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1 4.4 Euler’s Form Appendix B does not include this work. See notes in Study Book 4.4 (& some of 4.3). 4.4 Euler’s Form Appendix B does not include this.

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Presentation on theme: "1 4.4 Euler’s Form Appendix B does not include this work. See notes in Study Book 4.4 (& some of 4.3). 4.4 Euler’s Form Appendix B does not include this."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 4.4 Euler’s Form Appendix B does not include this work. See notes in Study Book 4.4 (& some of 4.3). 4.4 Euler’s Form Appendix B does not include this work. See notes in Study Book 4.4 (& some of 4.3). Objectives: Know how to convert any z = a + ib to Euler form r e i  how to convert any z = a + ib to Euler form r e i  & vice versa how to use Euler form to simplify calculation of powers, multiplication & division how to use Euler form to simplify calculation of powers, multiplication & division how to find nth roots using Euler form how to find nth roots using Euler form the algebraic & geometric properties of nth roots. the algebraic & geometric properties of nth roots.

2 2  When complex no’s are multiplied their angles add.  When they are divided, their angles subtract. Hence in the polar form r (cos  + i sin  ) the argument  behaves like an exponent but the modulus r does not. To remind us of this, we write  as an exponent: We define e i  to be cos  + i sin  Then r (cos  + i sin  ) = r e i . And de Moivre’s Theorem, ( cos  + i sin  ) n = cos n  + i sin n  becomes much more intuitive: (e i  ) n = e i n  and z n = r n e i n 

3 3 There are many reasons why we use base e, not another base. (See Study Book and Taylor Series, Alg & Calc II.) Convert the following to Euler Form: (P Convert the following to Euler Form: (Plot first: easier!) 5 = 5 e i0 - 2 = 2 e iπ 5 = 5 e i0 - 2 = 2 e iπ 3i = 3 e iπ/ i = sqrt(2) e i5π/4 3i = 3 e iπ/ i = sqrt(2) e i5π/4 In reverse: e iπ = cos(π) + i sin(π) = -1 + i 0 = -1. Confirm by plotting e iπ which is 1 e iπ That is the point distance 1 on angle π So it gives the -1 on the x-axis.) Similarly 2e - iπ/2 is the point 2 units down the y axis, ie 0 – 2i or simply -2i. ie 0 – 2i or simply -2i. Also see Examples 4.1, 4.2.

4 4 Note: multiplying any complex number by r e i  causes an increase of  in the angle, ie a rotation, and distance to change by the factor r. Eg: Multiplying any z by i (which is e i  /2 ) Eg: Multiplying any z by i (which is 1 e i  /2 ) causes anticlockwise rotation through angle  /2. causes anticlockwise rotation through angle  /2. Multiplying z by 2i (which is 2 e iπ/2 ) iz causes rotation through pi/2, z and doubling of distance (modulus). Also see Ex 4.3. Positive angles cause an anticlockwise rotation through angle . Negative angles cause a clockwise rotation.

5 5 Finding nth roots of z. First write z in Euler form r e i . Then First write z in Euler form r e i . Then  generalise its angle by adding revolutions 2k .  take the (1/n)th power: r 1/n e (i  + 2k  ) /n.  find n different roots using n successive values of k, eg k = 0, 1, 2, … Geometrically, the nth roots of a e ib Geometrically, the nth roots of a e ib are evenly spaced on a circle of radius a 1/n. Examples: Find & plot 1) the cube roots of 4  i 8 π/6 2) the 4th roots of - 8. Note: If we know one nth root, we can plot it Note: If we know one nth root, we can plot it and deduce the positions of the others. Eg: One cube root of -8 is -2. Plot it & deduce the others.

6 6 Homework Re-visit Section 8.3, App B, p 438 Re-visit Section 8.3, App B, p 438 Working in Euler Form, write solutions to Working in Euler Form, write solutions to Q 27, 29, 31, 33, 39, 43, 45, 47, 51, 53. Q 27, 29, 31, 33, 39, 43, 45, 47, 51, 53.


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