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EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Fitness Assessment and Principles of Training.

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Presentation on theme: "EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Fitness Assessment and Principles of Training."— Presentation transcript:

1 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Fitness Assessment and Principles of Training

2 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Housekeeping Texts in library 612- Quartos/ Main collection Lab times

3 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Homeostasis: The condition of bodily function where there is a constant or unchanging internal environment.  Disrupted by exercise

4 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Negative Feedback Loop

5 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Negative feedback loop Temperature Glucose Thirst Urination

6 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Homeostasis

7 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

8 Fitness Assessment Direct Indirect Clinical/ field

9 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Training Principles

10 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Training Principles Individuality Specificity Reversibility Overload Hard/easy Periodisation Page 190 of Text

11 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Aerobic Training Frequency- 3 times per week Intensity- At least 55-60% Vo2 Max, Or 90% MHR Time min p/day Type- Running, walking, swimming, cycling Overload: need to train above a stimulus threshold for chronic training adaptations

12 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Components of aerobic training session ACSM Guidelines for Fitness Testing and prescription, 6 th Ed (2000)

13 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

14 Aerobic fitness- Stages of Progression, Heyward, 1997 Initial Conditioning stage- 4 weeks- begin to increase duration first, then exercise intensity Improvement stage- 4-5 months- increase freq, intensity and time one element at a time until fitness goals are reached. Maintenance stage- >6 months- may reduce frequency of one activity to replace with another to relieve boredom

15 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Question from the readings: Training 3-4 hours per day in two separate sessions produces greater results than a single training session 1-1.5hours in length?? TRUE or FALSE?

16 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Overload: need to train above a stimulus threshold for chronic training adaptations Hypertrophy Training Guidelines Reps: 6-12 repetitions per set Time Under Tension: seconds Sets: successive sets may be performed per training session per muscle group Load: % of 1RM Rest Period: seconds between sets (to commence next set before full recovery is achieved). Frequency: 2-5 days rest between successive training sessions for the same muscle group

17 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Resistance training Increase resistance Increase repetitions Increase sets Increase intensity

18 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

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20 (Selye, 1951)

21 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

22 Overtraining Causes: -Increased frequency training -Increased Volume training -Increased intensity training -Insufficient recovery -Travel -Time of year -Alcohol/tobacco/drugs -Lack of sleep Symptoms: Fatigue Change in appetite Decreased immune function -Insomnia Weight loss Mood changes Loss of motivation - Disrupted menstruation

23 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Taper Involves a period of reduced training prior to athletic competition. May be 4-28 days long Reduce intensity and volume From training 6 days p/wk  2 days p/wk 40 min/day  13 min/day » does not  VO2max »  muscle power »  performance »  psychological readiness »For up to 6-8 weeks

24 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Why does it work? Taper allows contractile mechanisms to be repaired Allows muscles to repair damage Vo2 max can be maintained even when training reduced by 2/3 After intense training, type 2 muscle fibres (Fast twitch) had reduced maximal shortening velocity (Fitts, Costill., & Gardetto, 1989)

25 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Record merely a warm-up for Grant Michael Cowley, SMH, July 21, 2008 Grant Hackett's world record swim in Melbourne- 800 metres swim at the Victorian shortcourse championships, 7 min, seconds s under the world record he set in Perth in August What made the swim even more impressive was that it came at the end of a week of very heavy training, and before he had even begun to taper for Beijing.

26 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Reversibility Use it or lose it Detraining- partial/ complete loss of training adaptations due to dramatic decrease in training load

27 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Detraining in terms of muscular strength and power Young men and women on 9 week training program –1RM increased by 34% –12 weeks detraining  No significant loss strength –31 weeks detraining  8% loss strength Why? –Inactivity  atrophy –Loss muscle fibre recruitment –Fibre type characteristics (type I, type II) –Change in rate protein synthesis

28 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Detraining- Muscular Endurance Decreases after 2 weeks inactivity May be due to changes in muscle itsself, or in CV system –40% decrease in muscle glycogen (Costill, Fink, Hargreaves et al, 1985) –Increase in lactate produced

29 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Detraining- CV Endurance Saltin et al 1968 Bed rest (complete inactivity) for 20 days –25% decrease SV and CO –Vo2 max decreased by 27% Due to –rapid decline in plasma volume –Decreased mitochondrial activity in muscle Fittest people experienced greatest loss

30 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Other Pulmonary Function Body composition Cardiovascular function Skeletal muscle Loss of heat acclimation DETRAINING  Body fat  Lean body mass  Body weight  Red blood cell mass  End diastolic volume  Plasma volume  Mitochondrial density  Capillary density  Muscular strength  Respiratory muscle strength & endurance

31 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Training should be based on the specific demands/needs of the sport/event. TRAINING SPECIFICITY Thermoregulation Cardiorespiratory Function Neuroendocrine Responses Body Composition Muscle Energy Metabolism Muscle Hypertrophy Musculoskeletal Integrity Neurmuscular Recruitment Patterns Specificity

32 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Individual differences Genetics- Gender- Age- Training goals-

33 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Summary Exercise is a disruption to homeostasis Requires the body to adapt to ST demands  body adapts LT to simplify ST adaptations easier  need to adhere to training principles –Progressive overload –Specificity –Reversibility –Individual differences


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