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© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 1 Integral Psychology 3 Part Two: From Premodern to Modern Dr. Rodney H. Clarken Director of Field Experiences and Professor School of Education Northern Michigan University
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 2 This presentation is my attempt to summarize Part Two PATH: From Premodern to Modern (chapters 5-7, pp. 57-85) of Ken Wilbers Integral Psychology, (published in 2000 by Shambhala, Boston). Parts were taken from Waves, Streams, States, and Self--A Summary of My Psychological Model (Or, Outline of An Integral Psychology). See http://wilber.shambhala.com/html/books/psych_model/psych_model1.cfm/ http://wilber.shambhala.com/html/books/psych_model/psych_model1.cfm/
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 3 This presentation can be viewed alone, but recommend that viewers read the related chapters in Integral Psychology either before or after viewing for a more complete and in depth understanding, as I am only presenting my limited understanding in a way that I think will be helpful to students of this material. Also, if you have not viewed the first two presentations, Integral Psychology 1 and 2, you may wish to do so first.
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 4 Premodernitys gifts The great systems of spirituality: Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Taoism, indigenous religions The great nest of being: matter, body, mind, soul and spirit
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 5 Premodernitys downside Objective scientific investigation of reality limited and hampered, partly by religious and cultural constraints and superstitions Did not differentiate the value spheres of being and knowing which limited expression and development
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 6 Modernitys gifts Scientific method, investigation and discoveries Differentiated the value spheres of art, morals and science so they could each pursue their own truths and make great advances Rights, freedom, justice, equality,
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 7 Modernitys downside Scientific materialism reduced all reality to its or objective matter Disenchantment of the world Oppression and domination Art, morals and science dissociated, fragmented and alienated
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 8 Reconciling Premodern and Modern Combining the strengths of religious premodernity and scientific modernity while eliminating their weaknesses Religious and scientific truth should be in harmony, otherwise leads to superstition and meaninglessness
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 9 Modernitys legacy Science sought to destroy the superstitions that had crept into religions As religion had oppressed and constrained science, science did the same to religion Science became scientism and denounced all other worldviews
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 10 Modernity and the West The West is first major civilization ever to claim reality was material Promoted the worldview of scientific materialism, imperialism, colonialism, empiricism, reductionism that reduced all interiors to exteriors
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 11 Quadrants anything can be looked at from four perspectives: from the inside or from the outside, and in the singular or the plural Inside/InteriorOutside/Exterior Singular/IndividualPlural/Collective
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 12 For example, consciousness, the singular perspective From the singular inside, first-person, phenomenal view, described in "I" language, we can see various feelings, hopes, fears, sensations, and perceptions From the singular outside, third-person, objective view, described in "it" language, we can see the objective brain mechanisms and neurophysiological systems.
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 13 In addition to a singular view Consciousness exists in the plural (as part of a group, a community, a collective). Consciousness does not exist in a vacuum; it exists in a community of other selves. Just as we can look at the inside and the outside of the individual, we can look at the inside and the outside of the plural or collective.
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 14 Consciousness: the plural perspective From the plural inside, second-person, intersubjective view, described in "we" language, we see various shared worldviews, ethics, customs, values, and intersubjective structures held in common by those in the collective From the plural outside, third-person, interobjective view, described in its language, we see objective social systems, structures and institutions; the techno-economic base, the quantitative aspects of the society, modes of communication and so on.
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 15 Wilbers Four Quadrants Upper Left Interior-Individual (Intentional) I subjective Upper Right Exterior-Individual (Behavioral) It objective Lower Left Interior-Collective (Cultural) We intersubjective Lower Right Exterior-Collective (Social) Its interobjective
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 16
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 17 Need to consider all views Every line, level and state of being and knowing has these four dimensions They need to be considered and integrated to have a complete, holistic, global and integral view Different approaches to understanding each view
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 18
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 19 Exterior consciousness of the individual (UR) Consciousness is clearly linked in complex ways to objective biological and neurophysiological systems that may be investigated by MRI, CAT, EEG, physiological markers, and so on. provides the "brain" or it perspective that needs to be correlated with the "mind" or I and the we and its side
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 20 Interior consciousness of the individual (UL) The subjective aspect of consciousness, individual awareness The I perspective, though immediately and subjectively present and available, needs to be correlated with the it/s and we dimensions of consciousness
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 21 Interior consciousness of the collective (LL) Intersubjective, ethical, linguistic, and cultural contexts mold consciousness and therefore forms an important part of a more integral analysis But just as consciousness can not be reduced to "it or I language, it includes but can not be reduced to "we"-language. All realities, are not merely cultural constructions.
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 22 Exterior consciousness of the collective (LR) Various techno-economic modes, institutions, economic circumstances, ecological networks and social systems affect consciousness, but consciousness can not be reduced to or solely determined by a holistic system of interwoven "its.
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 23
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 24 Exterior/Interior Exterior: Possess simple location, can physically sense, emphasize quantity or size Interior: no simple physical location in exterior world (exist in emotional, spiritual, cultural, etc. space) emphasizes quality (value, depth, meaning)
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 25 Summary Subjective intentions, objective brain states and behavior, intersubjective cultural contexts and interobjective social forces all are a part of and affect consciousness
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 26 Four made three The four major perspectives, I, it, we and its can be reduced to the I, we and it(s), or first-, second- and third-person accounts of reality The following charts give several other correlates of these Big Three
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 27 Big Three correlates Objective/Inter objective Subjective Intersubjective It/sI We Third personFirst person Second Person NatureConsciousness Culture Technical skillsPersonal values Collective wisdom
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 28 Big Three correlates (more) Ecology/ Systems Self/EgoRelationships ScienceArt (self expression) Morals Platos The True The BeautifulThe Good Poppers Objective It Subjective ICultural We
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 29 Big Three correlates (still more) Habermas Propositional Truth Subjective Truthfulness /Sincerity Normative Rightness/Justice Kants Pure Reason Aesthetic Judgment Practical Reason Buddhisms Dharma BuddhaSangha Wilbers Behavioral/Social IntentionalCultural
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 30 Some modern pioneers to the integral approach Early pioneers: Goethe, Schelling, Hegel, Fechner, James 20 th Century: Steiner, Whitehead, Gebser In the next four slides will look at the four pioneers discussed on pp. 78-85 of Integral Psychology
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 31 James Mark Baldwin (1861-1934) First great developmental psychologist and may be Americas greatest psychologist Believed the three great modes of experience were aesthetic, moral and scientific (see Big Three above) and proposed detailed developmental stages in each of these domains Influenced Piaget, Kohlberg, Dewey, Popper, Campbell and others
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 32 Jurgen Habermas (1929-) Most comprehensive developmental philosopher alive applying his integral vision across philosophy, psychology, anthropology, evolutionary theory, linguistics and politics Three tiered model account of: 1) universal pragmatics, 2) development of individual in Big Three and 3) socio-cultural evolution
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 33 Sri Aurobindo (1872-1950) Indias greatest modern philosopher-sage Synthesized truths of premodern and modern Model of consciousness consists of three systems: 1) surface/outer/frontal, 20deeper/psychic/soul and 3) vertical ascending/descending
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 34 Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) First to gather evidence that each level has a different need that emerges hierarchically and pre-potently as follows: 1) physiological, 2) safety, 3) belongingness, 4) self-esteem, 5) self- actualization and 6) self-transcendence. Instrumental in founding humanistic- existential and transpersonal psychology
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 35 References Most of the material in this presentation was taken from pp. 57-85 of Integral Psychology, (2000). The charts are from Waves, Streams, States, and Self--A Summary of My Psychological Model (Or, Outline of An Integral Psychology) at http://wilber.shambhala.com/html/books/psych_model/psych_model1.cfm/ http://wilber.shambhala.com/html/books/psych_model/psych_model1.cfm/ All by Ken Wilber. Please read his material for more complete and in depth information.
© Rodney H. Clarken 2004 36 Contact information Dr. Rodney H. Clarken Director of Field Experiences and Professor School of Education, Northern Michigan University, 1401 Presque Isle Avenue, Marquette, MI 49855- 5348 Tel: 906-227-2160 (secretary), 227-1881 (office), 226- 2079 (home), Fax: 227-2764, email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website with this presentation and web cast and info on courses, papers, Baha'i and China: http://www- instruct.nmu.edu/education/rclarkenhttp://www- instruct.nmu.edu/education/rclarken
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