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Books to Begin On Dr. Kristen Pennycuff Trent. Books to Begin On Developing Initial Literacy Babies First Books Toy Books Finger Plays and Nursery Songs.

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Presentation on theme: "Books to Begin On Dr. Kristen Pennycuff Trent. Books to Begin On Developing Initial Literacy Babies First Books Toy Books Finger Plays and Nursery Songs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Books to Begin On Dr. Kristen Pennycuff Trent

2 Books to Begin On Developing Initial Literacy Babies First Books Toy Books Finger Plays and Nursery Songs Nursery Rhymes ABC Books Counting Books Concept Books Wordless Picture Books Books About Common Experiences Books for the Beginning Reader

3 Developing Initial Literacy Reading Aloud –Emotional bonds –Cognitive development –Oral language development –Pleasure

4 Babies First Books Relate to familiar life experiences Identify and name objects Be sturdy and well constructed Use clear, natural language Be predictable Provide humor Show clear, uncluttered illustrations with no distracting backgrounds Offer opportunities for interaction

5 Toy Books Board Books Pop-Up Books Flap Books Cloth Books Plastic Books

6 Toy Books Built in participation and interaction Cut out and lift the flap books Wheres Spot? Pat the Bunny The Very Hungry Caterpillar Cock-A-Moo-Moo

7 Finger Plays and Nursery Songs Finger plays encourage participation –Eensy, Weensy Spider –Five Little Monkeys –Where is Thumbkin? Collected by Freidrich Froebel, father of kindergarten movement, in Germany

8 Finger Plays and Nursery Songs Nursery songs encourage response to singing and music –Going on a Bear Hunt –Wheel on the Bus –I Know an Old Lady –Old McDonald

9 Mother Goose Books Earliest literature enjoyed by many young children Appealing characteristics –Rhythm –Rhyme –Repetition of sounds –Humor –Hyperbole (use of exaggeration for effect)

10 Mother Goose Books Links word play and nursery rhymes to phonemic awareness Contributes to emergent literacy development Opportunities for active participation and response Reflects interests of children

11 Mother Goose Books Collections –Kate Greenaways Mother Goose –Rosemary Wells Here Comes Mother Goose –Tomie de Paolas Mother Goose Books that Illustrate One Rhyme –Over the Moon –Mary Had A Little Lamb Nursery Rhymes in Other Lands –Tortillas Para Mama

12 Alphabet Books Used to identify familiar objects as well as letters and sounds –Word-picture format –Simple narrative –Riddle or puzzles –Topical themes

13 Alphabet Books Appropriate for children of all ages –Z was Zapped –Alphabet City –The Graphic Alphabet Book –Icky Bug Alphabet Book –Tomorrows Alphabet –D is for Duck

14 Counting Books Used for educational purposes to develop mathematical concepts –One-to-one correspondence Big Fat Hen –Other simple math concepts Ten Black Dots –Number stories and puzzles The Doorbell Rang

15 Counting Books Ten, Nine, Eight Look Whooos Counting Cookie Count Oreo Counting Book Cheerios Counting Book Count on Me 29 Letters and 99 Cents

16 Concept Books Stimulate cognitive development –Help teach concepts about spatial relationships, patterns, visual discrimination, etc. –First non-fiction books –Major Authors Tana Hoban Lois Elhert Donald Crews

17 Concept Books –A Busy Year –Mouse Paint –Good Morning, Good Night –More, Fewer, Less –Were Going On a Bear Hunt

18 Wordless Picture Books Illustrations tell the whole story without words Encourages –Language development –Vocabulary –Oral discussion –Storytelling

19 Wordless Picture Books Alexandra Day: Carl series Pat Hutchins: Rosies Walk Tomie de Paola: Pancakes for Breakfast Peter Spier: Noahs Ark Raymond Briggs: The Snowman David Weisner: Tuesday

20 Books About Common Experiences No, David! When Sophie Gets Angry In the Rain with Baby Duck The Runaway Bunny Goodnight Moon Jesse Bear, What Will You Wear Owl Babies

21 Books for the Beginning Reader Predictable Books –In the Tall, Tall Grass –Barnyard Banter –Brown Bear, Brown Bear –Today is Monday –Chicken Soup with Rice –Napping House –Shoes from Grandpa

22 Books for the Beginning Reader Controlled Vocabulary Books –New genre started by Dr. Suess in 1957 Created The Cat in the Hat from 220 Dolch sight words –Little Bear series –Frog and Toad series

23 Controlled Vocabulary Books Caution: –Dull plots –Flat characters –Unnatural language patterns Look For: –Natural language –Creative plots –Real child appeal –Good artwork

24 Big Books Provide format for all to see and interact Balance teacher and class created big books with commercially made materials See Creating Big Books with Emergent Readers page 158

25 Literature Circles Dr. Kristen R. Pennycuff

26 What are literature circles? Defined as –a strategy, –an approach, –and a method of teaching literature.

27 What are literature circles? Small groups of students who read the same book and gather together to discuss their reading. The purpose is to have students respond to, discuss, and think about real literature.

28 What are literature circles? …small, temporary discussion groups who have chosen to read the same story... The circles have regular meetings, with discussion roles rotating each session. When the finish a book, the circle members plan a way to share highlights of their reading with the wider community. (Daniels, 1994)

29 Who can use literature circles? Absolutely anyone –Independent use best for 2 nd and 3 rd grade –K and 1 st with teacher assistance and scaffolding

30 Why should we use literature circles? Allows students to practice authentic reading behaviors and sparks student interest through peer enthusiasm. –Hollingsworth, 1998

31 Why should we use literature circles? Invites students to actively participate in sharing their ideas and building meaning from what they read. –Daniels, 1994

32 Why should we use literature circles? Dramatically changes students attitudes towards books and reading Engages reluctant readers and helps them feel more confident –Samway, Whang, Cade,, 1991, 1996

33 Why should we use literature circles? Increases talk about books both in and out of the classroom Helps students understand themselves and others through personal connections made with characters and study themes. –Samway, Whang, Cade,, 1991, 1996

34 Why should we use literature circles? Allows all students to succeed regardless of reading levels or ability. Utilizes cooperative learning strategies and social cooperative learning skills. Encourages students to be positive members of a literacy community. Capitalizes on how students personally respond to literature. Encourages multiple readings of the text. –Moen, 2000

35 Use of literature circles increases Number of books read by children The time children spend reading on a daily basis Student interest in reading Student awareness of reading strategies Student selection of high quality childrens literature The amount of time spent on task during the reading block Completion rate of class work Enthusiasm for learning

36 What are the students doing in literature circles? Circle Supervisor –Guides group discussion Story Summarizer –Summarizes daily reading and reports to group Question Creator –Creates and answers questions Imaginative Illustrator –Visualizes and illustrates scene from reading and shares with group Word Watcher –Identifies and defines crucial vocabulary Bridge Builder –Makes connections between events and text, self, world

37 What are the students doing in literature circles? Character Sketcher –Describes characters Scene Setter –Describes and draws scenes Dialogue Describer –Discusses important dialogue Have-in-Common Connector –Discovers what group members have in common with characters and events Plot Person –Promotes understanding of events in the story Wordsmith –Discusses important, unusual, or unfamiliar words Decision Director –Looks at the decisions of the main character

38 Why use role sheets? Serves as a guide for discussion Assesses student understanding of literature Helps students develop and use reading strategies Encourages students to respond to and interact with literature

39 How do you get started? 1.Talk to students about how literature circles work. Explain roles and role sheets, schedule, assessment, books, and book selection

40 How do you get started? 2.Determine who will select the literature Teacher Student Text sets with self selection Same author, theme, etc…

41 How do you get started? 3.Choosing literature Quality, authentic literature Personal preference Appropriate for reading levels 4.Book talks and student selection –Approximately 60 seconds –Student rankings

42 How do you get started? 5.Acquiring book sets Scout your school Search local bookstores Look for garage and yard sales Join school book clubs Apply for grant Ask parents to help

43 How do you get started? 6.Group selection 4 to 6 students best Based on interest, not reading level

44 How do you teach students the how tos? Explain and model forms –Role forms –Model and teach one role at a time Begin with a familiar text Think alouds Overhead

45 How do you teach students the how tos? Allot time for group meetings –Do what works best for you and your students –No set limits –Different expectations for K-1 and 2-3

46 How do you teach students the how tos? K and 1 –Approximately 30 minutes 15 minutes teacher or students read book –Big Book with little books 5-10 minutes small group discussion 5-10 minutes whole group discussion Grades 2 and 3 –Generally about 60 minutes 35 minutes independent reading/role completion 20 minutes circle discussion 10 minutes whole class discussion

47 How do you teach students the how tos? Choose group meeting spaces –Private spaces around room –One or two groups meet during centers –Blankets on floor to designate space –Use halls and open spaces

48 How do you teach students the how tos? Organize groups and role forms –Students keep forms and books –Organization chart –Role nametags or hats –Circle Supervisor **Critical to rotate roles**

49 How do you teach students the how tos? Remember that redirection will be needed as students learn –Re-explain –Role play

50 How do you assess literature circles? Observations Anecdotal notes Conferences Portfolios Projects Self assessment Group assessment Circle Star

51 How do you assess literature circles? Productivity 40% –Quantity of reading –Preparation for discussion –Contributions to group Teacher observation Daily role sheets

52 How do you assess literature circles? Growth 40% –Variety of books, authors, genres –Explanations and interpretations –Use of input from peers & teacher –Application of skills in other reading –Response expressed in projects Role sheets, conferences, observation, artifacts

53 How do you assess literature circles? Quality of Reading 20% –Difficulty of texts read –Level of thinking shown –Leadership in discussions –Sophistication of projects Observation, portfolios, artifacts, conferences

54 How do you adapt for all reading levels? Simplify forms Buddy Read Different roles more suitable Literature circles inherently support struggling readers.

55 How do you start non- fiction literature circles? Start with biographies –Whole class reading of core book or basal story –Explicit instruction on biographies –Student choose own biographies Individually or in groups

56 How do you start non- fiction literature circles? Create new roles –Fantastic Fact Finder –Timeline Traveler –Vital Statistics Collector Keep old roles –Imaginative Illustrator –Word Watcher –Bridge Builder –Circle Supervisor –Story Summarizer –Question Creator

57 How do you start non- fiction literature circles? Add more non-fiction –Narrative non-fiction –Companion sets Incorporate other strategies –VIP –Two column notes –Say Something

58 Does it work? Lit circles are really fun! Lit circles are very neat. They are very, very, very awesome. Lit circles are very complicated though. First you pick a book. Then you decide where to read up to. Next you read up to that page and you discuss the part that you read. Do that three times and then you do an awesome project then present it to the class. Like I told you lit circles are very fun. You should try a lit circle today. Trust me. (Student response from Daniels, 1994)

59 Does it work? This structure allowed me the freedom to turn ownership over to the students. Students gained greater insight by sharing literature instead of reading in isolation. Students who never participated before during whole class discuss found a voice. (Sandy, a 4 th grade teacher in Daniels, 1999)

60 Resources Classroom Literature Circles by Elizabeth Aguerre Literature Circle Role Sheets by Christine Moen Literature Circles by Harvey Daniels

61 Evaluating and Selecting Childrens Literature Dr. Kristen Pennycuff Trent

62 Objectives of the Literature Program Entertainment Literary Heritage Identification of Formal Elements Understanding of Self and Others Critical Analysis

63 Standards for Evaluating Books There are ideas that go beyond the plot of a novel or picture book story or the basic theme of a non-fiction book, but they are presented subtly and gently; good books do not preach; their ideas are wound into the substance of the book and are clearly a part of the book itself. Jean Karl, 1987

64 Standards for Evaluating Books Literary Questions –How effective is the development of literary elements? Artistic Questions –How effective are the illustrations and the illustrators techniques? Pragmatic Questions –How accurate and logical is the material?

65 Standards for Evaluating Books Philosophical Questions –Will this book enrich a readers life? Personal Questions –Does this book appeal to me?

66 Standards for Evaluating Books Three Categories of Book Reviews Descriptive –Factual information about the story and illustrations Analytical –Discuss, compare, and evaluate literary elements, the illustrations, and other books Sociological –Social context of the book, characterizations of groups, stereotypes, possible controversy, popularity

67 Award Winners Caldecott –19 th century illustrator, Randolph Caldecott –Illustrator of the best picture book Newbery –18 th century bookseller, John Newbery –Author of the best childrens novel

68 Award Winners Hans Christian Anderson –Highest international recognition –Author and illustrator lasting contributions Childrens Choice/ Teachers Choice –International Reading Association –10,000 children/teachers vote for favorite books

69 Literary Elements (Story Grammars) Plot – sequence of action Conflict –Dilemma characters face Man vs. man (Peter Rabbit) Man vs. nature (Julie of the Wolves) Man vs. self (Hatchet) Man vs. society (Blubber)

70 Literary Elements (Story Grammars) Resolution –Ending to story conflict Setting –Location in time and place Moods Antagonist Historical background Symbolism

71 Literary Elements (Story Grammars) Characterization –People in the story Strengths/weaknesses Physical appearance Conversations Thoughts Perception of other characters Actions –Books should treat all characters as individuals.

72 Literary Elements (Story Grammars) Theme –Underlying idea that ties the plot, characters, and setting together into a meaningful whole Changes in character Nature of conflict Personal development

73 Literary Elements (Story Grammars) Style –Word selection and arrangement –To create characters, plot, and settings –To create theme Point of View –Perspective of characters First person I Third person he, she, they Omniscient all knowing

74 Literary Elements (Story Grammars) Stereotypes –Inadequate representation of minority groups or females –Insensitive or demeaning –Over generalization –Common in copyright dates prior to 1970

75 The Right Book for the Right Child Accessibility –Home, school, community Readability –Rule of Thumb Interest –Motivation

76 Children as Ultimate Critics Is this a good story? Is the story something I think could really happen? Did the main character overcome the problem, but not too easily? Did the climax seem natural? Did the characters seem real? Did the characters grow in the story? Did the characters have both strengths and weaknesses? Did the setting present what is actually known about this time or place? Did the characters fit into the setting? Did I feel that I was really in that time and place? What did the author want to tell me in the story? Was the theme worthwhile? When I read the book aloud, did the characters sound like real people talking? Did the rest of the language seem natural?

77 Your Turn Using your easy books, perform the Children As Ultimate Critics analysis then share with your group.

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