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Australian Astronomy MNRF Symposium ATNF Marsfield, 8 June 2004 Gemini Overview Warrick Couch – Aus Gemini Scientist Gemini instrumentation program – current.

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Presentation on theme: "Australian Astronomy MNRF Symposium ATNF Marsfield, 8 June 2004 Gemini Overview Warrick Couch – Aus Gemini Scientist Gemini instrumentation program – current."— Presentation transcript:

1 Australian Astronomy MNRF Symposium ATNF Marsfield, 8 June 2004 Gemini Overview Warrick Couch – Aus Gemini Scientist Gemini instrumentation program – current and near-term Future Gemini instrumentation – the Aspen process Gemini Science Meeting 2004 Australian usage of the Gemini telescopes Australian scientific output from Gemini

2 Australian Astronomy MNRF Symposium ATNF Marsfield, 8 June 2004 Gemini’s instrumentation program – current and near-term

3 Mauna KeaCerro Pachon Instrument Summary Baseline Modes Commissioned About to be Commissioned Instrument Under Development  GMOS  GNIRS  T-ReCS  bHROS  NICI  FLAMINGOS-2  GSAOI  GSAO  GMOS  NIRI  MICHELLE  ALTAIR+LGS  NIFS (V2) Arriving in 2005!

4 Current Capabilities Comparison Near Infrared Instruments GeminiNotesVLTNotesKeckNotesSubaruNotes NIRI20” 50” 120” NAOS60”NIRC210” 20” 40” IRCS60” NIRIR~1000ISAACR~ NIRC2R~5000CIAO20” GNIRS R~600 to NAOSR~ NIRSPEC R~ IRCSR~ ImagerSpectrometer

5 Current Capabilities Comparison Optical Instruments GeminiNotesVLTNotesKeckNotesSubaruNotes GMOS-N5.5’FORS17’DEIMOS20’ SUPRIME 30’ GMOS-S5.5’FORS27’ESI2’x8’FOCASR~ GMOS-NR~ UVESR~ LRIS6’x8’HDSR~ GMOS-SR~ FORS DEIMOSR~5000 FORS ESIR~ LRISR~ HIRESR~ ImagerSpectrometer

6 Current Capabilities Comparison Mid Infrared Instruments GeminiNotesVLTNotesKeckNotesSubaruNotes MICHELLE 15”MIDIInterf.LWSR~ COMICS35” T-ReCS15”COMICSR~ MICHELLE R~ T-ReCSR~ ImagerSpectrometer

7 Stop Press: Gem-S now the world’s first 8m telescope with a silvered primary! Ag Al 4-layer ‘composite’ coating used Reflectivity at 880nm measured to be 96.3% Emissivity at 3.8  m is 1.3% 31 May 2004: M1 on Gem-S successfully coated with silver ATNF Marsfield, 8 June 2004 Australian Astronomy MNRF Symposium

8 ATNF Marsfield, 8 June 2004 Future Gemini instrumentation - the Aspen process - “ defining the Gemini partnership’s scientific visions for the latter half of this decade (and beyond) and hence determining the next generation of instruments for its telescopes…”

9 Aspen 2003 Workshop  Meeting held in June 2003  Attended by ~100 astronomers which represented interests of many more astronomers world wide  Key product of the meeting was a set of fundamental questions in astronomy that would serve as the basis of the scientific strategic plan for the Observatory

10 MATTER ENERGY LIFE Aspen 2003 Workshop  Matter  How do galaxies form?  What is the nature of dark matter on galactic scales?  What is the relationship between super massive black holes and galaxies?  Energy  What is dark energy?  How did the cosmic “dark age” end?  Life  How common are extrasolar planets, including earth-like planets?  How do star and planetary systems form?  How do stars process elements into the chemical building blocks of life?

11 Gemini Science Committee 2003 Meeting  List of potential new instruments needed to address science questions posed at Aspen was discussed at the October 2003 GSC meeting  Merged with rough cost estimates and an upper envelope for the total budget  Prioritized list was defined  Recommended 2 instruments carried forward via design studies and 2 carried forward via feasibility studies  Design studies lead to construction contracts  Feasibility studies lead to design studies New Instruments  Extreme AO Coronagraph  High Resolution NIR Spectrometer  Wide Field Fiber-Fed Optical Spectrometer  GLAO NIR Imager  GLAO NIR Spectrometer  Optical IFU Spectrometer  Optical High Resolution Spectrometer  High Resolution MIR Spectrometer  MCAO fed NIR MOS  Wide Field Optical MOS  AO-fed NIR Spectrometer New Facilities  GLAO System including Adaptive Secondary  f/6 Telescope Configuration (1 telescope)

12 Gemini Science Committee 2003 Meeting  List of potential new instruments needed to address science questions posed at Aspen was discussed at the October 2003 GSC meeting  Merged with rough cost estimates and an upper envelope for the total budget  Prioritized list was defined  Recommended 2 instruments carried forward via design studies and 2 carried forward via feasibility studies  Design studies lead to construction contracts  Feasibility studies lead to design studies New Instruments  Extreme AO Coronagraph  High Resolution NIR Spectrometer  Wide Field Fiber-Fed Optical Spectrometer  GLAO NIR Imager  GLAO NIR Spectrometer  Optical IFU Spectrometer  Optical High Resolution Spectrometer  High Resolution MIR Spectrometer  MCAO fed NIR MOS  Wide Field Optical MOS  AO-fed NIR Spectrometer New Facilities  GLAO System including Adaptive Secondary  f/6 Telescope Configuration (1 telescope)

13 Gemini Science Committee 2003 Meeting  List of potential new instruments needed to address science questions posed at Aspen was discussed at the October 2003 GSC meeting  Merged with rough cost estimates and an upper envelope for the total budget  Prioritized list was defined  Recommended 2 instruments carried forward via design studies and 2 carried forward via feasibility studies  Design studies lead to construction contracts  Feasibility studies lead to design studies New Instruments  Extreme AO Coronagraph  High Resolution NIR Spectrometer  Wide Field Fiber-Fed Optical Spectrometer  GLAO NIR Imager  GLAO NIR Spectrometer  Optical IFU Spectrometer  Optical High Resolution Spectrometer  High Resolution MIR Spectrometer  MCAO fed NIR MOS  Wide Field Optical MOS  AO-fed NIR Spectrometer New Facilities  GLAO System including Adaptive Secondary  f/6 Telescope Configuration (1 telescope)

14 Gemini Board Meeting  GSC recommendations endorsed  3-stage development program proposed/endorsed by the Board  Begin design studies for an Extreme Adaptive Optics Coronagraph (ExAOC) and High Resolution Near Infrared Spectrometer (HRNIRS)  Begin feasibility studies for a Wide Field Optical Fiber-fed MOS (WFMOS) and Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) system  Examine options for pursuing science goals identified in Aspen via modifications to existing/planned instruments and/or visitor instruments ~$64M $

15 Near Term Instrument Development Timeline  Issued Announcements of Opportunity for new Aspen instruments in December 2003  Triggered broad response within our instrumentation community From Gemini’s Web Page

16 Near Term Instrument Development Timeline  Issued 4 Requests for Proposals in January 2004  Sent to 40+ groups around the world who submitted Letters of Intent

17 Near Term Instrument Development Timeline  “Scientific Horizons at the Gemini Observatory” completed  Encapsulates the scientific aspirations of our community and, through its completion, closes a key “chapter” in the Aspen Process  The Gemini Partnership is particularly indebted to the Aspen group chairs, who worked tirelessly, in close collaboration with Gemini, to produce this document

18 Near Term Instrument Development Timeline  Proposals submitted to Gemini and reviewed by Source Selection Board (SSB)  SSB scored proposals and recommended which teams should be funded to carry forward studies for the ExAOC, HRNIRS, WFMOS, and GLAO  In the process of putting 8 teams under contract now… Including one led by AAO to do GWFMOS feasibility study

19 Near Term Instrument Development Timeline  All design and feasibility studies due end of January 2005  Design studies will be reviewed by expert panels that will recommend a down-select to a single team to go forward with ExAOC and HRNIRS  Feasibility studies will be reviewed though no competitive down-select process required  Entire process enters a “built in hold” state to assess options and determine which, if any, of the instruments should be pursued via follow-on contracts

20 Extreme AO Coronagraph Design Requirements  Wavelength Range: 0.9 to 2.5  m  Field of view > 3 arcsec  Imaging plate scale: 0.01 arcsec  Spectral resolution: R~100  IFU option: 0.02 arcsec sampling  Spectral resolution: R~300  Full J, H, or K coverage  Small image distortion for astrometry  High Strehl to achieve 10 7 contrast  Separations 0.1 to 1.5 arcsec  Built in wave front sensor  Broad and narrow band filters  Polarimetry  Pipeline processing Simulation courtesy Rene Doyon

21 High Resolution NIR Spectrometer Design Requirements  Single-slit cross-dispersed mode  0.2 arcsec spatial sampling  Slit length ~3 arcsec  One-shot wavelength coverage as large as possible  Spectral resolution R~70,000  Absorption cell for precision radial velocity measurements  Multi-object MCAO-fed spectrometer  Spatial sampling 0.05 arcsec  2 arcmin field of view  Spectral resolution R~30,000  Multiplex gain of  Wavelength range 1.1 to 5  m  Built in wave front sensor  Pipeline processing Tinney to Chair SWG

22 Wide Field Fiber Fed Optical Multi-Object Spectrometer Design Requirements  Wide field of view 1.5 deg  Multiplex gain of  Wavelength coverage 0.39 to 1.0  m  Spectral resolution R~1000 to 30,000  “Slit lengths” (fiber footprint) of ~1 arcsec  One-shot wavelength coverage of 0.4  m  Prime focus fiber feed to individual spectrographs  Pipeline processing Boyle & Freeman on SWG; Colless a liason

23 Ground Layer Adaptive Optics System Design Requirements  Wavelength coverage: ~0.8 to 2.5  m corrected beam  Field of view ~10 arcmin diameter  PSF FWHM ~0.2 arcsec at 1  m  Uniform PSF  Feed either IFU spectrometer or imager (not part of study) Hydrodynamic Simulation of First Stars

24 New Future Capabilities (2004+) at Gemini vs. Competing 8-10 m Telescopes Optical Instruments GeminiNotesVLTNotesKeckNotesSubaruNotes bHROS R~120000FLAMESR~ WFMOS?R~ FOV~1.5° VIMOSR~ MUSE?R~3000, 1’x1’ ImagerSpectrometer

25 New Future Capabilities (2004+) at Gemini vs. Competing 8-10 m Telescopes Near Infrared Instruments GeminiNotesVLTNotesKeckNotesSubaruNotes NICI20” Coro. Planet Finder? 3” coro. SHARC20”MOIRCS7’x4’ GSAOI80” AO HAWK-I? 8’ OSIRISR~3800Nasmyth AO+LGS AO Imager FLAM-26’AMBER2” interf. KIRMOS? R~4000FMOSR~500 R~2200 ExAOC?3” Coro.CRIRESR~100000MOIRCSR~ GLAO+ Imager? ~10’ SINFONI R~5000 NIFS 3” AO-IFU NIRMOSR~2000 FLAM-2R~ KMOS?R~3000 HRNIRS? R~ X- Shooter? R~8000 GLAO+ dIFU? R~3000 ImagerSpectrometer

26 New Future Capabilities (2004+) at Gemini vs. Competing 8-10 m Telescopes Mid Infrared Instruments GeminiNotesVLTNotesKeckNotesSubaruNotes VISIR19” 33” 51” Inter? PRIMA2” interf. ImagerSpectrometer

27 Closing Comments  The instruments we are starting to build are unlike any instruments built to date  Will probably be used in large scale campaigns to address the fundamental questions posed at Aspen  Significantly greater cost, complexity and reliance upon new technology than our current instruments  With these risks comes an unprecedented potential for discovery  Funding for these instruments, beyond the design/feasibility study phase, remains uncertain  The “Aspen Process” will come to a close when we meet again, perhaps in ~2010, to discuss the first scientific results of our next generation of instruments…

28 Australian Astronomy MNRF Symposium ATNF Marsfield, 8 June 2004 Gemini Science Meeting May, Vancouver Aim: to showcase the scientific results obtained with Gemini in its first 4 years of operation + to foster scientific collaboration throughout the partnership Format:3-day meeting with 60 talks + 21 poster papers presented (with sessions covering complete range of astrophysical areas) Additional meetings held in conjunction: Gemini “Users”, “NGO” and “PIO” meetings Participation: 130 astronomers from all of the partner countries (9 from Australia)

29 Australian Astronomy MNRF Symposium ATNF Marsfield, 8 June 2004 Australian participation in GemSci2004 A. Melatos (UMelb) M. Whiting (UNSW) P. Francis (RSAA) S. Ryder (AAO) R. Wayth (UMelb) 5 talks in the science meeting; Croom/Boyle “QSO host” study also featured as a talk (by D. Schade, Ca) 2 poster papers in the science meeting (by Da Costa and Pracy/Couch) 1 invited talk at the Users’ meeting (P. McGregor – NIFS & GSAOI) 2 reps at the NGO meeting (Ryder & Whiting)

30 Australian Astronomy MNRF Symposium ATNF Marsfield, 8 June 2004 Australian Usage of the Gemini Telescopes …as measured through the submission of proposals to the Australian Time Assignment Committee (ATAC), which allocates Australia’s share of time on the Gemini telescopes.

31 Gemini NorthGemini South avail req Time available/requested: the 1 st four years

32 Australian Astronomy MNRF Symposium ATNF Marsfield, 8 June 2004 Demand by institution (proposal nos.)

33 Australian Astronomy MNRF Symposium ATNF Marsfield, 8 June 2004 Australian publications from Gemini Dec 2003

34 Australian Astronomy MNRF Symposium ATNF Marsfield, 8 June 2004 Australian publications from Gemini But runs at last on the board in 2004: Croom et al. 2004, “Gemini imaging of QSO host galaxies at z~2”, Ap.J., 606, 126. Melatos et al. 2004, “Rapid variability of subarcsecond shock structure in the Crab Nebula”, Ap.J. (submitted). Forbes et al. 2004, “Gemini/GMOS photometry of globular clusters in the Virgo galaxy NGC4649”, MNRAS (submitted). +Stanway, Glazebrook,…..Boyle, Colless, Couch et al. 2004, “Three Ly  emitters at z~6: Early Gemini/GMOS data from the GLARE project”, Ap.J., 604, L13.

35 Australian Astronomy MNRF Symposium ATNF Marsfield, 8 June 2004 Program statusNo. of programs% of programs Fully completed1221 Partially completed2035 No data obtained – weather/position in queue 1119 No data obtained – telescope/inst problems 1425 Total57100 ● Completion rate of Australian Gemini queue programs: ● Average time request/allocation is small: 8.25hrs Two factors to ponder:

36

37 Australian Astronomy MNRF Symposium ATNF Marsfield, 8 June 2004

38 Schedule for instruments coming on-line until 2006 Gemini North Gemini South Hokupa’a-36,OSCIR, NIRI GMOS-N MICHELLE ALTAIR(NGS), (NIFS) ALTAIR (LGS) AcqCam, Flamingos-1 Phoenix CIRPASS GMOS-S, T-ReCS b-HROS GNIRS, Hokupa’a-85 NICI GSAO (NGS), GSAO-Imager Flamingos-2 GSAO (LGS), MCAO

39 Functionality at different wavelengths UV-OpticalNear-IRMid-IR Gemini-North GMOS– l/slit, MOS, IFU spectrograph & imager Hokupa’a – Adaptive Optics (AO) imager OSCIR – imager & low resoln spectrograph NIRI – imager & low-resoln spectrograph Michelle – imager & low/ med resoln spectrograph Gemini-South AcqCam – CCD camera for BVRI imaging Flamingos-I – long-slit, MOS spectrograph & imager Phoenix – high resoln spectrograph CIRPASS – IFU spect’graph

40 Functionality at different wavelengths UV-OpticalNear-IRMid-IR Gemini-North GMOS– l/slit, MOS, IFU spectrograph & imager Hokupa’a – Adaptive Optics (AO) imager OSCIR – imager & low resoln spectrograph NIRI – imager & low-resoln spectrograph Michelle – imager & low/ med resoln spectrograph Gemini-South AcqCam – CCD camera for BVRI imaging Flamingos-I – long-slit, MOS spectrograph & imager Phoenix – high resoln spectrograph CIRPASS – IFU spect’graph

41 Australian Membership of the International Gemini Partnership ARC Review of LIEF support, Sydney Univ, 20 March 2003 Scientific usage by Australian researchers

42 Australian Membership of the International Gemini Partnership ARC Review of LIEF support, Sydney Univ, 20 March 2003 InstitutionNo. of researchersNo. of proposals% of proposals ANU UNSW61219 Swinburne5710 AAO446 USyd346 UMelb Macquarie212 Monash100 UQld0.512 ATNF0.5 1 Total Australian demand for Gemini ( ) :

43 Australian Membership of the International Gemini Partnership ARC Review of LIEF support, Sydney Univ, 20 March 2003 Gemini-NorthGemini-SouthBoth telescopes No. of proposals received Time requested (hrs) Time available (hrs) Oversubscription factor No. of proposals allocated time Australian demand for Gemini ( ) :

44 Australian Membership of the International Gemini Partnership ARC Review of LIEF support, Sydney Univ, 20 March 2003 Science areaNumber of proposals% of proposals Cosmology, high- redshift galaxies 2437 Extragalactic astronomy 2031 Stellar properties & evolution 813 Star formation69 Active galactic nuclei 58 Pulsars/neutron stars 12 Australian Gemini proposals according to science area:

45 Australian Membership of the International Gemini Partnership ARC Review of LIEF support, Sydney Univ, 20 March 2003 InstitutionNo. of postgrad students% UMelb841 UNSW526 ANU421 USyd16 Monash16 Total19100 Postgraduate student involvement in Gemini:

46 Australian Membership of the International Gemini Partnership ARC Review of LIEF support, Sydney Univ, 20 March 2003 CountryNo. of institutionsNo. of researchers USA2241 UK821 Canada45 Germany36 France22 Chile17 Gemini Obs.12 Italy11 Belgium11 Netherlands11 Japan11 Argentina11 International links and collaborations:

47 Australian Membership of the International Gemini Partnership ARC Review of LIEF support, Sydney Univ, 20 March 2003 Australian management structure

48 Australian Membership of the International Gemini Partnership ARC Review of LIEF support, Sydney Univ, 20 March 2003 Key elements of Australian management structure Gemini Board Member Gemini Steering Committee Gemini Science Advisory Committee Gemini Scientist & Gemini Office Appointed by Australian Government; 3 year term Attend IGP Board meetings and represent the interests of the ARC and Australian users chair the Australian Gemini Steering Committee Dr Gary Da Costa (ANU) Appointed by Australian Government; comprises 9 members Advise the Australian Government on all matters relating to Australian membership of the IGP Oversee the operation of the Australian Gemini Office Appoint the Australian Gemini Scientist and the Gemini Science Advisory Committee Advise the Australian Gemini Scientist on all matters relating to the scientific exploitation of Gemini be Australian users Comprises 13 members, 10 of which are selected to be broadly representative of the entire spectrum of Australian scientific and instrumental interests in Gemini Liaise with and be the main point of contact with the IGP and other National Gemini Offices on all scientific, operational, instrument matters Promote, foster and support the use of Gemini facilities by Australian researchers. Prof. Warrick Couch (UNSW)

49 Australian Membership of the International Gemini Partnership ARC Review of LIEF support, Sydney Univ, 20 March 2003 In addition, there is….. Australian Time Assignment Committee (ATAC) Officially formed by DEST Peer reviews applications from Australian astronomers for time on the Gemini telescopes (as well as the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope) Makes recommendations for allocations of time to the Gemini ITAC

50 Australian Membership of the International Gemini Partnership ARC Review of LIEF support, Sydney Univ, 20 March 2003 Australian Gemini Office/Scientist responsibilities in more detail…. Support Australian proposal submission (Phase I) process, including technical assessment of all proposals Support Australian observers through observation definition (Phase II) process Support Gemini Help Desk, responding to all queries from Australian users These tasks currently ‘distributed’ across institutions in Sydney (UNSW, USyd, AAO) and likely to be spread more widely as number of Gemini instruments/users increases

51 Australian Membership of the International Gemini Partnership ARC Review of LIEF support, Sydney Univ, 20 March 2003 Maintain a national Gemini website with up to date information on all relevant Gemini activities; maintain a mirror site for the IGP web pages (UNSW/ANU) Promote Gemini capabilities within Australia (UNSW/ATNF/AAO) Provide Australian representation in all scientific, operational, and engineering/instrumentation IGP activities (UNSW, UMelb, ANU) Australian Gemini Office/Scientist responsibilities in more detail….


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