Presentation on theme: "YOUR NEEDS? Reading a lot – jumping around from topic to topic"— Presentation transcript:
1YOUR NEEDS? Reading a lot – jumping around from topic to topic Supervisor advice: read and summarise!Analysing what I have done (research; creative project)Pointers on how to synthesise the many different sources of informationWriting everyday is a challengeNeed techniques for reading scholarly articlesWhat to put in, what to leave out, choosing which angle?No end to the reading, so many different directions, am interested in them all – don’t want to miss out!How to achieve meaningful (and perhaps more efficient) readingStructuring how one idea flows on to the next ideaPanicking, feeling overwhelmed
2Research Reading/Writing UTS Library Research Week 2013 3pm- 5pm February 5, 2013
3GRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOOL: Sessions Reading and Writing for your Research: Getting startedAbstracts & Introductions: Getting the 'Moves'The Literature Review: Mapping & Organising your Research ReadingThe Literature Review: Conceptualising your Research ReadingThesis/Dissertation Organisation across DisciplinesThe Doctorate in Creative Arts: The ExegesisWriting Groups and Peer-Editing Circles (Develop your writing!)Making Formal Spoken Presentations on your Research (Session 1)Making Formal Spoken Presentations on your Research (Session 2)
4“WHAT IS ACADEMIC DISCOURSE?” Different traditions, conventions and ways of thinking have developed in different areas of knowledge over the years.Academic discourse differs from discipline to discipline.You will key into those conventions as you read, read, read, and then read some more, and then start to write, write, and write using them.There are some common patterns that you need to understand, and key into, especially at the early stages of your research reading.
5INTRODUCTION: QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER What kinds of reading and writing do we have to do in academic contexts?Why do we write them?(what general purposes are we trying to carry out when we write in academic contexts?)
7FOCUSSING ON YOUR OWN PURPOSE? Your own purpose is reflected in the research question you are asking, or your project, which is to do with:the problematisingthe question being askedthe set of research articlesthe creative work being producedYOU HAVE TO READ WIDELY AND DEEPLY
8A QUICK EXERCISEHandout: Categorise the list of words into groups – give each group a name.Draw a diagram to represent the conceptual structuring of this topic (What is the overall topic?)You have 10 minutes maximum.Finished? Have a quick chat (3 mins) about what you have done in pairs. Justify your drawing.
9RESEARCH READINGAs preparation for this workshop you were asked to make a list of 20 or more key terms (descriptors) that are relevant to your research question or area.These are important for building up your reading list for your Literature ReviewThese are important for your area of research readingThese are important for ways that you choose to organise your reading
10USE CONCEPT ORGANISERS Visual representation to help you understand categories of information and how they relate to each other in your area of research readingWhat are some different types of concept organisers?mind map (shows relationships to central idea)tree or branch diagram (shows categories & hierarchies)flow chart (shows progression in a process)table or matrix (shows placement of items along two axes)
11TYPES OF CONCEPT ORGANISERS Branch diagramMind mapTOPICIDEA
13AN APPLIED APPLICATION EXERCISE: ADD to your list of 20 or more key terms (descriptors) that are relevant to your research question or area.Make an hierarchical diagram which represents a conceptual map of the categories, sub-categories, and sub-sub categories in your research area.If you think of new words as you go along, add them in too or, if there are concepts you do not want to use, then don’t (don’t be restricted by your list).Then show, discuss & compare them in pairs
14Now you are collecting readings, how can you READ them? Get a SYSTEM
15What can you do to read with a purpose for your HOW? The ProcessReading with a purposeWhat can you do to read with a purpose for yourRESEARCH FOCUSCREATIVE PROJECT exegesisINVESTIGATIVE QUESTION?
16READING STRATEGIES FOR RESEARCH (THE BASICS) Focus on your purpose before, during and after reading.Evaluate your sources before and while you readRead at the MICRO-levelRead at the MACRO-level
17READING STRATEGIES Read with different skills for different purposes: Previewing (look at the title, keywords, flip through)Skimming (for an overview)Scanning (to locate specific information or ideas)Close reading (to extract certain detail)Reading analytically (text structure, categories, hierarchies)Reading critically (connecting new information to what you already know)
18Reading analytically to organise what you read LOGICALLY:Using the reading (text) structureMaking judgements about the significanceLooking for categories, hierarchies, arguments and organising them around your research area or investigative question or exegesis.
19[READING] ACADEMIC WRITING it’s not just sentences Note the headers and sub-headings, and note bold and slightly larger fonts, or italics.These are visual cues to information-structure and important information, and can help the reader to flip back if needed.Diagrams/images: are not just inserted; use them to gain a macro-view, and as a guide to specifics.
20Summarising and paraphrasing HOW? THE BASIC EXTRACTION SKILLSSummarising and paraphrasingTwo of the main ways for you to extract information.When reading you have a purpose in mind – which is?You use the skill of focussing on the relevant issuesYou leave out unrelated information.These two skills are very different, and require a different set of sub-skills.
21The Basics: to summarise means that you condense the relevant information or ideas - end up with a summary shorter than the original text, but retrievable.organise the information: use the original text, or develop your own format.use your own wordscite and give the reference.
22The Basics: to paraphrase means that you report on the information so that the full meaning is reproduced.produce a piece of writing of the same length as (maybe longer than) the original readinguse your own wordscite and give the reference
23Special points to note about this process: Specialist terms or theoretical categories or vocabulary are almost impossible to write in your own words.Some specialist terms or theoretical categories are in the common ‘canon’ or general knowledge.It may be difficult to find your own words to express the ideas or information written by others (especially if your native language is not English) - but read carefully and try to understand the original text.
24Organise your notes-taking around these ideas? THE USEFULNESS OF ABSTRACTS:When you write (or speak) you move meanings around for a purpose.Academic writing also follows a clear sequence of moves or stages.Here they are:1. Area under investigation / Significance of the area2. Problem addressed3. Aims / Methodology used4. Results or Outcomes5. Implications of outcomesOrganise your notes-taking around these ideas?
25AN EXAMPLE: a research funding proposal abstract Mining multiple information sources can provide rich knowledge which is difficult to discover by mining single data sources. (reason for doing the work - significance) Comparing and collaborating multi-source data for mining are critical. (problem or need addressed) This project aims to systematically investigate the theoretical foundations and practical solutions for mining multiple information sources (methodology suggested?), with the objective of delivering a unified multi-source collaborative and comparative mining framework (results). The expected outcomes are: (1) establishing the theoretical foundations for this emerging data mining research area, (2) benefiting key application areas, such as bioinformatics, business intelligence, and security informatics, and (3) helping maintain Australia's leading role in data mining research. (implications of outcomes)
26THE INTRODUCTION A pattern of general to specific information: background/contextdescription of the entity/system/organisational phenomenondefinitions/explanations of key termsindication of significance of the field or area of study/examinationissues/problems/needs in the fieldspecific focus of the paper, related to the above (in major or lengthy work, this also includes the staging of the content)It is designed to ORIENTATE the readers and give them a ‘roadmap’ of the research article (or your dissertation).
27READING STRATEGIESRead with different skills for different purposes:Previewing (look at the title, keywords, flip through)Skimming (for an overview)Scanning (to locate specific information or ideas)Close reading (to extract certain detail)Reading analytically (text structure, categories, hierarchies)Reading critically (connecting new information to what you already know)
28Let’s take a different angle …. Some questions … What is analysis?What does it mean to analyse a text and collected information?How can we then be ‘critical’ of a text and collected information?
29WHAT IS ANALYSIS? Understanding how the whole is made up of parts Deciding on what the essential elements areUnderstanding how the parts are relatedUnderstanding which parts are missing
30ANALYTICAL READING/WRITING You need to read analytically while you are reading descriptively for your Lit Review.You need to make connections between the descriptions, and ask more developed critical or analytical questions of your reading.What gives you the right to be critical of others’ work?
31Reading CRITICALLY means to make judgments:The truth, merit, relevance, effectiveness, breadth, contribution of something to a particular field [or your area of investigation].Comes from an understanding of its informational structure.Information is connected to what you already know or have read previously.Then you’ll be able to reflect on the validity and significance of information and ideas.
32How do you do get to that ‘critical’ stage? You need to keep on READING.You need to BUILD UP YOUR BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGEYou need to keep on READINGYou need to develop a SYSTEM with your READING
33DO YOU HAVE A SYSTEM? Here are some different types of ways to organise your reading: General focus questions A generalised three-stage method Annotated bibliography Use Notecards, EndNote for organising notes
34SYSTEM 1: Descriptive Questions for Reading/Writing for Research To read and then write at a level expected for research work, you need to develop & use descriptive modes of ENQUIRY skills as you read. The key to this is to pay close attention to details ….. How? by asking descriptively focussed questions.
35DESCRIPTIVE READING/WRITING To work at this descriptive stage, you need to question your academic reading as you interact with it. Generally-speaking, you need to ask: What? Where? Who? When? How? Why?
36APPLIED: DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS For example, in reading a research article, these could be:Who wrote the article and what are the author’s qualifications?When was it written?Who is the article for?Why was the study carried out?What is the author’s main point, or thesis?How has the author collected the data?What results were found?What relevant sources does the author use?What limits did the author place on the study?What aspects of this study are relevant to your research question/area?
37DESCRIPTIVE READING/WRITING These initial questions are simply descriptive or even superficial, aimed at identificational and informational aspects of the research, theory, paper, project etc. being read and written about. This is the essential first stage of your Lit Review reading (for example), and it can lead to many, many excellent descriptive summaries …. but while you are building 300+ of these what should you be doing?
38SYSTEM 2: The ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY What is it?It is a systematic review and record of all significant literature that you have sourced and read.It is designed to remind you of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources you have read and cited.Supervisors can set this as a task to be sure that sustained and informational/evaluative reading is carried out in a timely manner.
39SYSTEM 3: Using Notecards/EndNote A researcher’s experience:“I did notecards for my thesis. I kept them all in a black box, organized by chapter and then by section.It seemed to work well.I also take notes on everything I read (for my studies) in one of my notebooks.Things get copied down a couple (or a few) times, but by the time I sit down to write, I know my research really well.”Source:
40A researcher’s EndNote experience: “I used to use notecards, but ran into problems when I needed the same notecard for different projects simultaneously. So I started using Endnote--it's basically just a big database, but it really helps to organize all of your notes.You can use Endnote to essentially create notecards, but then you can add keywords and you can search through them, so it makes it much easier to work on multiple projects.Endnote also automatically generates footnotes and bibliographies for your papers--I find that this saves me a whole day of work on a 20-page paper.”Source:
41NOTECARDS? PERHAPS YOUR OWN READING PATH HELPS? What do your read first? Where do you start?What parts of a reading text or article can you use?Here are some suggested headings:Key wordsAbstractAuthor/institutionPublication/citation details/dateReferences to note/follow upKey theories/methods/findingsWhat is relevant to my research question/research area?
42APPLICATION TASKS Using your 2 research articles : Using previewing, skimming and scanning, construct two diagrams which represent the basic information structure of the articles. (see next slide)Compare the two diagrams and note where the two articles have some kind of informational overlap (where they treat the same topic, but perhaps from different angles).AND/ORUsing any of the ideas from this workshop which suit you, read the articles using what we have covered (questions, annotations, notecards etc.).BOTH: If you finish, discuss what you have done, how, and why with someone else.
44General questions and answers FINAL DISCUSSIONGeneral questions and answers
45PARAGRAPHS IN ACADEMIC DISCOURSE Topic SentencesA topic sentence is a brief sentence that identifies the main point that will be addressed in the paragraph.It is usually the first sentence of a paragraph.In a well-written piece of writing, if you read the topic sentences you can often gain a good understanding of the content of the writing which follows.Especially good when reading a textbook for background.
46SYSTEM 2: The ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY What does it do?It briefly describes and/or appraises the sources.For describing: annotations usuallysummarise the subject of the sourceoutline the author’s argument, methodology and conclusions.For appraising: annotations may focus onthe author’s argument (persuasive? didactic?)the reliability of the evidence,its relationship to other criticsits contribution to the field of research
47SYSTEM 2: The ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Suggested strategies I. INITIAL READINGA. AuthorAuthor's credentials; institutional affiliation; educational background, past writings, or experience? Degree of cross citation?B. Date of PublicationToo old?C. Edition or RevisionA first edition or revised and updated to reflect changes in knowledge.D. PublisherScholarly: university or commercial?Refereed; conference proceedings?E. Title of JournalScholarly or a popular journal?
48Students, academics, researchers? B. Objective Reasoning Adapted from:II. CONTENT ANALYSISA. Intended AudienceStudents, academics, researchers?B. Objective ReasoningInformation valid and well-researched?Ideas and arguments in line with other works you have read on the same topic? Author objective and impartial?C. CoverageUpdates other sources, substantiates other readings, adds new information?Extensively or marginally cover your topic?Material primary or secondary in nature?D. Writing StyleOrganized logically? Main points clearly presented? Text easy to read, or turgid? Author's argument: repetitive?E. Evaluative ReviewsLook for these in libraries and on-line.
49SYSTEM 3: The three pass method The first passA quick scan to for a global view of the paper. The following steps are used:Carefully read the title, abstract, and introductionRead the section and sub-section headings, but ignore everything elseRead the conclusionsGlance over the references, mentally ticking off the ones you’ve already readAdapted from Keshav, S. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review 83 Volume 37, Number 3, July 2007, p.83-4
50SYSTEM 3: The three pass method At the end of the first pass, you should have information on:Category: What type of paper is this? A measurement paper? An analysis of an existing system? A description of a research prototype?Context: Which other papers is it related to? Which theoretical bases were used to analyze the problem?Correctness: Do the assumptions appear to be valid?Contributions: What are the paper’s main contributions?Clarity: Is the paper well written?You may choose not to read further. The first pass is adequate for papers that aren’t in your research area, but may someday prove relevant.
51SYSTEM 3: The three pass method The second passGreater reading care is used here, but ignores details such as proofs.It helps to jot down the key points, or to make comments in the margins, as you read.Look carefully at the figures, diagrams and other illustrations in the paper.Pay special attention to graphs. Are the axes properly labeled etc. ? Common mistakes will separate rushed, shoddy work from the truly excellent.Remember to mark relevant unread references for further reading (this is a good way to learn more about the background of the paper).Adapted from Keshav, S. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review 83 Volume 37, Number 3, July 2007, p.83-4
52SYSTEM 3: The three pass method The second passAfter this pass, you should be able to grasp the content of the paper.You should be able to summarize the main thrust of the paper, with supporting evidence, to someone else.This level of detail is appropriate for a paper in which you are interested, but does not lie in your research specialty.You can now choose to:set the paper aside for later digestion(b) return to the paper later, perhaps after reading background material,(c) persevere and go on to the third pass.Adapted from Keshav, S. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review 83 Volume 37, Number 3, July 2007, p.83-4
53SYSTEM 3: The three pass method The third passThis pass requires great attention to detail. You should:identify and challenge every assumption in every statement.try to think about how you yourself would present a particular idea (this comparison of the actual with your own idea lends a sharp insight into the proof and presentation techniques).jot down ideas for future work.be able to reconstruct the entire structure of the paper from memoryidentify its strong and weak points.be able to pinpoint implicit assumptions, missing citations to relevant work, and potential issues with experimental or analytical techniques