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Developing Motivation in Career Counselling International Conference Guidance and Career Development, June 4 - 6, 2014 Québec, Canada Peter Beven Northumbria.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing Motivation in Career Counselling International Conference Guidance and Career Development, June 4 - 6, 2014 Québec, Canada Peter Beven Northumbria."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing Motivation in Career Counselling International Conference Guidance and Career Development, June 4 - 6, 2014 Québec, Canada Peter Beven Northumbria University United Kingdom

2 Developing Motivation in Career Counselling: Aims To discuss motivation as a key component of career development To introduce some aspects of the Miller and Rollnick motivational interviewing model To understand the potential of the ideas as appropriate to career counselling settings

3 Career Counselling Not all career guidance and counselling work occurs with “willing” clients Even with clients voluntarily seeking help, motivation for change can involve a complicated range of factors What can we learn from other cognate approaches?

4 research evidence

5 Research Findings (1) Change occurs naturally. What happens after formal interventions (counselling, guidance, therapy, etc.) mirrors natural change, rather than being a unique form of change. Nevertheless, the likelihood that change will occur is strongly influenced by interpersonal interactions. Even relatively brief support can initiate change When behaviour change occurs within a course of sessions, much of it happens within the first few sessions, and, on average, the total “dose” of treatment does not make all that much difference.

6 Research Findings (2) How the helper supports the client is a significant determinant of likelihood of dropout, retention, adherence, and outcome. People who believe that they are likely to change do so. People whose counsellors believe that they are likely to change do so. Those who are told that they are not expected to improve indeed often do not. (see “Waiting List” studies) What people say about change is important. Statements that reflect motivation for and commitment to change do predict subsequent behaviour

7 research evidence mi specific

8 Research Evidence: Some specific examples re Motivational Interviewing Barnett et al (2012) value of MI for substance users A review by Macgowan and Engle (2010) reports that Motivational Interviewing (MI) has met the American Psychological Association's criteria for promising treatments of adolescent substance use. DiFulvio et al., (2012) effectiveness of MI with alcohol abuse and college students Anstiss et al., (2011) Motivational Interviewing with Prisoners

9 Self Determination Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2013) Unmotivated  Extrinsic (responsive to outside influences or sanctions)  Intrinsic (responsive to internal reasons and wishes) Where behaviour change is intrinsic, more likely to be longer lasting. This links directly with Motivational Interviewing principles

10 Self Determination Theory Self Determination Theory suggests three basic psychological needs that must be satisfied to foster well-being and health; Competence -seeking to control the outcome and experience mastery Relatedness - is the wish to interact, be connected to, and experience caring for others Autonomy -is the urge to be causal agents of one's own life

11 motivational interviewing features

12 Motivational Interviewing Should avoid viewing clients as intrinsically “Motivated” or “Unmotivated” Need to view motivation as a state of readiness to take action – which will vary from one time to another The way an interviewer relates to a client affects the outcome: there can be significant changes even with clients appearing “unmotivated”

13 Assessing motivation Need to identify at what stage the client is at with regard to readiness to change Prochaska and DiClemente- researchers who have described a series of stages through which people pass in the course of managing a problem “The Wheel of Change”

14 Wheel of Change

15 It is a circle: common for people to move round several times Provides windows of opportunity where advisers can have significant influence Different strategies needed at different stages of the wheel of change

16 Pre-contemplation stage The client not yet thinking about the possibility of change May report: “I haven’t got a problem” May express surprise there's anything to discuss May be defensive pre-contemplators: “I’m only here because they force me to come here” (or e.g. to avoid losing benefit) May have been referred by other agencies

17 Pre-contemplation: Four variations on a theme Reluctant precontemplators: don’t want to consider change; may be unaware of the effect of problem behaviour; may feel comfortable where they are Rebellious precontemplators: unlike the above, often have a great deal of knowledge about their behaviour; may be hostile to the idea of change

18 Pre-contemplation: Four variations on a theme (cont’d) The Resigned Precontemplator: Have given up on the possibility of change and seem overwhelmed by the problem. The Rationalising Precontemplator: often appears to have all the answers. Not considering change because believe their situation is due to someone else’s problem or mistake

19 Contemplation Stage Some Awareness of the Problem Characterised by “Ambivalence” Both considers change and rejects it Moves between reasons to change and reasons not to change

20 Ambivalence Ambivalence (or “feeling two ways about something”) is a natural state, but can be a key issue that must be resolved for change to occur. The "lack of motivation" that so often frustrates the work of professionals in a range of settings can be thought of as unresolved ambivalence. To explore ambivalence is to work at the heart of the problem of being stuck. Until a person can resolve the "I want to, but I don't want to" dilemma, change is likely to be slow ‑ going and short ‑ lived

21 Determination Stage Where the balance tips towards intention to act “I can’t go on like this” “What can I do? How can I change this?” “I’ve got to do something about this”

22 Action Stage What most people think of as counselling or guidance: The search for strategies to help the client bring about a change Helping the client to identify options and supporting them in reaching goals: E.g. Information, advice, guidance

23 Maintenance In essence this is about staying on track with the change plan Helping client not to lose ground if plan does not work out immediately E.g. maintaining morale in the face of a rejection of a job application or application for a college place

24 Relapse Relapse is when an individual, having made some attempt to change “reverts back” to problematic behaviour or lifestyle A key task here is to provide support to try to help the client to avoid discouragement and demoralisation Try to renew determination to act

25 Principles of Good Practice Express empathy Develop discrepancy Avoid Argumentation Roll with Resistance Support client in belief that they can change (self efficacy)

26 Avoiding “traps” in Interviews Question- answer trap Confrontation – denial trap The “Expert” trap Labelling trap Premature Focus trap Blaming trap

27 Developing Clients’ Self Motivation Asking evocative questions Exploring pros and cons Asking for elaboration Imagining Extremes Looking Forward Looking Back

28 Opening Strategies Ask Open Questions Listen reflectively Summarise Affirm Encourage self motivational statements: problem recognition, concern, intention to change and optimism for change

29 Moving towards Client Action: Transition Stage Make a Summary Reflection: – Review: concerns, – any reluctance, – incorporate self motivational statements from earlier in the interview Ask the “Key Question” – Client to suggest next steps Follow client answer with reflective listening Help client identify priorities Negotiate plan for change

30 Four Categories of Client Resistance 1. Arguing 2. Interrupting 3. Denying 4. Ignoring

31 Strategies for Handling Resistance Simple reflection Amplified reflection Double-sided reflection Shifting Focus Reframing Agreement with a twist Emphasising personal control

32 Thank you! Web site


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