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1. 2 Technology in Action Chapter 9 Securing Your System: Protecting Your Digital Data and Devices Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing.

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Presentation on theme: "1. 2 Technology in Action Chapter 9 Securing Your System: Protecting Your Digital Data and Devices Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing."— Presentation transcript:

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2 2 Technology in Action Chapter 9 Securing Your System: Protecting Your Digital Data and Devices Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

3 3 Chapter Topics Computer virus types Protecting computers from viruses Hackers Firewalls Passwords and password management Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

4 4 Chapter Topics (cont.) Biometrics Spyware and spam Backup methods Protecting physical assets Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

5 5 Computer Threats Cybercrimes are criminal acts conducted by cybercriminals through the use of computers Computer users need to protect themselves from becoming victims of cybercriminals Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

6 6 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

7 7

8 8 Ways to lose your money Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

9 9 Types of Cybercrime Fraud-related – –Nondelivery of ordered items – –Credit and debit card fraud – –Advanced fee scams Non-fraud-related – –Computer intrusions – –Unsolicited – –Child pornography Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

10 10 Computer Threats: Viruses Virus: A program that attaches itself to another program and spreads itself to other computers Viruses are hidden within the code of a host program Any computing device can be infected with a virus Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11 11 Got you sucker!! Naked_britney.jpg is a virus!!! Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

12 12 What Viruses Do Replicate themselves – –Slow down networks Secondary objectives – –Display annoying messages – –Delete files on the hard drive – –Change computer settings Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

13 13 How Does a Computer Catch a Virus? Viruses copy themselves and infect a file on your computer Spread by – –Sharing disks or flash drives – –Opening an attachment – –Downloading infected audio or video files Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

14 14 Types of Viruses Boot-sector viruses – –Replicate themselves in the boot sector of the hard drive Logic bombs – –Activate when certain conditions are met Time bombs – –Triggered by the passage of time or on a certain date Worms – –Travel between systems through networks Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

15 15 ZIP Bombs via !!! Many systems try to protect us by scanning attachmentsMany systems try to protect us by scanning attachments If the attachment has a compressed file, the system will decompress/expand the file onto the server for checking…If the attachment has a compressed file, the system will decompress/expand the file onto the server for checking… What if the attachment is 1-billion “X” in a row?What if the attachment is 1-billion “X” in a row? It compresses to about 30k but when expanded, can cause the system to crash to do lack of disk spaceIt compresses to about 30k but when expanded, can cause the system to crash to do lack of disk space Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

16 16 Types of Viruses (cont.) Script viruses – –Hidden on Web pages as miniprograms Macro viruses – –Attached to documents viruses – –Use address books to distribute themselves Encryption viruses – –Compress files using a complex encryption key Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

17 17 Virus Classifications Polymorphic viruses – –Periodically rewrite themselves to avoid detection Multipartite viruses – –Infect multiple file types Stealth viruses – –Erase their code from the hard drive and reside in the active memory Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

18 18 Antivirus Software Programs designed to detect viruses – –Scan files looking for virus signatures (unique code) – –Provide options for deleting or fixing infected files – –Inoculate files against further infection Needs to be updated frequently Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

19 19 Antivirus vendors Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

20 20 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

21 21 Dealing with an Infected Computer 1. 1.Boot computer with antivirus installation disc Run directly from DVD/CD Allow software to delete or quarantine infected files Research viruses found to ensure further manual steps are not needed. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

22 22 Prevent Instant Messaging Viruses Allow contact from Buddy or Friends List users only. Never automatically accept transfers of data. Avoid using instant messaging programs on public computers. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

23 23 Other Ways to Protect Your System Keep your antivirus and operating system (OS) software up to date Load security patches as soon as they are available Enable automatic updates Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

24 24Hackers Anyone who unlawfully accesses a computer system Types of hackers – –White hat – –Black hat – –Script kiddies Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

25 25HackersWikiLeaks Publish private & classified documents from hacked government & business computersPublish private & classified documents from hacked government & business computers Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

26 26HackersWikiLeaks Publish private & classified documents from hacked government & business computersPublish private & classified documents from hacked government & business computers Albert Gonzalez Obtained and sold 170 million credit card & ATM numbers ( ) using packet sniffing.Obtained and sold 170 million credit card & ATM numbers ( ) using packet sniffing. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

27 27HackersWikiLeaks Publish private & classified documents from hacked government & business computersPublish private & classified documents from hacked government & business computers Albert Gonzalez Obtained and sold 170 million credit card & ATM numbers ( ) using packet sniffing.Obtained and sold 170 million credit card & ATM numbers ( ) using packet sniffing. George Hotz – “geohot” (born 1989) Unlocking the iPhone – use on any carrierUnlocking the iPhone – use on any carrier Hacking “jailbreaking” Playstation 3Hacking “jailbreaking” Playstation 3 Sued by SonySued by Sony Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

28 28 What Hackers Steal Hackers try to steal data stored on hard drives: – –Credit card numbers – –Bank account numbers Also can steal information through packet sniffing or a keylogger Use information to purchase items illegally or to commit identity theft Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

29 29 How Computers Are Attacked Trojan horse Backdoor program – –Zombies Denial of service attacks (DoS) Distributed denial of service attacks (DDoS) Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

30 30 Anatomy of a Denial of Service Attack Ask the remote computer a simple questionAsk the remote computer a simple question Ask it many Many MANY times !!!Ask it many Many MANY times !!! Ask the remote computer a simple questionAsk the remote computer a simple question Ask it many Many MANY times !!!Ask it many Many MANY times !!! The remote computer is so pre-occupied in telling me to go away, nothing else gets done Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

31 31 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

32 32 How Hackers Gain Access Direct access – –Hacking software Indirect access – –Internet connection – –Logical ports Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

33 33 Firewalls Software programs or hardware designed to close logical ports to invaders – –Most current operating systems include reliable firewalls – –Security suite often include firewalls – –Network routers can contain a hardware firewall Firewalls are critical if you have an always- on broadband connection Test your computer’s vulnerability Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

34 34 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

35 35 Nasty Tools - Cain and Able Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

36 36 Bluetooth Attacks Bluesnarfing – –Exploits flaw in access software to steal information contained on the device Bluebugging – –Hacker takes control of the device Make your device invisible Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

37 37 Bluetooth attacks Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

38 38 Passwords Create a strong password – –At least 14 characters, including numbers, symbols, and upper- and lowercase letters – –Not a single word or a word from a dictionary – –Not easily associated with you (birthday, name of pet, nickname) – –Use different passwords for different sites – –Do not tell anyone or write down password – –Change password regularly (every month) Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

39 39 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

40 40 Wireless Networks on the Road Beware – –“Evil twins” – –Free Internet access in paid locations Protect yourself – –Check with authorized personnel for official name of hotspot – –Do not use free access from unknown sources Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

41 41 Password Managers Remember all your different passwords Built into – –Operating systems – –Web browsers – –Some security packages Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

42 42 Anonymous Web Surfing Public computers – –Shared computers risk subsequent user viewing your data – –Might already have viruses or hacking tools installed Portable privacy devices Linux OS on a flash drive Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

43 43 Biometric Authentication Devices Read unique personal characteristics – –Fingerprint – –Iris patterns – –Voice patterns – –Face patterns Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

44 44 Malware Software that has a malicious intent – –Grayware (nondestructive) Adware Spyware – –Viruses (destructive) Antispyware software – –Included in many Internet security suites – –Stand-alone spyware removal available Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

45 45 Spam or Spim Spam: Unwanted or junk – –To avoid SPAM Create free Web-based account for filling out online forms or making online purchases Use a spam filter Do not try to “unsubscribe” from spam s Use an forwarding service Spim: Unsolicited instant messages Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

46 46 Cookies A Web site assigns an ID number to your computer, stored in a cookie file Each time you log in to the site, it notes the visit and keeps track of it in a database Provide info about browsing habits Identify user preferences Pose some privacy risks, but low security threat Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

47 47 Protecting Your Personal Information Protect information from identity thieves – –Social Security number – –Phone number – –Street address Check privacy settings on social networking sites: Keep your information as private as possible Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

48 48 Backing Up Your Data Backup – –A copy of a file that can be used to replace the original Types of files to back up – –Program – –Data Backup routine – –Frequency – –Changed files Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

49 49 Backing Up Your Data (cont.) Software programs for easy backup – –Schedule automatic backups – –Can back up files, folders, or entire drives – –Back up to external hard drive, USB device, or DVD Entire system backup software – –Takes an image of the entire system – –Stores on a separate hard drive – –In case of failure, a new drive is inserted Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

50 50 Backing Up Your Data (cont.) Store backups offsite Online backups – –Store backup files on Internet servers – –Some services free Windows Live Sky Drive ADrive – –Fees for some services Network attached storage (NAS) devices Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

51 51 Social Engineering Uses social skills to generate human interaction to entice individuals to reveal sensitive information – –Usually does not use a computer or face-to- face interaction – –Pretexting Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

52 52 Phishing and Pharming Phishing – –Uses to lure user to fake Web sites – –Tricks user into revealing private data Pharming – –Malicious code changes Web browser’s ability to find Web addresses Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

53 53 Hoaxes An attempt to make someone believe something that is untrue – –Target large audiences – –Practical joke, agents of social change, or time wasters – –Mostly Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

54 54 Protect Physical Assets Environmental factors – –Avoid Sudden movement Excessive heat or cold Dust Food and liquids – –Use padded case for notebooks Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

55 55 Power Surges Occur when electrical current is supplied in excess of normal voltage (120 volts in the United States) Caused by: – –Old or faulty wiring – –Downed power lines – –Malfunctions at electric substations – –Lightning strikes Use surge protectors Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

56 56 Deterring Theft Alarms Locks Software alerts Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

57 57E-waste Computer technology advances rapidly. Every 3-5 years we replace our systems. What do we do with the old one? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

58 58E-waste Computer technology advances rapidly. Every 3-5 years we replace our systems. What do we do with the old one? Reduce, Re-use, RecycleReduce, Re-use, Recycle The world produces ~ 50 million tonnes of E-waste each year.The world produces ~ 50 million tonnes of E-waste each year. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

59 59E-waste Computer technology advances rapidly. Every 3-5 years we replace our systems. What do we do with the old one? Reduce, Re-use, RecycleReduce, Re-use, Recycle The world produces ~ 50 million tonnes of E-waste each year.The world produces ~ 50 million tonnes of E-waste each year.Re-use Give old computers to those that can’t afford themGive old computers to those that can’t afford them Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

60 60E-wasteRecycle About 90% of your computer can be recycled – plastics, metals, etcAbout 90% of your computer can be recycled – plastics, metals, etcProblems? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

61 61E-wasteRecycle About 90% of your computer can be recycled – plastics, metals, etcAbout 90% of your computer can be recycled – plastics, metals, etcProblems? Recycling has become big businessRecycling has become big business Labour intensiveLabour intensive Some components are made of toxic materialsSome components are made of toxic materials Who disassembles the components?Who disassembles the components? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

62 62 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

63 63 What components did you recycle? CPU, RAM, Harddrive, etc.CPU, RAM, Harddrive, etc. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

64 64 What components did you recycle? CPU, RAM, Harddrive, etc.CPU, RAM, Harddrive, etc. Anything on your harddrive you might not want someone else to have?Anything on your harddrive you might not want someone else to have? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

65 65 What components did you recycle? CPU, RAM, Harddrive, etc.CPU, RAM, Harddrive, etc. Anything on your harddrive you might not want someone else to have?Anything on your harddrive you might not want someone else to have? Personal information & documentsPersonal information & documents Web browser historyWeb browser history Stored passwordsStored passwords Banking infoBanking info Even if you delete your files, they can sometimes be recovered!!! Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

66 66 Chapter 9 Summary Questions From which types of viruses do I need to protect my computer? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

67 67 Chapter 9 Summary Questions What can I do to protect my computer from viruses? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

68 68 Chapter 9 Summary Questions How can hackers attack my computing devices, and what harm can they cause? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

69 69 Chapter 9 Summary Questions What is a firewall, and how does it keep my computer safe from hackers? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

70 70 Chapter 9 Summary Questions How do I create secure passwords and manage all of my passwords? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

71 71 Chapter 9 Summary Questions How can I surf the Internet anonymously and use biometric authentication devices to protect my data? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

72 72 Chapter 9 Summary Questions How do I manage online annoyances such as spyware and spam? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

73 73 Chapter 9 Summary Questions What data do I need to back up, and what are the best methods for doing so? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

74 74 Chapter 9 Summary Questions What is social engineering, and how do I avoid falling prey to phishing and hoaxes? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

75 75 Chapter 9 Summary Questions How do I protect my physical computing assets from environmental hazards, power surges, and theft? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

76 Chapter 1 Chapter 9 76 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


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