2Robert Hooke naturalist, philosopher, inventor, architect Robert Hooke naturalist, philosopher, inventor, architect.... (July 18, March 3, 1703)In 1665 Robert Hooke publishes his book, Micrographia, which contains his drawings of sections of cork as seen through one of the first microscopes (shown at right).He was the first person to use the term “cells”.1665 – Robert Hooke publishes his book which contains his drawings of sections of cork as seen through one of the first microscopes. Coined the term “cells”.
3Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1632-1723 In 1673 Anton van Leeuwenhook perfects the simple microscope and observes cells and microorganisms.He discovered bacteria in 1674 and four years later, he discovers protozoa.1673 – Anton van Leeuwenhook – perfects the simple microscope and observes cells and microorganisms. Four years later, he discovers protozoa.
4Cell Theory Cell Theory all living things are made up of cells Matthias Schleidenconcluded that all plants are made of cells (1838)Theodore Schwannconcluded that all animals are made of cells (1839)Rudolf Virchowconcluded that all cells came from pre-existing cells (1855)Cell Theoryall living things are made up of cellscells are the basic units of structure and function in an organismnew cells are produced from existing cells
5Cell SpecializationCells in organisms are specialized to perform different tasks.Photos from Biology, Prentice HallLevels of Organization: how organisms are arranged from simple to complex
6The Levels of Organization Multicellular organisms are arranged from simple to complex according to their level of cellular grouping.Levels of Organization: how organisms are arranged from simple to complexcelltissueorganorgan systemorganism
7Cell Types PROKARYOTE EUKARYOTE No nucleus No membrane-bound organellesSmall ribosomesMost cells are μm in sizeEvolved 3.5 billion years agoFound only in Archaebacteria and Eubacteria KingdomsEUKARYOTEHas nucleusMany organellesLarger ribosomesCells can be between 2 - 1,000 μm in sizeEvolved 1.5 billion years agoIncludes Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia Kingdoms
8Cell Type: Prokaryotes Prokaryotes, which includes all bacteria, are the simplest cellular organisms. They have genetic material but no nucleus.Typical bacteria cell
9Cell Types: Eukaryotes Eukaryotic cells contain a membrane-bound nucleus and numerous membrane -enclosed organelles (e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus) not found in prokaryotes.
10Different Types of Cells ProkaryoticEukaryoticno nucleusno nucleusnucleusnucleussmall ribosomeslarger ribosomessmall ribosomeslarger ribosomesno organellesno organellesorganellesorganellesvery small 1-10mvery smallsmallsmall monly in bacteriaprotists, fungi, plants, animalsprotists, fungi, plants, animalsonly in bacteria
11What Are the Parts of Cells Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have some things in common.All cells havecell membranecytoplasmribosomesnuclear materialnuclear materialcell membraneribosomescytoplasm
12vacuole: sac-like structure that stores water, salts, foods, etc chloroplast: capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy (food), (photosynthesis occurs here)ribosomes: manufacture proteinsmitochondria: convert chemical energy stored in food into ATP (cellular respiration occurs here)cell wall: outer layer in plant cells, support and protectioncell membrane: regulates what enters and leaves the cell, protection and supportnucleus: controls most cell processes, contains hereditary information (DNA)cytoplasm: semi-liquid material that fills the cellParts of CellscytoplasmnucleuschloroplastvacuoleIntroduction to cell parts. After you click and the cell part label comes in, wait for the definition to come in automatically.ribosomesmitochondriacell membranecell wall(p. 175)
13Parts of CellsGolgi apparatus: modifies, sorts and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or secretion outside the celllysosome: digests lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell; also involved in breaking down organelles that have outlived their usefulnessEndoplasmic reticulum: site where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cellcell membranemitochondriaribosomeGolgi apparatusnucleuscytoplasmEndoplasmic reticulumlysosome