Presentation on theme: "1 Introduction to Instructional Design John R. Savery, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Instructional Design John R. Savery, Ph.D.
2 This slide show will… Introduce the main concepts related to instructional design. Provide definitions and vocabulary. Explain each of the components in the ID process. Touch briefly on ID models. Set expectations for this course.
3 Getting started Instruction is the arrangement of information and environment to facilitate learning. Learning is the development of new knowledge, skills or attitudes as an individual interacts with information and the environment.
4 Beware over-simplification! The definition that follows is one of several equally viable definitions for ID. It is a personal favorite because it works. Avoid simplistic recipe approaches. Well designed instruction leading to thorough learning is analogous to a well-prepared feast leading to a satisfied palate.
5 Definition of Instructional Design Instructional design BLENDS what we know about… – the LEARNERS – the SUBJECT MATTER – HOW PEOPLE LEARN – the capabilities of an INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIUM …to produce instruction that will facilitate learning
6 Expanding on these Terms SUBJECT MATTER – The content to be taught including knowledge, skill, or attitude. INSTRUCTION – Ways to organize the subject matter to facilitate learning. (lecture to virtual reality) DELIVERY – Making the best use of the medium (text, motion video, computer-based teaching, etc.)
7 More Terminology Technology by definition is anything that extends human capabilities – lever, wheel, chalk board, books, video, computers…. Technology in instruction refers to both the hardware and the process that is used to enhance/extend teaching and learning.
8 Instructional Design and Systems The Instructional Design process is a systems approach. The ID process is expressed as a linear model, an iterative process, and often as a pragmatic, real-world set of procedures.
9 Quick Review of Systems A system has four basic parts: – Input – Processing – Output – Feedback
10 System Components INPUTPROCESSINGOUTPUT FEEDBACK
11 A Classroom is a Complex System A classroom is a system with multiple inputs: – Physical environment – Number of students – Ability levels and ages of students – Curriculum requirements – Available teaching resources – Expectations of parents, administration – Skill and knowledge of the teacher
12 Classroom to School to District… A complex classroom system is embedded within an even larger system. (District,State,National) Each system provides inputs, which can effect the processing, and reacts to outputs. (i.e. OPT scores) More terms… – Systematic refers to a programmed approach – Systemic refers to changes affecting the entire system – I.e. systemic changes in education
13 So what is the ID process? The ID process at one level is a planning and organizational tool. The steps in the process help to ensure that all the important information is considered in the context of the instructional problem or challenge.
14 Example of ID planning
15 Components in the ID process Analysis Design Development Implementation Evaluation
16 ID Process - Analysis Analysis – learning needs analysis/discrepancy analysis – front end (feasibility) analysis – audience analysis – content or task analysis
17 ID Process - Design Design – specification of intended learning outcomes – knowledge, skills, behaviors, attitudes, etc. – specification of evaluation methods and criteria indicative of learner achievement – scope and sequencing of instructional events – media selection
18 ID Process - Development Development – project management – timelines – resource management – prototype development – beta testing – usability testing
19 ID Process - Implementation Implementation – training for users both learners and teachers – embedded help – support materials for successful utilization – management of resources and time
20 ID Process - Evaluation Evaluation of instructional effectiveness – formative (short term) beta testing usability testing – summative (long term) large scale validation multiple contexts
21 Instructional Design Models Morrison, Kemp – Circular Model – An copy of this model is on the next slide Other popular ID models
22 Instructional Problems Instructional Objectives Task Analysis Learner Characteristics Content Sequencing Instructional Strategies Designing the Message Development of Instruction Evaluation Instruments Revision Formative Evaluation Planning Implementatio n Confirmative Evaluation Support Services Project Management
23 So whats the point? Experienced teachers who have internalized the teaching/learning process and are teaching the same content for the umpteenth time can be spontaneous in the classroom. Even experienced teachers when teaching new subject matter need to examine the instructional process. The ID process enhances the creation of effective instruction.
24 Why is Instructional Design Important? We are living within a knowledge explosion referred to by the popular press as the Information Age. This has serious implications for what and how we teach.
25 In the Information Age... Rapid rate of change to the knowledge base leading to information overload What we teach is constantly evolving. What students need to know is expanding. Graduates need to be prepared for multiple careers during their lifetime
28 How this Applies to This Course I support the constructivist notion that problem solving is an excellent format for learning. I support dialogue, discussion, and debate as means to articulate knowledge. I believe the role of the teacher is to provide learners with authentic opportunities to perform like a professional in the domain. I support lifelong and self-directed learning.
29 Instructional Strategies Work in small groups to remove barriers to communication and give everyone an opportunity to be heard. Foster ownership of the individual project by team members. Peer evaluations to recognize quantity and quality of contributions by peers.
30 Before you take a Break.. The next few slides will be a self-test to see what you recall. When you are ready you may begin.
31 Select the best response. Instruction is what we do to students to make them better taxpayers in the future. Instruction is what we do to students to make them better taxpayers in the future. Instruction is the arrangement of information and environment to facilitate learning. Instruction is the arrangement of information and environment to facilitate learning. Instruction is the transmission of established facts to unsuspecting learners. Instruction is the transmission of established facts to unsuspecting learners.
32 Correct Response is: Instruction is the arrangement of information and environment to facilitate learning. The other answers were meant to trick you, but only you will know if they worked.
33 True or False? ID is all about simple cookie-cutter solutions to complex instructional problems. – True True – False False
34 If you chose False you are correct. If you chose True read on… The ID process is highly structured and rigorous. Separating the components into Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation phases is a convenient way to identify the levels of complexity…as shall be shown in this course.
35 Last question: Who runs ID? Democrats Republics Idiots Dr. Savery
36 A moment of in-decision here? Tough choice – Idiots or Dr. Savery The correct response was…