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THE EUROPEAN UNION (EU) Aurélien Mazuy, Pascaline Winand and Caitlin Gheller.

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Presentation on theme: "THE EUROPEAN UNION (EU) Aurélien Mazuy, Pascaline Winand and Caitlin Gheller."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE EUROPEAN UNION (EU) Aurélien Mazuy, Pascaline Winand and Caitlin Gheller

2 Who I am Pascaline Winand Pascaline Winand My identities: My identities: BelgianBelgian European:European: Father from Walloon and Flemish parts of Belgium Father from Walloon and Flemish parts of Belgium Mother from France and Austria Mother from France and Austria International:International: Studied and taught in Belgium, France, the United States, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Peru, Italy and now in Australia Studied and taught in Belgium, France, the United States, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Peru, Italy and now in Australia Cześć ! Hey ! Hola ! Salut !

3 Brussels Languages and provinces of Belgium (yellow: Dutch language, red: French language, orange: bilingual French - Dutch, blue: German language) Source: wikipedia

4 Europe & Australia: removed.jpg/800px-World-map-2004-cia-factbook-large-1.7m-whitespace-removed.jpg

5 A long relationship: A long relationship: - Portuguese : Beginning of the 16th Century? - Dutch : 17th Century - French : 17th Century - English: 17 th Century ns/thumb/7/76/Captainjamescookportrait.jpg/ 220px-Captainjamescookportrait.jpg

6 European immigration : 18th to 21st Century - 18th-19th Century : UK (Gold Rush) - WWII : Jewish, Dutch, Italian, Greek, German, Yugoslavian… - White Australia Policy until the 1970s

7 Australian-EU immigration and travel - Nearly 70% of Australians can claim European Ancestry ! - About new European migrants to Australia every year million Europeans visit Australia every year - About 1 million Australians travel to Europe ( Source: ief.html)

8 A snapshot of what is the “European Union” (EU) Not a State: in-between a state and an international organisation Not a State: in-between a state and an international organisation Not Europe: Norway, Switzerland etc. are not members of the EU Not Europe: Norway, Switzerland etc. are not members of the EU Represents million people Represents million people Has 27 member states, 28 with the accession of Croatia in 2013 Has 27 member states, 28 with the accession of Croatia in 2013

9 EU Member States by Population 1 Germany 1 Germany 81,305,856 2 France 2 France 65,630,692 3 United Kingdom 4 Italy 3 United Kingdom 63,047,162 4 Italy 61,261,254 5 Spain 5 Spain47,042,984 6 Poland 6 Poland38,415,284 7 Romania 7 Romania 21,848,504 8 Netherlands 8 Netherlands 16,730,632 9 Greece 9 Greece 10,767, Portugal 10 Portugal 10,781, Belgium 11 Belgium 10,438, Czech Republic 12 Czech Republic 10,177, Hungary 13 Hungary 9,958, Sweden 14 Sweden 9,103, Austria 15 Austria8,219, Bulgaria 16 Bulgaria7,037, Denmark 17 Denmark5,543, Slovakia 18 Slovakia5,483, Finland 19 Finland5,262, Ireland 20 Ireland4,722, Lithuania 21 Lithuania3,525, Latvia 22 Latvia2,191, Slovenia 23 Slovenia1,996, Estonia 24 Estonia1,274, Cyprus 25 Cyprus1,138, Luxembourg 26 Luxembourg 509, Malta 27 Malta409,836 adapted from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2119.html#ee

10 Many member states and… EU institutions (Commission, Council, Court of Justice…) EU institutions (Commission, Council, Court of Justice…) Many policies: agriculture, environment, competition, immigration… Many policies: agriculture, environment, competition, immigration… Many players: private interest groups, citizen groups, non EU governmental actors, journalists… Many players: private interest groups, citizen groups, non EU governmental actors, journalists…

11 The European Union ‘Symbols’: European Anthem: European Anthem: “Ode to Joy” by Beethoven Musical arrangement: Herbert von Karajan Recorded at: Teatro da Trindade - Lisboa Orchestra: Orchestre d'Harmonie des Jeunes de l'Union Européenne, conducted by André Reichling Producer: European Commission in collaboration with the Council of Europe ALL RIGHTS OF THE PRODUCER AND THE OWNER OF THE WORK REPRODUCED RESERVED rg/wikipedia/commons/th umb/6/6f/Beethoven.jpg/ 300px-Beethoven.jpg h?v=Wod-MudLNPA

12 Europa Myth: Europa Myth: Where does the name ‘Europe’ come from? pedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Mo reau,_Europa_and_the_Bull.jpg/ 180px- Moreau,_Europa_and_the_Bull.j pg mb/9/91/Abduction_of_Europe,_European_Parliament,_Strasbourg.jpg/800px- Abduction_of_Europe,_European_Parliament,_Strasbo urg.jpg

13 The Flag: The Flag: 12 stars dia/en/thumb/6/6d/European_flag.s vg/800px-European_flag.svg.png

14 Europe Day 9 May

15 The motto: The motto: “UNITED IN DIVERSITY” may/gallery/2005/index_en.htm may/gallery/1997/index_en.htm

16 Why the European Union?: The Peace : The Peace : - WWI ( ) & WWII ( ) - Millions of dead Time to stop ! News LTD

17 A United Europe: a long tradition - Roman Empire : 27 B.C to 476 A.C - Napoleon Empire : 19th Century : The Fall of the Berlin Wall … towards the reunification of Eastern and Western Europe DAN=DFST &JPGPath=/Assets/Still/1991/Air_Force/D F-ST JPG

18 A strong Europe in a globalised world: A strong Europe in a globalised world: - Possible to compete with other economic giants (USA / Japan / China…) - More coherent to tackle terrorism and organized crime - Coordinating foreign policies - Defend certain values: rule of law, human rights, peace

19 Historic Steps: Historic Steps: 1951: The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) is established by the six founding members 1951: The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) is established by the six founding members -France: -Germany: -The Netherlands: -Italy: -Belgium: -Luxembourg:

20 CE | | P /00-04 | 07/02/2007 FranceGermany The Netherlands ItalyBelgiumLuxembourg

21 CE | | P /00-04 | 07/02/2007 France Italy Germany Belgium Luxembourg The Netherlands FranceGermany ItalyBelgiumLuxembourg

22 Treaty of Paris (ECSC) Treaty of Paris (ECSC) Family photo of those signing the Treaty of Paris, from left to right: Paul van Zeeland, Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs; Joseph Bech, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade and Wine growing of Luxembourg; Joseph Meurice, Belgian Minister for Foreign Trade; Carlo Sforza, Italian Minister for Foreign Affairs; Robert Schuman, French Minister for Foreign Affairs; Konrad Adenauer, German Federal Chancellor; Dirk Stikker, Dutch Minister for Foreign Affairs; and Johannes van den Brink, Dutch Minister for Economic Affairs

23 1957: The Treaties of Rome 1957: The Treaties of Rome Beginning of the European Economic Community (E.E.C.) and of Euratom in 1958 Beginning of the European Economic Community (E.E.C.) and of Euratom in 1958

24 1973: The Community expands to nine member states and develops its common policies 1973: The Community expands to nine member states and develops its common policies Denmark: Republic of Ireland: The United Kingdom:

25 CE | | P /00-04 | 07/02/2007 Denmark The U.K Rep. of Ireland

26 CE | | P /00-04 | 07/02/2007 Denmark The U.K Rep. Of of Ireland Rep of Ireland The U.K Denmark

27 1979: The 1st direct elections to the European Parliament (now held every five years) 1979: The 1st direct elections to the European Parliament (now held every five years) strasbourg-inside.jpg

28 1981 & 1986: The 1st Mediterranean enlargements 1981 & 1986: The 1st Mediterranean enlargements Greece: January Spain: January Portugal: January 1986

29 CE | | P /00-04 | 07/02/2007 GreeceSpainPortugal

30 CE | | P /00-04 | 07/02/2007 Spain Portugal Greece GreeceSpainPortugal

31 The single market President of the European Commission Jacques Delors plan to have a Single Market by President of the European Commission Jacques Delors plan to have a Single Market by Leads to the Single European Act (signed in 1986) Leads to the Single European Act (signed in 1986)

32 Fall of Berlin Wall in 1989 Fall of Berlin Wall in 1989 Unification of Germany: October 1990 (‘silent’ EU enlargement?) Unification of Germany: October 1990 (‘silent’ EU enlargement?)

33 November 1993: The Treaty of Maastricht establishes the European Union November 1993: The Treaty of Maastricht establishes the European Union CE | | P /00-02 | 01/11/93

34 January 1995: The European Union expands to 15 members January 1995: The European Union expands to 15 members Austria: Finland: Sweden:

35 CE | | P /00-04 | 07/02/2007 AustriaFinlandSweden

36 CE | | P /00-04 | 07/02/2007 Sweden Finland Austria AustriaFinlandSweden

37 2002: Euro notes and coins are introduced 2002: Euro notes and coins are introduced CE | | P /00-9 | 2001

38

39 What is the value of 1 Euro? = 1,24 $AUS (17/12/2012) = 1,24 $AUS (17/12/2012) CE | | P /00-11 | 2001

40 A French baguette: A French baguette:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Baguette.png A. 4€ B. 1,50€ C. 23,65€

41 B. 1,50€ (= 2,51 $AUS)

42 Spaghetti at a restaurant: Spaghetti at a restaurant:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Spaghetti_bolognese.jpg A. 16€ B. 36€ C. 45€

43 A. 16€ (= 26,8 $AUS)

44 Thalys train ticket (Paris-Brussels) one way – full fare: Thalys train ticket (Paris-Brussels) one way – full fare: A. 39€ B. 49€ C. 99€

45 A. 39€ (= 48,69 $AUS)

46 2004: Ten more countries join the European Union: 2004: Ten more countries join the European Union: Poland: Estonia: Lithuania: Latvia: The Czech Republic: Malta: Cyprus: Hungary: Slovakia: Slovenia:

47 CE | | P /00-04 | 07/02/2007 Cyprus The Czech Republic EstoniaHungaryLatvia

48 CE | | P /00-04 | 07/02/2007 Estonia Hungary Latvia Cyprus The Czech Republic EstoniaHungaryLatvia Cyprus

49 CE | | P /00-04 | 07/02/2007 LithuaniaMaltaPolandSlovakiaSlovenia

50 CE | | P /00-04 | 07/02/2007 Malta Slovakia Lithuania Poland Slovenia LithuaniaMaltaPolandSlovakiaSlovenia

51 Enlargement and neighbourhood policy: 2007: 2 new countries 2007: 2 new countries Bulgaria: Romania:

52 2013 Accession Croatia is expected to join the EU on July 1st Croatia is expected to join the EU on July 1st Croatia:

53 CE | | P /00-04 | 07/02/2007 BulgariaRomaniaTurkeyCroatia

54 CE | | P /00-04 | 07/02/2007 Romania Bulgaria Croatia BulgariaRomaniaCroatia

55 CE | | P /00-04 | 07/02/2007

56 How can a country become a member of the European Union? How can a country become a member of the European Union? The Copenhagen Criteria (1993) The Copenhagen Criteria (1993) -Political Criteria: National institutions guaranteeing democracy, human rights, rule of law, & respect of minorities -Economic Criteria: operational market economy -Legislative Criteria: ability to implement EU legislation

57 How does the European Union work ? Languages: Languages: - Working languages: French, English and German - Official languages: the languages of the member states (i.e 23 languages) - Citizens can ask for any document in their own language

58 The Council of the European Union - State representatives (national ministers) - 6 months Presidency: January 2013 to June 2013: Ireland July 2013 to December 2013: Lithuania Edna Kenny – Taoiseach (Prime Minister)

59 European Council European Council Heads of state or government of EU member states, President of the European Commission, President of the European Council. The High Representative for Foreign Affairs also takes part in its meetings.

60 Herman Van Rompuy European Council President Catherine Ashton High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy

61 The European Parliament - Represents EU citizens - 3 locations: -Secretariat in Luxembourg -Strasbourg (plenaries) -Brussels (committees/plenaries) Elections: every 5 years / Last one in 2009

62 The European Commission - Represents the common European interest - 1 Commissioner / member State (27) - Location : Brussels - President : José Manuel Barroso -

63 Also - The Court of Justice - The Court of Auditors European Economic and Social Committee (Brussels) European Economic and Social Committee (Brussels) The Committee of the Regions (Brussels) The Committee of the Regions (Brussels) The European Investment Bank (Luxembourg) The European Investment Bank (Luxembourg) The European Central Bank (Frankfurt am Main) The European Central Bank (Frankfurt am Main)

64 What does the EU do ? The Common Agricultural Policy: one example The Common Agricultural Policy: one example - Very important in the EU budget : 36.83% nowadays (more than 60% before the 1990s) - Subsidises farmers to not over produce and to respect the environment - Italy, Spain & France : 3 major beneficiaries of this policy.

65 A Citizens’ Europe The Schengen Zone: The Schengen Zone: Reinforces the borders at the Schengen frontiers No more frontiers inside: free to move, no need for a passport The Schengen Zone also includes non-EU members (Switzerland, Norway…)

66 Schengen some member states signed the Schengen Agreement on June , under which all border controls would be removedsome member states signed the Schengen Agreement on June , under which all border controls would be removed Who signed? France, Germany, the Benelux states. (By the end of 1992, Italy, Greece, Portugal and Spain signed too)Who signed? France, Germany, the Benelux states. (By the end of 1992, Italy, Greece, Portugal and Spain signed too) Britain, Denmark and Ireland do not joinBritain, Denmark and Ireland do not join Since then all EU member states have joined except Britain and Ireland (limited membership covering police cooperation but not asylum, visas and border controls)Since then all EU member states have joined except Britain and Ireland (limited membership covering police cooperation but not asylum, visas and border controls) plus non EU member states: Iceland, Norway, Switzerlandplus non EU member states: Iceland, Norway, Switzerland The signatories can still implement controls and it does not mean passport free travel everywhereThe signatories can still implement controls and it does not mean passport free travel everywhere

67 Erasmus: Erasmus: - Scholarships for European students to study for one semester or one year at a European university - Building of a “Europe of students ” - Recognition of your semester(s) abroad - Provides access for students from disadvantaged backgrounds to study abroad budget €490 million (.35% of EU budget)

68 Europe & Australia Economic links: Economic links: -Trade: The total value of goods and services trade with Europe increased by 5.6% in 2011 to $93.1 billion.The total value of goods and services trade with Europe increased by 5.6% in 2011 to $93.1 billion. Australian exports to the EU inceased in value by 5.3% in 2011 to $19 billionAustralian exports to the EU inceased in value by 5.3% in 2011 to $19 billion Europe accounts for 15.3% of Australia’s total trade in goods and services.Europe accounts for 15.3% of Australia’s total trade in goods and services. The EU accounted for 87.4% of Australia’s trade with EuropeThe EU accounted for 87.4% of Australia’s trade with Europe Trade to Russia increased by 54.2%, and Norway by 28.6%Trade to Russia increased by 54.2%, and Norway by 28.6% Australia exports food (processed and unprocessed), minerals (such as coal, iron and nickel), chemical and engineering productsAustralia exports food (processed and unprocessed), minerals (such as coal, iron and nickel), chemical and engineering products Source: Europe-2011.pdf

69 Economic links: Economic links: -Imports: Australia’s major import sources in the EU in 2011 came from Germany (up by 0.6%), the UK (up by 9%), Italy (up 5.1%) and France (remained steady)Australia’s major import sources in the EU in 2011 came from Germany (up by 0.6%), the UK (up by 9%), Italy (up 5.1%) and France (remained steady) Australia imports from Europe processed foods, chemicals, engineered goods and manufactured goods (such as household appliances & equipment)Australia imports from Europe processed foods, chemicals, engineered goods and manufactured goods (such as household appliances & equipment) -Investment: The EU as a bloc is Australia’s largest foreign investorThe EU as a bloc is Australia’s largest foreign investor EU foreign direct investment in Australia totalled A$143 billion — approximately 28.3% of Australia's total inwards foreign direct investmentEU foreign direct investment in Australia totalled A$143 billion — approximately 28.3% of Australia's total inwards foreign direct investment The UK is the largest source of inward FDI (48.6%) from the EU into Australia followed by the Netherlands (22.9%) and Germany (10%)The UK is the largest source of inward FDI (48.6%) from the EU into Australia followed by the Netherlands (22.9%) and Germany (10%)

70 The EU and Australia Other cooperation : Other cooperation : -Political: Joint Declaration (1997) -Australia engages in bilateral relations with each EU member state -Foreign policy & security: - tackle terrorism (exchange of info Australian Federal Police and Europol/Jakarta Centre for Law Enforcement Cooperation) - counter nuclear proliferation -Education: bilateral exchanges -Science & technology: research programmes (FEAST) -Environment, energy issues -Asia-Pacific Region: Aceh (EU monitoring mission), East Timor -Development cooperation in Pacific region

71 The EU and Australia Other cooperation : Other cooperation : The Australia – European Union Partnership Framework (CHAPEAU) The Australia – European Union Partnership Framework (CHAPEAU) Launched in Paris in 2008, the framework covers: Launched in Paris in 2008, the framework covers: Shared foreign policy and global security interestsShared foreign policy and global security interests The multilateral rules-based trading system and the bilateral trade and investment relationshipThe multilateral rules-based trading system and the bilateral trade and investment relationship The Asia-Pacific regionThe Asia-Pacific region Energy issues, climate change and fisheries and forestryEnergy issues, climate change and fisheries and forestry Science, research, technology and innovation, education and culture and facilitating the movement of people.Science, research, technology and innovation, education and culture and facilitating the movement of people.

72 Australian-EU meetings and contacts Meeting of Prime Minister Julia Gillard with European Commission President Barroso in Canberra September 2011 Meeting of Prime Minister Julia Gillard with European Commission President Barroso in Canberra September 2011 Foreign Affairs Minister Bob Carr meeting with High Representative Catherine Ashton in Brussels April 2012 Foreign Affairs Minister Bob Carr meeting with High Representative Catherine Ashton in Brussels April the 50 th anniversary of Australian – EU relations 2012 the 50 th anniversary of Australian – EU relations Regular ministerial consultations with the EU Council presidency (foreign ministers level) Regular ministerial consultations with the EU Council presidency (foreign ministers level) Contacts between the Australian Parliament and the European Parliament Contacts between the Australian Parliament and the European Parliament (visit of MEPs to Australia in Feb 2007) Delegation of the European Commission in Canberra (since 1981) Delegation of the European Commission in Canberra (since 1981)

73 Australian-EU meetings and contacts Strengthening ties Between Australia and the EU Julia Gillard visited Brussels in October 2010 to attend the 8 th ASEM summit and to discuss a treaty level bilateral Framework Agreement, met with Barrosso and Van RompuyJulia Gillard visited Brussels in October 2010 to attend the 8 th ASEM summit and to discuss a treaty level bilateral Framework Agreement, met with Barrosso and Van Rompuy Barrosso visited Australia in September 2011 to hold bilateral talks, the first Commission President to visit since 1982Barrosso visited Australia in September 2011 to hold bilateral talks, the first Commission President to visit since 1982 High Representative Catherine Ashton visited in October 2011, opened negotiations on aid projects and the Framework AgreementHigh Representative Catherine Ashton visited in October 2011, opened negotiations on aid projects and the Framework Agreement European Commissioner for Trade Karel De Gucht visited in March 2012 for trade negotiationsEuropean Commissioner for Trade Karel De Gucht visited in March 2012 for trade negotiations Foreign Minister Bob Carr met with Catherine Ashton in Brussels in April 2012Foreign Minister Bob Carr met with Catherine Ashton in Brussels in April 2012

74

75 The European Union: A process still under construction 2005: The “NO-crisis” 2005: The “NO-crisis”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Consttreat.jpg - “NO” from France and the Netherlands on a referendum implementing a Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe

76 2008: The Lisbon Treaty 2008: The Lisbon Treatyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Tratado_de_Lisboa_13_12_2007_%28081%29.jpg

77 The Eurozone Crisis How has the eurozone been affected by the crisis? How has the eurozone been affected by the crisis? Greece: Debt in December 2009 is more than €300 billion, 113% of Greece’s GDP, bailout packages in 2010, 2011 in exchange for tough austerity measures, credit rating downgraded, mass protests against the austerity measures, from socialist to technocrat to coalition governmentsGreece: Debt in December 2009 is more than €300 billion, 113% of Greece’s GDP, bailout packages in 2010, 2011 in exchange for tough austerity measures, credit rating downgraded, mass protests against the austerity measures, from socialist to technocrat to coalition governments Italy: High borrowing costs (7.5%), resignation of Silvio Berlusconi, technocrat Mario Monti takes control, austerity measures reaching €30 billion, violence and protests at austerity measures, growth shrinking, Monti resignsItaly: High borrowing costs (7.5%), resignation of Silvio Berlusconi, technocrat Mario Monti takes control, austerity measures reaching €30 billion, violence and protests at austerity measures, growth shrinking, Monti resigns

78 Portugal: Credit rating downgraded, record high borrowing costs, requests for €80 billion bailout package, 2011 protests against austerity measures, healthcare cuts/rise in deathsPortugal: Credit rating downgraded, record high borrowing costs, requests for €80 billion bailout package, 2011 protests against austerity measures, healthcare cuts/rise in deaths Spain: Viewed as the next Greece, debt downgraded, loses AAA credit rating, European Central Bank purchases bonds, more than 5.3 million unemployed, €16.5 billion in spending cuts, conservative party elected, austerity protests, banks seek bailoutsSpain: Viewed as the next Greece, debt downgraded, loses AAA credit rating, European Central Bank purchases bonds, more than 5.3 million unemployed, €16.5 billion in spending cuts, conservative party elected, austerity protests, banks seek bailouts Ireland: Debt ratings downgraded, banks nationalised, credit rating drops, €90 billion bailout by IMF in 2010, €21 billion in 2011, mass protests to spending cuts, house prices plummetIreland: Debt ratings downgraded, banks nationalised, credit rating drops, €90 billion bailout by IMF in 2010, €21 billion in 2011, mass protests to spending cuts, house prices plummet

79 The Eurozone Crisis The unemployment rate in the Eurozone is 11.7%, rose by million from October The unemployment rate in the Eurozone is 11.7%, rose by million from October Of this 11.7%, the countries with the highest levels of unemployment are: Of this 11.7%, the countries with the highest levels of unemployment are: Spain (26.2%) Spain (26.2%) Greece (25.4%) Greece (25.4%) Portugal (16.3%) Portugal (16.3%) Ireland (14.7%) Ireland (14.7%) Compare this with Germany (5.4%) Germany (5.4%) Australia (5.2%) Australia (5.2%)Source:http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_PUBLIC/ BP/EN/ BP-EN.PDF

80 Youth Unemployment 2012 Youth Unemployment 2012 Source: 2C_seasonally_adjusted%2C_October_2012.png 2C_seasonally_adjusted%2C_October_2012.png

81 Nobel Peace Prize The EU was awarded the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize "for over six decades [having] contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe". The EU was awarded the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize "for over six decades [having] contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe". Nobel committee president Thorbjoern Jagland highlighted the EU’s work on: Reconciliation between France and Germany The incorporation of post-authoritarian states such as Greece, Portugal and Spain The reconciliation of Balkan states. The EU donated its prize money to children affected by war, known as the ‘Children of Peace Initiative’

82 Nobel Peace Prize

83 Eurovision First held in 1956 First held in countries and 24 in the finale 43 countries and 24 in the finale Controversially held in Azerbaijan, Controversially held in Azerbaijan, 2013 competition taking place in Mälmo, Sweden 2013 competition taking place in Mälmo, Sweden Big Four: France, UK, Ireland, Luxembourg Big Four: France, UK, Ireland, Luxembourg 2012 winner: Loreen from Sweden 2012 winner: Loreen from Sweden Source : Source: winner.jpg Source : vision2006.jpg

84 Source: Green Countries that have already selected their entrant and/ or song Red Countries that did not qualify for the final Yellow Countries that participated in the past but will not in 2012

85 Sport UEFA: Union of European Football Associations UEFA: Union of European Football Associations - 53 national associations - UEFA European Football Championship: started in 1958 and finals in Current winner: Chelsea (England)/ Most successful team : Real Madrid (Spain)

86 Green UEFA member country that has been represented in the group stage Blue UEFA member country that has not been represented in the group stage Grey Not a UEFA member UEFA Nations

87 NATO Source: History_of_NATO_enlargement.s vg

88 Questions ?


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