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Copyright © 2004, Tim Moors dependability Tim Moors School of Electrical Engineering and Telecom. University of New South Wales Sydney, NSW, Australia UNSW
Copyright © 2004, Tim Moors 2 Importance of >0.5B users of business worldwide 1 Tens of billions of messages sent daily (60B, 30%+ spam, by 2006) 1 Top message sources 2 : 300M/day: Yahoo >100M messages/day: 13+ service providers Comparable systems: Australia Post 3 : 5B items p.a. Reliability is required by law, and audited. For domestic letters: 96.5% on time or early 98.9% less than one day late. What about the remaining 1.1%?! Short Message Service (SMS): Typical day for an Australian telco SMS Center 4 : 1.2M messages delivered (0.5M after temporary failure), 10k (1%) abandoned 7.5% of SMS messages lost between carriers in US in Dec How reliable are systems? 1. IDC: Worldwide Usage Forecast, Image from 3. Australia Post: Annual Report, Personal communication 5. Keynote Study of Wireless Text Messaging, 2003
Copyright © 2004, Tim Moors 3 Outline Importance of features affecting dependability Asynchrony Indirection outcomes Positive / negative Difficulties with notifications Contributing factors Degeneration of Sources of errors Measurement study Tools for enhancing dependability
Copyright © 2004, Tim Moors 4 features 1: Asynchronous Available? Available? Time SYN SYN+ACK ACK 220: [welcome] DATA msg 250: Message OK QUIT ACK FIN ACK SMTPPOP TCP SMTP Available? Dependable?
Copyright © 2004, Tim Moors 5 Consequences of asynchrony Mail servers are entrusted with responsibility to forward messages. “the protocol requires that a server accept responsibility for either delivering a message or properly reporting the failure to do so.” [RFC 2822] Nothing protects against server failure, e.g. crashing or overload. Server can lose messages. End-users can’t determine the trustworthiness of a remote server. Mail servers may persist in attempting to deliver messages Persistence is unpredictable since it varies with the server e.g. Sendmail warns after 4 hours and persists for 5 days Server persistence may delay source awareness of problems Failure notifications may be tardy, e.g. 1 month!
Copyright © 2004, Tim Moors 6 features 2: Indirection An address indicates where a message will go next. The message may then be forwarded elsewhere. e.g. aliases mail that is redirected mail to a mailing list A sender may be oblivious to identity of ultimate recipient(s). If a sender expects a delivery notification, then who does it expect it from? Notification from next address doesn’t imply message has reached ultimate destination(s) and had desired impact. Receiver’s delivery concerns extend beyond those of the source. Need receiver-oriented mechanisms as well as source-oriented mechanisms. POP
Copyright © 2004, Tim Moors 7 Spectrum of possible outcomes Action Acknowledgement No loss Delay = quality DeliveredNot delivered But still trying Parties are aware Sender Receiver(s) Silent discard None Extensive delay From: Mail Delivery Subsystem Subject: Warning: could not send message for past 4 hours The original message was received at... from foo.com The following addresses had transient non-fatal errors Transcript of session follows Deferred: Connection reset by example.com. Warning: message still undelivered after 4 hours Will keep trying until message is 5 days old From: Mail Delivery Subsystem Subject: Returned mail: see transcript for details The original message was received at... from foo.com The following addresses had permanent fatal errors Transcript of session follows Host unknown...
Copyright © 2004, Tim Moors 8 Notification challenges Events of interest: delivery (Delivery Service Notifications – RFC ) disposition (Message Disposition Notifications – RFC 3798) aka “read receipts” “acknowledgements” etc Notifications may be positive, negative, or missing Challenges: Notification may come from intermediary, not end-system. End-system disposition is what matters, but impinges on privacy. What does “received” mean? Downloaded, skim read, acted on? Notifications are not delivered reliably Lack of notification proves nothing. Scalability: Source can be inundated with positive notifications from many mailing list recipients
Copyright © 2004, Tim Moors 9 Degeneration of Malicious worms and nefarious spammers cause: Discard of messages by filters. False detection rate is: Low for virus/worm filters Substantial for spam filters, particularly when applied to commercial messages by overflow of storage systems: Spam/worms fills mailboxes/servers and blocks legitimate Users ignore failure notifications Users get flooded with failure notifications about messages they didn’t send. Forged notifications: Sent by worms (spammers next?) to entice users to open infected messages. e.g. by Netsky, Evaman, Klez, Mydoom Genuine notifications in response to forged messages: Spammers and worms harvest addresses and use them to send forged . Users receive non-delivery notifications. Appropriate client software could filter out unsolicited notifications.
Copyright © 2004, Tim Moors 10 Sources of errors 1.Misaddressing by source e.g. vs 2.Improper sending by source e.g. stuck in drafts folder 3.Discard by servers, e.g. due to storage overflow crashes buggy implementation... 4.Filtering of spam/viruses (Of particular concern for messages with commercial content.) 5.Incorrect download e.g. inadvertent deletion Our initial focus
Copyright © 2004, Tim Moors 11 measurements † Periodically send innocuous probe messages to accounts with several mail providers: 2 large portals (Yahoo, Hotmail) 2 ISPs (Bigpond, Optusnet) 2 universities 12 free mail providers Each probe includes a sequence number and time stamps enabling measurement of loss/duplication and delay. Each provider lost some messages during the experiment. Overall, 1.57% lost, about 0.5% lost silently Loss rate as high as 10% over a month for one provider. Received: from x.com by y.edu for ; Wed, 18 Aug :14: (EST) Received:... Date: Wed, 18 Aug :14: (EDT) From: Tim Moors To: Subject: 4638 Wed Aug 18 08:14:00 EDT 2004 † Work done with Anthony Lang, 4 th year engineering student
Copyright © 2004, Tim Moors 12 6 months of measurements Hour Day Loss: 3 silent (650ppm) + 15 notified (0.3%) 59 delay warnings (1.3%), 3 duplicates (650ppm) (4630 messages in total) k 0.1M 10k 1M
Copyright © 2004, Tim Moors 13 Delay of all messages 92% of all messages delayed < 30 sec Hour Day k 0.1M 10k 1M feature 3: Source usually can’t measure performance (delay) because of lack of feedback
Copyright © 2004, Tim Moors 14 Our work 1: Measure and store Measurement of: delays, loss, duplication server availability reliability need for asynchronous protocols prevalence of servers with alternate MX records Massive (TB) storage systems (e.g. for ) based on peer-to-peer “file sharing” technology (robust and growable)
Copyright © 2004, Tim Moors 15 Our work 2: Client add-ins New tools to help users cope with unreliability Implemented as mail client add-ins and proxies Assuming we can’t change the world of mail servers overnight. At sources: Automatically retransmit mail to backup accounts in case primary account fails (effectively X.400 “alternate recipients”) Match incoming to outgoing Highlight outgoing mail that hasn’t been responded to ?=? lost (Using Message-IDs and In-Reply-To: fields) Filter out notifications regarding messages client did not send SMTP traceroute: Allow a source to determine which servers a message passes through, suggesting possible failure points At destinations: Trails of message meta-information (e.g. time, source/destination) in case of accidental message deletion Sequence numbers to detect loss, particularly for mailing lists Real-time monitoring and notification of transfer delays
Copyright © 2004, Tim Moors 16 Conclusions does get lost. Sometimes (0.1%?) silently. Store-and-forward (even with notifications) fundamentally can’t guarantee delivery. New tools can enable end-users to cope with unreliability. For more information, see or try your luck ing We’re looking for collaborators.
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