Fitness Assessment Direct Indirect Clinical/ field
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Training Principles
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Training Principles Individuality Specificity Reversibility Overload Hard/easy Periodisation Page 190 of Text
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Aerobic Training Frequency- 3 times per week Intensity- At least 55-60% Vo2 Max, Or 90% MHR Time- 20-30 min p/day Type- Running, walking, swimming, cycling Overload: need to train above a stimulus threshold for chronic training adaptations
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Components of aerobic training session ACSM Guidelines for Fitness Testing and prescription, 6 th Ed (2000)
Aerobic fitness- Stages of Progression, Heyward, 1997 Initial Conditioning stage- 4 weeks- begin to increase duration first, then exercise intensity Improvement stage- 4-5 months- increase freq, intensity and time one element at a time until fitness goals are reached. Maintenance stage- >6 months- may reduce frequency of one activity to replace with another to relieve boredom
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Question from the readings: Training 3-4 hours per day in two separate sessions produces greater results than a single training session 1-1.5hours in length?? TRUE or FALSE?
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Overload: need to train above a stimulus threshold for chronic training adaptations Hypertrophy Training Guidelines Reps: 6-12 repetitions per set Time Under Tension: 30 -60 seconds Sets: 10-15 successive sets may be performed per training session per muscle group Load: 70-85 % of 1RM Rest Period: 30-60 seconds between sets (to commence next set before full recovery is achieved). Frequency: 2-5 days rest between successive training sessions for the same muscle group
Overtraining Causes: -Increased frequency training -Increased Volume training -Increased intensity training -Insufficient recovery -Travel -Time of year -Alcohol/tobacco/drugs -Lack of sleep Symptoms: Fatigue Change in appetite Decreased immune function -Insomnia Weight loss Mood changes Loss of motivation - Disrupted menstruation
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Taper Involves a period of reduced training prior to athletic competition. May be 4-28 days long Reduce intensity and volume From training 6 days p/wk 2 days p/wk 40 min/day 13 min/day » does not VO2max » muscle power » performance » psychological readiness »For up to 6-8 weeks
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Why does it work? Taper allows contractile mechanisms to be repaired Allows muscles to repair damage Vo2 max can be maintained even when training reduced by 2/3 After intense training, type 2 muscle fibres (Fast twitch) had reduced maximal shortening velocity (Fitts, Costill., & Gardetto, 1989)
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Record merely a warm-up for Grant Michael Cowley, SMH, July 21, 2008 Grant Hackett's world record swim in Melbourne- 800 metres swim at the Victorian shortcourse championships, 7 min, 23.42 seconds - 1.86s under the world record he set in Perth in August 2001. What made the swim even more impressive was that it came at the end of a week of very heavy training, and before he had even begun to taper for Beijing.
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Reversibility Use it or lose it Detraining- partial/ complete loss of training adaptations due to dramatic decrease in training load
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Detraining in terms of muscular strength and power Young men and women on 9 week training program –1RM increased by 34% –12 weeks detraining No significant loss strength –31 weeks detraining 8% loss strength Why? –Inactivity atrophy –Loss muscle fibre recruitment –Fibre type characteristics (type I, type II) –Change in rate protein synthesis
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Detraining- Muscular Endurance Decreases after 2 weeks inactivity May be due to changes in muscle itsself, or in CV system –40% decrease in muscle glycogen (Costill, Fink, Hargreaves et al, 1985) –Increase in lactate produced
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Detraining- CV Endurance Saltin et al 1968 Bed rest (complete inactivity) for 20 days –25% decrease SV and CO –Vo2 max decreased by 27% Due to –rapid decline in plasma volume –Decreased mitochondrial activity in muscle Fittest people experienced greatest loss
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Other Pulmonary Function Body composition Cardiovascular function Skeletal muscle Loss of heat acclimation DETRAINING Body fat Lean body mass Body weight Red blood cell mass End diastolic volume Plasma volume Mitochondrial density Capillary density Muscular strength Respiratory muscle strength & endurance
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Training should be based on the specific demands/needs of the sport/event. TRAINING SPECIFICITY Thermoregulation Cardiorespiratory Function Neuroendocrine Responses Body Composition Muscle Energy Metabolism Muscle Hypertrophy Musculoskeletal Integrity Neurmuscular Recruitment Patterns Specificity
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Summary Exercise is a disruption to homeostasis Requires the body to adapt to ST demands body adapts LT to simplify ST adaptations easier need to adhere to training principles –Progressive overload –Specificity –Reversibility –Individual differences
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.