Stroke: Causes and Effects on Speech and Language’: This video provides basic information on stroke, the brain and Aphasia including examples of Broca’s and Wernicke’s Aphasia. This video is ideal as a summary for people with little or no previous knowledge about aphasia. Blogs: Turhan,B. Stroke victim resulting in Expressive Aphasia. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Banu Turhan-Kayaalp creates a personal blog about her stroke resulting in expressive aphasia. She discusses her hospital experiences and her difficulty communicating with friends and family. Speech Impediment blog. Wernicke’s Aphasia. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from The Speech Impediment Blog informs viewers about Wernicke’s aphasia, the causes, the symptoms and the treatment. Mental Health Disorders Centre. Aphasia Symptoms. Retrieved September 12, 2011, from The Mental Health Disorders Centre creates a blog about aphasia symptoms, the different types of aphasia and the treatment of aphasia. Journal articles: Cherney, L. R. (2004). Aphasia, Alexia, and Oral Reading. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 11(1): 22-36 This journal article presents an overview of the classification of the alexias from a neuroanatomical and psycholinguistic perspective. This article also includes assessment procedures and treatment approaches for alexia. Marshall, R. S. Lazar, R. M. Mohr, J. P. (1998). Neurology Update: Aphasia. Medical Update for Psychiatrists 3(5) : This journal article describes in detail and differentiates between the key features of the various aphasic syndromes and their corresponding neuroanatomical correlates. E-Books: Code, C. (2010). Aphasia, In J. S. Damico, N. Müller and M. J. Ball, (Ed.). The Handbook of Language and Speech Disorders (pp. 317 – 336) This e-book describes the state of the art in speech, language, and cognitive/intellectual disorders, including aphasia. The content includes statistics on aphasia, history, clinical features, recovery and management of aphasia. Schoenberg, M. R. & Scott, J. G. (2011). Aphasia Syndromes, In Schoenberg, M. R. & Scott, J. G. (Eds.). The Little Black Book of Neuropsychology : A Syndrome-based Approach (pp ) The chapter in this e-book provides a comprehensive description of aphasia from a neuropsychological perspective. It includes clinical features, neuroanatomical correlates, and assessment and treatment considerations for the condition. REFERENCES- Australian Aphasia Association. About Aphasia. Retrieved August 10, 2011 from Brain Foundation. (2011) Aphasia. Retrieved from Royal Rehabilitation Centre Sydney. (2006) Aphasia Speech Pathology . Retrieved from 7 7

8 Aphasia is NOT.. An intellectual disability An articulation problem
A coordination problem A hearing or vision problem A voice problem SCRIPT- Basic script: What is really unfortunate about this condition is that it masks people’s intelligence, by taking away their ability to communicate effectively. It is important to remember aphasia is NOT: a deficit of intelligence. a problem with articulation. a problem with hearing or sight. a problem with voice. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR ‘APHASIA IS NOT’- Websites providing additional information: ‘About Aphasia’, Australian Aphasia Association: This website page provides a brief and simple explanation about what aphasia is, how it can affect individuals and what aphasia is not. ‘Facts about aphasia’, Adler aphasia centre: This website page provides brief, easy to understand information explaining what aphasia is and also what it is not and the difficulties people with aphasia might have. ‘Does aphasia affect a person’s intelligence’, National aphasia association: This website page addresses frequently asked questions about aphasia. It briefly explains in simple language how aphasia does not affect a person’s intelligence. Website videos: ‘Inside aphasia: Part 2 of 3’: This video provides insights about aphasia from people with aphasia and their families. Includes people with aphasia discussing what others can do to help and what they need to remember i.e. aphasia is not a disorder of cognition. This video is ideal for an introduction to stroke and aphasia for people with no previous neuroanatomical knowledge. Blogs: Robbins, K. Masking Your Aphasia. Retrieving September 9, 2011, from Kimberly Robbins creates an aphasia support group blog informing viewers on aphasia and recovery. This Blog supplies viewers with articles and magazines inform participants on all the different aspects of aphasia. Goldstein, E. The Birth of the Adler Aphasia Center. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from Elissa Goldstein creates a blog that encouraging people with aphasia to actively live while recovering can improve their speech and self-confidence meaningfully even years after a stroke. Rosin, K. What is Aphasia? Loss of Language Skills due to Brain Illness. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Kenneth Rosen creates a blog about aphasia. The blog provides information about the different types of aphasia and the causes of aphasia. Raza, M. Medical Phase: Aphasia. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Mohsin Raza creates a blog about aphasia. The blog includes information about the signs and symptoms of aphasia, the causes of aphasia, the diagnosis and strategies that can help communicating with someone who has aphasia. Journals: Cherney, L. R. (2004). Aphasia, Alexia, and Oral Reading. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 11(1): 22-36 This journal article presents an overview of the classification of the alexias from a neuroanatomical and psycholinguistic perspective. This article also includes assessment procedures and treatment approaches for alexia. Marshall, R. S. Lazar, R. M. Mohr, J. P. (1998). Neurology Update: Aphasia. Medical Update for Psychiatrists 3(5) : This journal article describes in detail and differentiates between the key features of the various aphasic syndromes and their corresponding neuroanatomical correlates. E-books: Code, C. (2010). Aphasia, In J. S. Damico, N. Müller and M. J. Ball, (Ed.). The Handbook of Language and Speech Disorders (pp. 317 – 336) The chapter in this e-book describes the state of the art in speech, language, and cognitive/intellectual disorders, including aphasia. The content includes statistics on aphasia, history, clinical features, recovery and management of aphasia. Schoenberg, M. R. & Scott, J. G. (2011). Aphasia Syndromes, In Schoenberg, M. R. & Scott, J. G. (Eds.). The Little Black Book of Neuropsychology : A Syndrome-based Approach (pp )    The chapter in this e-book provides a comprehensive description of aphasia from a neuropsychological perspective. It includes clinical features, neuroanatomical correlates, and assessment and treatment considerations for aphasia. REFERENCES- Aphasia help. (2002) What is aphasia? Retrieved June 29, 2011 from Australian Aphasia Association. About Aphasia. Retrieved August 10, 2011 from The National Aphasia Association. Aphasia frequently asked questions. Retrieved August 18, 2011 from The National Aphasia Association. More Aphasia Facts. Retrieved August 18, 2011 from Stroke connection magazine. (2003) The Language of Aphasia”. Retrieved September 12, 2011, from

9 Who can acquire aphasia?
Aphasia knows no boundaries Anyone can be affected SCRIPT- It is important to keep in mind that aphasia doesn’t discriminate in who it affects. It can affect people of all ages, races, nationalities and genders. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR ‘WHO CAN ACQUIRE APHASIA?’- Websites: ‘Aphasia frequently asked questions’, The national aphasia association: This website page provides simple, brief information answering frequently asked questions about aphasia. It briefly answers the question of who can acquire aphasia. ‘Aphasia information’, The international stroke centre: This website page provides statistics about who can acquire aphasia . Personal blogs: Robbins, K. Masking Your Aphasia. Retrieving September 9, 2011, from Kimberly Robbins creates an aphasia support group blog informing viewers on aphasia and recovery. This Blog supplies viewers with articles and magazines inform participants on all the different aspects of aphasia. Turhan,B. Stroke victim resulting in Expressive Aphasia. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Banu Turhan-Kayaalp creates a personal blog about her stroke resulting in expressive aphasia. She discusses her hospital experiences and her difficulty communicating with friends and family. Morganstein, S. The integrated Aphasia therapist: engagement with self and other: Various life stories. Retrieved September 13, 2011,from Shirley Morganstein (Co- Founder of Speaking of Aphasia in Montclair, NJ, Host of the Living Successfully With Aphasia Group) creates a blog which provides numerous personal accounts of the struggle facing those who acquire aphasia. Miranda. A Person Living Successfully with Aphasia. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Miranda creates a personal blog about her experience as a carer for her mother who has aphasia. Miranda informs readers about aphasia and the prevalence. Raza, M. Medical Phase: Aphasia. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Mohsin Raza creates a blog about aphasia, the signs and symptoms of aphasia, the causes of aphasia, the diagnosis and strategies that can help communicating with someone who has aphasia. Journals: Davie, G. L. Hutcheson, K. A. Barringer, D. A. Weinberg, J. S. & Lewin, J. S. (2009). Aphasia in patients after brain tumour resection. This article describes the subtypes and severity of aphasia during the acute recovery period after malignant brain tumour resection, and examines possible language differences between patients who suffer stroke and patients who undergo brain tumour resection. Hynd, G. W. Leathem, J. Semrud-Clikeman, M. Hern, K. L. and Wenner, M. (1995). Anomic Aphasia in Childhood. Journal of Child Neurology, 10(4): This article is a case study of a particular child diagnosed with Anomic aphasia secondary to a cerebral hematoma, discussing the symptoms of anomic aphasia and the course of recovery in a typical pediatric caseload. REFERENCES - Aphasiahelp. (2002) What is aphasia? Retrieved June 29, 2011 from Australian Aphasia Association. About Aphasia. Retrieved August 10, 2011 from The National Aphasia Association. Aphasia frequently asked questions. Retrieved August 18, 2011 from 9 9

10 What causes aphasia? 10 10 Damage to the language centres in the brain
Caused by Stroke Head injury Tumour dementia SCRIPT- Basic Script: Aphasia is caused by damage to the brain. More specifically, it is caused by damage to the language centres of the brain. This damage can be caused by: Stroke: the most common cause of aphasia is brain damage after stroke. It can also occur after a head injury, a brain tumour, certain types of dementia, infection or inflammation in the brain It is important to remember that the stroke or head injury is a most often a one off event, but the resulting aphasia is a condition that the person will live with for the rest of their life. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR ‘WHAT CAUSES APHASIA’- Websites: ‘What causes aphasia’, aphasia help: This website is designed for people with aphasia and is written in easy to understand language. It provides clear, brief information about the causes of aphasia Causes of aphasia, Speakability: This website page provides a brief, simple explanation of different causes of aphasia ‘Aphasia information’, The international stroke centre: This website page provides detailed information about the causes of aphasia Website videos: Inside Aphasia: Part 1 of 3-’ . This video provides insights about aphasia from people with aphasia and their families as well as a detailed description of stroke. This video is ideal for an introduction to stroke and aphasia for people with no previous neuroanatomical knowledge. Blogs: Robbins, K. Masking Your Aphasia. Retrieving September 9, 2011, from Kimberly Robbins creates an aphasia support group blog informing viewers on aphasia and recovery. This blog supplies viewers with articles and magazines to inform them on all the different aspects of aphasia. Raza, M. Medical Phase: Aphasia. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Mohsin Raza creates a blog about aphasia, the signs and symptoms of aphasia, the causes of aphasia, the diagnosis and strategies that can help when communicating with someone who has aphasia. E-books: Schoenberg, M. R. & Scott, J. G. (2011). Aphasia Syndromes, In Schoenberg, M. R. & Scott, J. G. (Eds.). The Little Black Book of Neuropsychology : A Syndrome-based Approach (pp ) The chapter in this e-book provides a comprehensive description of aphasia from a neuropsychological perspective. It includes clinical features, neuroanatomical correlates, and assessment and treatment considerations for the condition. REFERENCES- American Stroke Association. (2010). Let’s Talk About Stroke and Aphasia. Retrieved Septemberfrom Drummond, S. (2006). Neurogenic communication disorders: Aphasia and cognitive communication disorders. Illinois: Charles C Thomas Publishers Ltd. The Stroke Association (2011) what is a stroke? Retrieved September 10, 2011 from The National Aphasia Association. Aphasia frequently asked questions. Retrieved August 18, 2011 from 10 10

11 Living with aphasia 11 Changes total life experience
Aphasia constantly presents challenges throughout life. SCRIPT- Aphasia is a devastating event that brings about changes to the total life experience of the affected person. All of their relationships are impacted upon. It is not just a one off change, aphasia is a lifelong disorder that is consistently presenting challenges throughout the affected person’s life. People with aphasia are constantly confronted with problems that arise as a result of having a language disorder, as when you think about it, nearly every significant life event (as well as everyday life) is negotiated through language. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR ‘LIVING WITH APHASIA’- Websites: ‘Aphasia DVDs’, Australian Aphasia Association A DVD developed by the Australian Aphasia Association and 4th year La Trobe University students. It contains ]an insight into what it is like to live with aphasia as it interviews people who are living with aphasia. Particularly relevant is the chapter ‘living well with aphasia’ ‘Stories from people with aphasia’, Australian Aphasia Association: This website contains written stories from 5 people who have aphasia. In these stories they talk about their experiences of living with aphasia. ‘Our Stories’, Talkback association for Aphasia: This website contains 8 stories written by individuals with aphasia or family members. These stories explain each person’s personal account of living with aphasia Website videos: ‘Inside Aphasia: Part 1 of 3-’ . This video provides insights about aphasia from people with aphasia and their families. Includes a detailed description of stroke and site of damage of stroke. (7:00mins). Great video for people with no previous knowledge of aphasia to see real-life examples of people living with aphasia. ‘Inside aphasia: Part 2 of 3’: This video provides insights about aphasia from people with aphasia and their families. This video is a great video giving people with aphasia a way to explain to others how they can help. No previous knowledge of aphasia required. Personal blogs: Miranda. A Person Living Successfully with Aphasia. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Miranda creates a personal blog about her experiences as a carer for her mother who has aphasia and the prevalence of aphasia. She also provides articles on the characteristics and symptoms of aphasia. Upin, L. Meet Len Upin And His Wonderful Artwork. Retrieved September 12, 2011, from Len Upin creates a personal blogabout his experience with aphasia following a stroke. He discovered and explored the fundamental technique of drawing to help express himself. Holland, A. Words are More Like Cats than Dogs. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from Audrey Holland creates an aphasia friendly blog about Bayard Baylis’ experience with word finding problems. This blog includes articles and real life struggles with expression in all forms. National Stroke Foundation Blog. Depression after Stroke Series 1. Retrieved September 12, 2011, from The National Stroke Foundation creates a blog about the possible factors impacting those who have had a stroke. B2, B. Living with Aphasia: Loss of Control. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from Baylis creates a personal blog about his experiences with aphasia after suffering from a traumatic brain episode. He explains his difficulty expressing himself especially using words. Morganstein, S. The integrated Aphasia therapist: engagement with self and other: Various life stories. Retrieved September 13, 2011,from Shirley Morganstein (Co- Founder of Speaking of Aphasia in Montclair, NJ, Host of the Living Successfully With Aphasia Group)creates a blog, providing viewers with numerous personal accounts of the struggle facing those who acquire aphasia. Mignolo, A. Bringing awareness about Aphasia in the UK. Sarah Scott’s experience with aphasia. Retrieved September 11, 2011, from A. Mignolo creates a blog about speakeasy meeting updates, public information films, short films about real life experiences of aphasia and awareness campaigns. Gridley, K, Anna, J, Smyth, M. Communicating with aphasia. Retrieved September 11, 2011, from Joanna creates a blog about aphasia and the causes of aphasia. This blog also includes strategies on how to communicate with those who have aphasia and coping with life after aphasia. Simpson, C. Claire aged 23: When I found out, I didn’t believe them. I was 23. Retrieved September, 11, 2011 from Claire Simpson creates a personal blog about her experiences after a stroke at the age of 23. Claire talks about how crucial it is to receive support after a stroke and the importance of motivation. Sumac UK. Meet People living with Aphasia - Colin Green. Retrieved September 16, 2011, from Colin Green creates a personal blog about his experience of living with aphasia after suffering from a stroke. Sumac UK. Meet People living with Aphasia – Elaine Hamilton. Retrieved September 16, 2011, from Elaine Hamilton creates a personal blog about her experience living with aphasia after suffering from a series of strokes. She now uses other forms of communication such as drawing and writing. Sumac UK. Meet People living with Aphasia – Rita Harris. Retrieved September, 16, 2011, from Rita Harris creates a personal blog about her experiences living with primary progressive aphasia. Sumac UK. Meet People living with Aphasia – Gerald Hartup. Retrieved September 16, 2011, from Gerald Hartup creates a personal blog about his experience living with severe aphasia. Gerald only communicates with a few words. Sumac UK. Meet People living with Aphasia – Andy McKillop. Retrieved September 16, 2011, from Andy McKillop creates a personal blog about his experiences living with aphasia after a stroke. He explains how it impacted his life and made him more ambitious professionally. Sumac UK. Meet People living with Aphasia – Sharon Smith. Retrieved September 16, 2011, from Sharon Smith creates a personal blog about her experience with living with aphasia. She was pregnant when she had a stroke but only found out 17 years later. She coped by turning to art and poetry. Code, C. The Public Awareness of Aphasia Around the World. Retrieved September 24, 2011, from Chris Code creates a blog about aphasia. The blog also includes information on the variation in awareness in society as well as the importance of public awareness to improve access and inclusion. Todic, O. June is Aphasia Awareness Month. Retrieved September 24, 2011, from Ognjen Todic creates a blog about the importance of creating awareness about aphasia all over the world. The blog also explains and provides details about different activities that aphasia associations around the world have organised to help increase aphasia awareness. Journal articles: Cahana-Amitay, D. Albert, M. L., Pyun, S. B. Westwood, A. Jenkins, T. Wolford, S. Finley, M. (2011). Language as a Stressor in Aphasia. Aphasiology, 25 (5), 593–614 This journal article reviews current literature on language as a stressor in aphasia, and the role of the patient’s emotions on the rehabilitation process. Davidson, B. Worrall, L. and Hickson, L. (2007). Exploring the Interactional Dimension of Social Communication: A Collective Case Study of Older People with Aphasia. Aphasiology, 22(3): This article explores the impact of aphasia on social communication and social relationships, particularly in the geriatric population. Morris, J. Franklin, S. Menger, F. and G.D. (2011). Returning to Work with Aphasia: A Case Study. Aphasiology, 25(8): This journal article explores returning to work with aphasia, and the relationship between the person, the aphasia and the demands of employment. Parr, S. (2007). Living with Severe Aphasia: Tracking Social Exclusion. Aphasiology, 21(1): This journal article examines the day‐to‐day life and experiences of people with severe aphasia, and to document levels of social inclusion and exclusion as they occurred in everyday settings. REFERENCES- Royal Rehabilitation Centre Sydney. (2006) Aphasia Speech Pathology . Retrieved from Royal Rehabilitation Centre Sydney (2008) Speaking Aphasian. Retrieved from 11

12 Personal experience of aphasia
Discussion with a person with aphasia. In assessing the effectiveness of community talks we have found that audiences feel they most understand aphasia when they hear personal experiences of aphasia. We suggest you structure your talk to involve a person with aphasia who can provide your audience with a real life account of the impact of aphasia. If this is not a possibility for you, you could use one of the resources listed below. Suggested questions to ask a person with aphasia during presentation: ‘What has been your experience of aphasia?’” “How did your life change after you acquired aphasia?” “What are some things that you have difficulty doing now that you never used to?” “How did interacting with people change after you acquired aphasia?” “What is one thing you would like the public know about aphasia?” ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR ‘PERSONAL EXPERIENCE OF APHASIA’- Websites: ‘Aphasia DVDs’, Australian Aphasia Association A DVD developed by the Australian Aphasia Association and 4th year La Trobe University students. It contains ]an insight into what it is like to live with aphasia as it interviews people who are living with aphasia. Particularly relevant is the chapter ‘living well with aphasia’ ‘Stories from people with aphasia’, Australian Aphasia Association: This website contains written stories from 5 people who have aphasia. In these stories they talk about their experiences of living with aphasia. ‘Our Stories’, Talkback association for Aphasia: This website contains 8 stories written by individuals with aphasia or family members. These stories explain each person’s personal account of living with aphasia Website videos: Broca’s Aphasia – Sarah Scott – teenage stroke - This video is the first of three video diaries of Sarah Scott showing the early stages following her stroke. Includes discussion of how Sarah developed Aphasia and what she does to help her speech. Good video to observe use of cueing strategies. Update: Sarah Scott teenage stroke, Broca’s Aphasia - This video is the second of three video diaries (16 months post stroke) showing Sarah’s progress since her earlier video. Demonstrates use of strategies to facilitate speech and improvements that can be made following therapy. Update: Sarah Scott, Broca’s Aphasia following a stroke at 18 - This video is the third of three video diaries showing Sarah’s progress after her stroke. Good follow up to previous videos to show gains that can be made.  Blogs: Miranda. A Person Living Successfully with Aphasia. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Miranda creates a personal blog about her experiences as a carer for her mother who has aphasia and the prevalence of aphasia. She also provides articles on the characteristics and symptoms of aphasia. Upin, L. Meet Len Upin And His Wonderful Artwork. Retrieved September 12, 2011, from Len Upin creates a personal blog about his experience with aphasia following a stroke. He discovered and explored the fundamental technique of drawing to help express himself. Holland, A. Words are More Like Cats than Dogs. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from Audrey Holland creates an aphasia friendly blog about Bayard Baylis’ experience with word finding problems. This blog includes articles and real life struggles with expression in all forms. National Stroke Foundation Blog. Depression after Stroke Series 1. Retrieved September 12, 2011, from The National Stroke Foundation creates a blog about the possible factors impacting those who have had a stroke. B2, B. Living with Aphasia: Loss of Control. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from Baylis creates a personal blog about his experiences with aphasia after suffering from a traumatic brain episode. He explains his difficulty expressing himself especially using words. Morganstein, S. The integrated Aphasia therapist: engagement with self and other: Various life stories. Retrieved September 13, 2011,from Shirley Morganstein (Co- Founder of Speaking of Aphasia in Montclair, NJ, Host of the Living Successfully With Aphasia Group)creates a blog, providing readers with numerous personal accounts of the struggle facing those who acquire aphasia. Mignolo, A. Bringing awareness about Aphasia in the UK. Sarah Scott’s experience with aphasia. Retrieved September 11, 2011, from A. Mignolo creates a blog about speakeasy meeting updates, public information films, short films about real life experiences of aphasia and awareness campaigns. Gridley, K, Anna, J, Smyth, M. Communicating with aphasia. Retrieved September 11, 2011, from Joanna creates a blog about aphasia and the causes of aphasia. This blog also includes strategies on how to communicate with those who have aphasia and coping with life after aphasia. Simpson, C. Claire aged 23: When I found out, I didn’t believe them. I was 23. Retrieved September, 11, 2011 from Claire Simpson creates a personal blog about her experiences after a stroke at the age of 23. Claire talks about how crucial it is to receive support after a stroke and the importance of motivation. Sumac UK. Meet People living with Aphasia - Colin Green. Retrieved September 16, 2011, from Colin Green creates a personal blog about his experience of living with aphasia after suffering from a stroke. Sumac UK. Meet People living with Aphasia – Elaine Hamilton. Retrieved September 16, 2011, from Elaine Hamilton creates a personal blog about her experience living with aphasia after suffering from a series of strokes. She now uses other forms of communication such as drawing and writing. Sumac UK. Meet People living with Aphasia – Rita Harris. Retrieved September, 16, 2011, from Rita Harris creates a personal blog about her experiences living with primary progressive aphasia. Sumac UK. Meet People living with Aphasia – Gerald Hartup. Retrieved September 16, 2011, from Gerald Hartup creates a personal blog about his experience living with severe aphasia. Gerald only communicates with a few words. Sumac UK. Meet People living with Aphasia – Andy McKillop. Retrieved September 16, 2011, from Andy McKillop creates a personal blog about his experiences living with aphasia after a stroke. He explains how it impacted his life and made him more ambitious professionally. Sumac UK. Meet People living with Aphasia – Sharon Smith. Retrieved September 16, 2011, from Sharon Smith creates a personal blog about her experience with living with aphasia. She was pregnant when she had a stroke but only found out 17 years later. She coped by turning to art and poetry. Turhan,B. Stroke victim resulting in Expressive Aphasia. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Banu Turhan-Kayaalp creates a personal blog about her stroke resulting in expressive aphasia. She discusses her hospital experiences and her difficulty communicating with friends and family. The Stroke Association. First thoughts after stroke. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from A introductory commentary and then people talking about when they first had a stroke. The Stroke Association. Coping with having a stroke audio. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from A commentary explaining what stroke is and then people talking about how they coped with stroke. The Stroke Association. The process of getting better audio. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from A commentary about how lives are affected by stroke and people talking about the process of getting better The Stroke Association. Moving on after stroke audio. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from A commentary on moving on with life after a stroke and people talking about the overall experience and how to move on 12

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