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The Work of Gregor Mendel 11-1

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Presentation on theme: "The Work of Gregor Mendel 11-1"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Work of Gregor Mendel

2 Objectives: -Describe how Mendel studied inheritance in peas Summarize Mendels conclusion about inheritance Explain the principle of dominance Describe what happens during segregation

3 Transmission of characteristics from _______________________is called ___________________. The _________ that studies _____ those characteristics are _________ from one generation to the next is called ___________________ heredity Genetics parents to offspring SCIENCE how passed on

4 The __________________ is _________________, a monk whose _________ of genetic traits was the beginning of our _________________ about _____________________. Gregor Mendel Father of Genetics study understanding how genes work

5 Mendel designed ____________ using __________ in the monastery garden _______ part of flower makes ___________ (sperm) __________ part of flower makes _______ cells Pea plants Pollen experiments MALE FEMALE egg

6 In pea plants, the pollen normally joins with an egg from the _______ plant (=_______________ ) so seeds have _________________ Self pollinating same ONE parent

7 MENDELS PEA EXPERIMENTS Mendel started his experiments with peas that were _________________ = if allowed to _________________ they would produce ____________________ to themselves. true breeding self pollinate offspring identical

8 MENDELS PEA EXPERIMENTS Mendel ____________________ making parts and ____________ from _______ plant. This allowed him to _____________ plants with ______________ characteristics and ________ the results different removed pollen added pollen another cross-breed study

9 A _____________________ is called a ____________ Mendel ______________ in peas. specific characteristic trait Pearson Education Inc,; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall studied 7 traits

10 MENDELS EXPERIMENTS ____ generation (_________) ____ generation (______= offspring) ___ generation P1P1 F1F1 F2F2 parental filial

11 Go to Section: P Generation F 1 Generation F 2 Generation TallShortTall Short Section 11-1 Principles of Dominance

12 Go to Section: P Generation F 1 Generation F 2 Generation TallShortTall Short Section 11-1 Principles of Dominance

13 Go to Section: P Generation F 1 Generation F 2 Generation TallShortTall Short Section 11-1 Principles of Dominance

14 When Mendel ______________ PLANTS with 2 ______________ traits: (EX: Tall crossed with short) He always found same pattern: 1. ONLY ______ trait ____________ in the ____generation BUT ___________ trait ____________ in the ____ generation in a _________ ratio ONE showed F1F1 F2F2 3:1 crossed PURE contrasting Missing returned

15 PATTERNS ARE THE KEY Image modified from:

16 Mendel decided that there must be a __________________ that ________each trait and that __________ must be able to _______ the other. pair of FACTORS one factor control HIDE

17 We now know that Mendels ________________ carried on the pair of________________ _________________ factors are genes homologous chromosomes

18 ________ gene _______ for a trait are called ___________. ALLELES DIFFERENT CHOICES

19 __________________ = An allele that ________ the presence of another allele __________________ = An allele that __________________ the presence of another allele DOMINANT RECESSIVE HIDES is hidden by

20 Why did the recessive trait disappear in the F 1 generation and reappear in the F 2 ? Image modified from: The pattern corresponds to the ____________ of ______________ during ____________________ MEIOSIS movement chromosomes

21 WHAT DOES MEIOSIS HAVE TO DO WITH IT?

22 REMEMBER _____________ chromosomes ________________ during ANAPHASE I = _________________ SEGREGATION Image modified from: HOMOLOGOUS SEPARATE

23 ____ offspring __________ an allele for tallness from their _______ parent and an allele for shortness from their ________ parent. The F 1 plants ALL ___________ but are ___________ an allele for _____________ TALL Images from: BIOLOGY by Miller & Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing ©2006 SHORT LOOK TALL F 1 received carrying shortness

24 alleles are separated when the F 1 plants ______________ When these gametes recombined to make the F 2 generation, the _____________ trait _______________ in ¼ of the offspring EXPLAINING the F 1 CROSS LAW OF ___________________ SEGREGATION Image from: BIOLOGY by Miller & Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing ©2006 recessive made gametes reappears

25 Core High School Life Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: predict the function of a given structure; predict the outcome of changes in the cell cycle; INTRODUCTION TO BE ABLE TO DO LATER predict how traits are transmitted from parents to offspring High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: describe the relationship between structure and function compare and contrast the cell cycles in somatic and germ cells; INTRODUCTION TO BE ABLE TO DO LATER explain how traits are transmitted from parents to offspring; High school students performing at the BASIC level recognize that different structures perform different functions describe the life cycle of somatic cells; INTRODUCTION TO BE ABLE TO DO LATER identify that genetic traits can be transmitted from parents to offspring;


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