Presentation on theme: "History of Oceanography"— Presentation transcript:
1 History of Oceanography Text Website:Last Updated 2013
2 Oceanography History~ 3,000 years ago people started to ask questions about the large bodies of water surrounding them!!~ 130 years ago modern oceanography bornBritish and European expeditions launched to explore the sea floorBritish 1872 – 1876 Challenger ExpeditionWWIIU.S. NavyFighting Advantages to knowing sea floor/submarine warfare
3 Library of AlexandriaEratosthenes of Cryene: 1st to estimate circumference of the EarthCartographer/Charts
5 Atlantic Exploring Egypt, Phoenicia and Crete Mapping of coast lines CartographyMigration due to trade of Mediterranean2,900 years agoGreeks explore beyond Straights of GibraltarThough Atlantic was a Big River, “Oceanus”Greek word “okeano”, which means riverAlexander the Great, 325 B.C.
11 Chinese ~ 1000 ADChineseCompassOriginally used for land tripslater used in marine navigationWater tight compartmentsCentral rudder on boatSails with mastsVenetian blindsDeveloped a way to determine latitude based on starsUsed incense to determine LongitudeMagnetic Pointer: Spoon is Magnetite
15 Expeditions 1400’s to early 1500’s not a lot of Navigation????? European Age of Discovery1492: Columbus – Looking for a route to India for trade finds the “new world”Finds Native Americans who have been here for over 11,000 years1522: Magellan – Looking for trade to the Orient, circumnavigated the globeOnly 34 – 260 people survived the journey1772 – James Cook Accurate maps of the Philippines
22 1728 – John Harrison, made the first chronometer, spring clock, time method for determining longitude1840 – Matthew Maury- US Navy, made a chart of the Earth’s winds and currents, making traveling the open ocean much more efficient, father of physical oceanography
23 Harrison and Chronometer MauryMatthew Maury and Oceanography
25 The Challenger Expedition 1872 – 1876 Expedition of Ocean FeaturesTemperatureChemistryCurrentsMarine LifeGeology of the sea floor243 crewman, 6 scientists, 4 years, 362 sampling stations, 133 dredges, 4,700 new species found
26 1872 – Challenger Expedition: 1stst expedition devoted to marine science Charles Thomson/John MauryCoined phrase “Oceanography”Samples for scientific testing50 volume set
28 Benjamin Franklin: Gulf Stream Late 1700’sDocumented ocean currents off the US east coastGulf StreamFast moving currentWarm surface waterFrom Florida up north and across the Atlantic“River in the ocean”WindsRotation of the planetColder currents around and below streamMoving as fast as 5 knotsBen Franklin, the Fahrenheit Scale, and Versailles
31 First U.S. Navy Submarine Purchased From John P. Holland in 1900 for $160,000, 45 HP engine, went a speed of 6 knots, commission the USS Holland (SS-1) October 12, 1900USS Monitor: Science of the Deep
32 Vocab Terms Cartographer- Chart makers Charts- Geographic representations that depict water and water related informationLibrary of Alexandria- Egypt 3rd Century B.C., founded by Alexander the great- 1st Marine Science, 1st higher educationEratosthenes of Cyrene- 1st to calculate the circumference of the EarthLatitude- Parallel to the equatorLongitude- Line the run pole to pole
33 Polynesian- Eastern Pacific Islanders Vikings- Norway and Sweden, mainly people from northern EuropeChris Columbus- Accidental discovery of the America’sJames Cook- British explorerFerdinand Magellan- Portugal, 1st voyage around the world – trading with orient, accidental discoveryChronometer- Clock not governed by pendulum, which would be useless on a rolling ship, but by a spring escapementSoundings- Depth measurements
34 Review QuestionsWhat features would be most useful to include in a nautical chart? why?What were the stimuli to Polynesian colonization? How were the long voyages accomplished? How ere Polynesian voyages different from (and similar to) those of the Vikings?What were the main stimuli to European voyages of exploration during the Age of Discovery? Why did it end?What were the oceanographic contributions of Prince Henry the Navigator, Benjamin Franklin, Matthew Maury, and Charles Darwin?How can you find your approximate latitude and longitude at sea?
35 What were the goals and results of the United States Exploring Expedition? What U.S. institution greatly benefited from its efforts?What was the first purely scientific oceanographic expedition, and what were some of its accomplishments? What contributions did the earlier, hybrid expeditions make?
36 Critical ThinkingHow could you convince a 10 – y.o. that Earth is round? What evidence would a child offer that it’s flat? How can you counter those objections?How did the Library of Alexandria contribute to the development of marine science? What happened to most of the information accumulated there? Why do you suppose the residents of Alexandria became hostile to the librarians and the many achievements of the library.How did Eratosthenes calculate the approximate size of Earth? Which of his assumptions was the “shakiest?”If Columbus did not discover North America, then who did?
37 Maori canoes. IRC. 2005. unitedstreaming Maori canoes.. IRC unitedstreaming. 17 September 2008 <Junk, Chinese. Library of Congress unitedstreaming. 17 September 2008 <Greatest Inventions with Bill Nye: Exploration from Sea to Space. Discovery Education unitedstreaming. 18 September 2008 <