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History of Oceanography

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Presentation on theme: "History of Oceanography"— Presentation transcript:

1 History of Oceanography
Text Website: Last Updated 2013

2 Oceanography History ~ 3,000 years ago people started to ask questions about the large bodies of water surrounding them!! ~ 130 years ago modern oceanography born British and European expeditions launched to explore the sea floor British 1872 – 1876 Challenger Expedition WWII U.S. Navy Fighting Advantages to knowing sea floor/submarine warfare

3 Library of Alexandria Eratosthenes of Cryene: 1st to estimate circumference of the Earth Cartographer/Charts

4 Circumference of the Earth

5 Atlantic Exploring Egypt, Phoenicia and Crete Mapping of coast lines
Cartography Migration due to trade of Mediterranean 2,900 years ago Greeks explore beyond Straights of Gibraltar Though Atlantic was a Big River, “Oceanus” Greek word “okeano”, which means river Alexander the Great, 325 B.C.



8 Polynesian Migration started 30,000 years ago
~500 AD: Polynesians (s.pacific islanders) who populate ~10,000 islands colonize Hawaii Religious / Political tension/ Food/ Natural Disasters

9 Polynesian Canoe Colonized much of South Pacific


11 Chinese ~ 1000 AD Chinese Compass Originally used for land trips later used in marine navigation Water tight compartments Central rudder on boat Sails with masts Venetian blinds Developed a way to determine latitude based on stars Used incense to determine Longitude Magnetic Pointer: Spoon is Magnetite


13 Chinese Junk Vessel Common Sailing Vessel in China 10th Century


15 Expeditions 1400’s to early 1500’s not a lot of Navigation?????
European Age of Discovery 1492: Columbus – Looking for a route to India for trade finds the “new world” Finds Native Americans who have been here for over 11,000 years 1522: Magellan – Looking for trade to the Orient, circumnavigated the globe Only 34 – 260 people survived the journey 1772 – James Cook Accurate maps of the Philippines

16 Columbus Magellan Cook

17 Columbus Lands in the Caribbean





22 1728 – John Harrison, made the first chronometer, spring clock, time method for determining longitude 1840 – Matthew Maury- US Navy, made a chart of the Earth’s winds and currents, making traveling the open ocean much more efficient, father of physical oceanography

23 Harrison and Chronometer
Maury Matthew Maury and Oceanography

24 Harrison's Marine Chronometer, 1762
                                                 Harrison's Marine Chronometer, 1762

25 The Challenger Expedition 1872 – 1876
Expedition of Ocean Features Temperature Chemistry Currents Marine Life Geology of the sea floor 243 crewman, 6 scientists, 4 years, 362 sampling stations, 133 dredges, 4,700 new species found

26 1872 – Challenger Expedition: 1stst expedition devoted to marine science
Charles Thomson/John Maury Coined phrase “Oceanography” Samples for scientific testing 50 volume set


28 Benjamin Franklin: Gulf Stream
Late 1700’s Documented ocean currents off the US east coast Gulf Stream Fast moving current Warm surface water From Florida up north and across the Atlantic “River in the ocean” Winds Rotation of the planet Colder currents around and below stream Moving as fast as 5 knots Ben Franklin, the Fahrenheit Scale, and Versailles



31 First U.S. Navy Submarine
Purchased From John P. Holland in 1900 for $160,000, 45 HP engine, went a speed of 6 knots, commission the USS Holland (SS-1) October 12, 1900 USS Monitor: Science of the Deep

32 Vocab Terms Cartographer- Chart makers
Charts- Geographic representations that depict water and water related information Library of Alexandria- Egypt 3rd Century B.C., founded by Alexander the great- 1st Marine Science, 1st higher education Eratosthenes of Cyrene- 1st to calculate the circumference of the Earth Latitude- Parallel to the equator Longitude- Line the run pole to pole

33 Polynesian- Eastern Pacific Islanders
Vikings- Norway and Sweden, mainly people from northern Europe Chris Columbus- Accidental discovery of the America’s James Cook- British explorer Ferdinand Magellan- Portugal, 1st voyage around the world – trading with orient, accidental discovery Chronometer- Clock not governed by pendulum, which would be useless on a rolling ship, but by a spring escapement Soundings- Depth measurements

34 Review Questions What features would be most useful to include in a nautical chart? why? What were the stimuli to Polynesian colonization? How were the long voyages accomplished? How ere Polynesian voyages different from (and similar to) those of the Vikings? What were the main stimuli to European voyages of exploration during the Age of Discovery? Why did it end? What were the oceanographic contributions of Prince Henry the Navigator, Benjamin Franklin, Matthew Maury, and Charles Darwin? How can you find your approximate latitude and longitude at sea?

35 What were the goals and results of the United States Exploring Expedition? What U.S. institution greatly benefited from its efforts? What was the first purely scientific oceanographic expedition, and what were some of its accomplishments? What contributions did the earlier, hybrid expeditions make?

36 Critical Thinking How could you convince a 10 – y.o. that Earth is round? What evidence would a child offer that it’s flat? How can you counter those objections? How did the Library of Alexandria contribute to the development of marine science? What happened to most of the information accumulated there? Why do you suppose the residents of Alexandria became hostile to the librarians and the many achievements of the library. How did Eratosthenes calculate the approximate size of Earth? Which of his assumptions was the “shakiest?” If Columbus did not discover North America, then who did?

37 Maori canoes. IRC. 2005. unitedstreaming
Maori canoes.. IRC unitedstreaming. 17 September 2008 < Junk, Chinese. Library of Congress unitedstreaming. 17 September 2008 < Greatest Inventions with Bill Nye: Exploration from Sea to Space. Discovery Education unitedstreaming. 18 September 2008 <

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