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**Chapter 1 Representing Data**

1.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Graphs 1.2 Misrepresenting Data 1.3 Critiquing Data Presentation KEY WORDS Interval (1.1)- Bar graph(1.1)-

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**Line Graph (1. 1)- Circle Graph (1. 1)- Double Bar Graph (1**

Line Graph (1.1)- Circle Graph (1.1)- Double Bar Graph (1.1)- Double Line Graph (1.1)- Pictograph (1.1)- Trend (1.1 p.14)- Distort (1.2)-

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**1.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Graphs p.6**

Objectives: Students will be able to : •

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**1.1 Examples Example 1: Compare Two Graphs**

During one weekend, the owners of Pascal’s Pizzeria recorded how they received pizza orders and then presented the data using a circle graph and a pictograph. How many more pizzas were ordered by phone than on the internet? Which graph shows this more clearly? Explain Almost half of the total number of orders came by phone. What graph shows this more clearly? Explain.

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**Which graph better shows the number of pizzas ordered by Internet**

Which graph better shows the number of pizzas ordered by Internet? Justify your choice. Would a line graph be a useful way to display the data? Explain why or why not. What other type of graph could be used to display the data?

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**Example 2: Representing Data**

During the hockey season, the Edmonton Oilers advanced to the Stanley Cup finals. In regular season play, two of their top three players were Shawn Horcoff (born in Trail, BC) and Jarret Stoll (born in Melville, SK) Here are the statistics for their previous three regular seasons with the Oilers. Horcoff (Centre) Season Games Played Goals Assists Total Points 1 78 12 21 33 2 80 15 25 40 3 79 22 51 73 Stoll (Centre) Season Games Played Goals Assists Total Points 1 4 2 68 10 11 21 3 82 22 46 Use a double bar graph to display the data

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b) Which player shows the most improvement in total points? c) Total points are used to assess a player’s worth. Take a look at the number of games Horcoff and Stoll played. Is this a fair way to assess a player’s worth? d) Would two circle graphs be effective to display the data? Explain

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1.1 KEY IDEAS Data can be presented using bar graphs, double bar graphs, circle graphs, line graphs, and pictographs. Different graphs may provide different information and display certain types of data better. ____________ are best for comparing data that ________ graphs are best for can be easily counted comparing data and represented using across categories. symbols. ____________ graphs are best for comparing ________ graphs are best for comparing categories two sets of to the whole using data across percents. The sum of categories. the percents in a ________ graph is _______. ___________ graphs are best for showing changes in data over time

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**1.2 Misrepresenting Data p.18**

Objectives: Students will be able to : •

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**1.2 Examples Example 1: Distorting the Scale**

Matthew’s Math test scores are displayed on the bar graph. According to the graph, what did Matthew receive on each test? From the graph, what appears to be true about Matthew’s improvement over the four test scores? What part of the graph has been distorted to create this impression? How should the graph be drawn to represent Matthews progress more accurately? What would be a more accurate conclusion about his improvement?

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**Example 2: Distorting the Visuals**

From the pictograph, which pet seems to be the favourite? Explain. From the pictograph, does it seem that more students like cats or dogs? Explain. How should the pictograph be redrawn to represent the data more accurately?

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**Example 3: Distorting the Size of the Bars**

From Graph A, how many times more sales are there of desktops than laptops? Is this an accurate representation? Explain. From Graph B, how many times more sales are there of desktops than laptops? How could Graph B be misleading?

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1.2 Key Ideas Misleading graphs can cause people to misinterpret the data and draw ________ conclusions. The format of a graph can be misleading. Misleading features include: - Distorting the ____________ - Distorting the information by using ___________ of different __________.

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**1.3 Critiquing Data Presentation p.28**

Objectives: Students will be able to : •

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**Example 1: Critiquing a Graph**

1.3 Examples Example 1: Critiquing a Graph Bindi recorded the scores for two grade 8 classes that wrote the same test. She decided to display the data on two circle graphs. a) Why do you think Bindi used two circle graphs to display the data?

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**b) Are the graphs misleading?**

c) State two conclusions that you can make based on the graphs. d) Draw a double bar graph to display the data. e) List the advantages and disadvantages of using a double bar graph to display the data.

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1.3 KEY IDEAS When critiquing a graph, it is important to consider sever factors: Graph __________: Is the graph the best choice for displaying the data? Graph __________: Is the graph designed in a way that represents the data accurately? Graph _______________: Is the graph informative? Does the graph support a claim or an argument?

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Misleading Graphs and Statistics

Misleading Graphs and Statistics

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