Presentation on theme: "Analyzing a Running Record"— Presentation transcript:
1 Analyzing a Running Record An Instructional Module for Reading Teachers
2 What is a Running Record? How is it used? What information will it give me?How do I go about analyzing a Running Record?Before jumping into all the hows, whats and details of running records please read the excerpt on the following slide
3 Anomalous momentum transport has been observed in Alcator C-Mod tokamak plasmas. The time evolution of core impurity toroidal rotation velocity profiles has been measured with a tangentially viewing crystal x-ray spectrometer array. Following the L-mode to EDA (enhanced D ) H-mode transition in both Ohmic and ion cyclotron range of frequencies heated discharges, the ensuing co-current toroidal rotation velocity, which is generated in the absence of any external momentum source, is observed to propagate in from the edge plasma to the core with a timescale of the order of the observed energy confinement time, but much less than the neo-classical momentum confinement time. The ensuing steady state toroidal rotation velocity profiles in EDA H-mode plasmas are relatively flat, with V ~ 50 km s-1, and the momentum transport can be simulated using a simple diffusion model.
4 What are you thinking?Are you thinking I didn’t understand that at all? Well don’t feel bad unless you’re an expert in abstract physics I wasn’t expecting you to. However I did want you to start consciously thinking about meaning. As proficient readers we are able to unconsciously use cueing systems to help us make meaning from written texts.
5 Three Cueing Systems Meaning Structure Visual The three cueing systems we use to make meaning from written texts are Meaning, structure, and visual cues. When we use meaning we are thinking does this make sense? When we use structure we ask ourselves if what we’ve read sounds right. The visual cueing system helps us determine if what we’ve read matches the sounds represented by the letters on the page. We’re unconsciously thinking does this look right? When a reader is struggling they are usually having trouble using the cueing systems effectively.
6 = + Consider an Analogy: Reading can be like making a great soup. Does Not=+A chef and fresh vegetables doesn’t automatically equal great soup.
7 Does it need to simmer longer? Should I add more spices? Or broth? A good chef knows that he has check his soup. He has to ask himself does this taste right? Do I need to add a little more spice, should I simmer it a bit longer?
8 Combined just right…If the chef tastes his creation from time to time he’ll use his ingredients effectively and simmer it the appropriate amount of time. With the right combination of skill, ingredients and time our chef will end up with a great soup.
9 + = Reading + Does it make sense? + Does it sound right? + Does it look right?Similarly when a reader effectively and flexibly uses the meaning, structure and visual cueing systems he is able to create meaning from written text. Taking these ideas into consideration please take a few moments to read the following slides about running records.+=Reading
10 What is a Running Record? A running record is an assessment tool used to pinpoint which cueing systems a struggling reader is neglecting while reading.
11 Taking a Running Record The child reads a book or passage aloud.The teacher uses a coding system of marking conventions to record the students words and actions while reading.Afterwards the teacher analyzes the running record for types of errors or miscues.Miscues and Self-Corrections are labeled Meaning, Visual, or Structure.
12 What is considered an error? The student substitutes another word for a word in the textThe student omits a wordThe student inserts a wordThe student has to be told a word by the person administering the running record
13 What is a Self-Correction? A self-correction is when a student has made an error but then fixed the error by reading it correctly.
14 Marking ConventionsClick on the link below to view the marking conventions for running records.This slide explains the marking conventions used when taking a running record. Please review the conventions as they will help you understand the reader’s behaviors.
15 Cueing System ReviewMeaning (M) Does it make sense? Meaning is part of the cueing system in which the child takes his or her cue to make sense of text by thinking about the story background, information from pictures, or the meaning of a sentence. These cues assist in the reading of a word or phrase.Structure (S) Does it sound right? Structure refers to the structure of language and is often referred to as syntax. Implicit knowledge of structure helps the reader know if what he or she reads sounds correct.Visual (V) Does it look right? Visual information is related to the look of the letter in a word and the word itself. A reader uses visual information when he or she studies the beginning sound, word length, familiar word chunks, etc.
16 Example Problem #1 The dog ran beyond the shed. What cueing system is the student using?M: Does it make sense? (Yes)S: Does it sound right? (No)V: Does it look right? (Sort of)runnedIn this example the student read the sentence as follows: The dog runned beyond the shed. The check marks indicate where the reader decoded a word correctly. Where a word, letter, or group of letters is noted in red above the sentence the student has made an error in decoding. In this example the student read “ran” as “runned”. In order to analyze the error it’s important to remember that we are trying to pinpoint the cueing system or systems that the student is using and we only read up to the point of error and not beyond. Reading beyond the error will skew the analysis. When analyzing an error we have to ask ourselves three questions: Does the phrase make sense so far? Does the phrase sound grammatically correct so far? Is the reader using visual cues to decode? In this example the reader is using meaning and some visual cues to try to decode the unknown the word. Although the sentence doesn’t sound grammatically correct it’s intended meaning is correct. The reader has also used the “R” and “N” as visual cues. Just a small note, this type of error is not a common occurrence. Most often a reader will use visual cues alone and neglect both meaning and structure or use both meaning and structure and neglect visual cues.
17 Example Problem #2 The dog ran beyond the shed. behind What cueing system is the student using?M: Does it make sense? (Yes)S: Does it sound right? (Yes)V: Does it look right? (No)behindIn this example the sentence is read: The dog ran behind the shed. The reader replaced beyond with behind. When reading up to the point of error, “The dog ran behind”, the phrase makes sense and is structurally sound. Therefore although the reader is using some visual cues this is the only cueing system that is not being used effectively.
18 Example Problem #3 The dog ran beyond the shed. began What cueing system is the student using?M: Does it make sense? (No)S: Does it sound right? (No)V: Does it look right? (Yes)beganIn this example the sentence is read as follows: The dog ran began the shed. The word beyond is replaced with began. If you read up to the point of error, “The dog ran began” the phrase doesn’t make sense nor is it structurally sound. The only cueing system the reader is using is visual cues. You might be thinking to yourself that this is very subjective and open to different interpretations. And you are right. However, the more you use the system the better and more consistent you become in your analysis. Don’t be disappointed if you have difficulty with the following practice problems, this is a skill that takes time and practice to master.
19 Please Remember…When analyzing a miscue, use only the text up to the point of error to determine which cueing systems are being used. Anything beyond the miscue is information that will skew your analysis.The next few slides will ask you to determine which cueing system(s) the reader is using to try to decode the unknown word. Although analysis of a running record is usually done after the child has read the entire passage, you can click on the speaker icon to hear the child reading. Please choose the cueing system you believe the reader is using.
20 Problem #1 makesure fast “I need someone to measure how far I can jump.”MeaningStructureVisualFor this problem try to determine the cueing system(s) the reader is using for the first error only. Please keep in mind that a reader may be using more than one cueing system at a time.
21 Yes. You are correctThe sentence up to this point would make sense. You may also notice that the phrase would also be structurally sound. The reader is neglecting the visual cueing system.
22 Yes. You are correctThe sentence up to this is structurally sound. You may also notice that the phrase also makes sense. The reader is neglecting the visual cueing system.
23 Sorry. Incorrect Choice. If you read up to the point of error, the phrase makes sense and is structurally sound. Please try again.This is kind of tricky. Although the reader is using some visual cues. The reader is effectively using meaning and structure up to this point. The reader is not attending to all the letters of the word, therefore he is neglecting visual cueing system.
24 Problem #2 Raccoon looked at her shiny new medal and felt proud. per R MeaningStructureVisual
25 Yes. You are correctThe reader is using the visual cueing and neglecting meaning and in essence structure as well.
26 Sorry. Incorrect Choice. If you read up to the point of error. The phrase does not make sense. Please try again.
27 Sorry. Incorrect Choice If you read up to the point of error. The phrase does not sound grammatically correct. Please try again.
28 Problem #3 Down the side of the hill rushed the rock, faster and faster until…crash!hefastPlease determine the cueing systems being used for the first error.MeaningStructureVisual
29 Yes. You are correctThe reader is using meaning up to this point. Please note that the phrase is also structurally sound. The reader is neglecting visual cues.
30 Yes. You are correctThe reader is using structure up to this point. Please note that the phrase also makes sense. The reader is neglecting visual cues.
31 Sorry. Incorrect Choice. The reader is not using the visual cues provided. Please try again.
32 Problem #4 The rock stopped at the bottom of the hill, not far from the river.s-st-opped SC RR fairrever/reever SCI hope you noticed that out of the three errors made, two of them were self-corrected therefore the analysis will be for the word “far”.MeaningStructureVisual
33 Yes. You are correctThe reader is using visual cues and is not attending to meaning.
34 Sorry. Incorrect Choice. If you read up to the point of error. The phrase does not make sense. Please try again.
35 Sorry. Not the best choice. Structure is debatable here. However there is a more obvious choice. Please try again.
36 Problem #5 Lizard lost so much weight that he began to get skinny. witeMeaningStructureVisual
37 Sorry. Incorrect Choice. If you read up to the point of error. The phrase does not make sense. Please try again.
38 Sorry. Not the best choice Structure is debatable here. However there is a more obvious choice. Please try again.
39 Yes. You are correct The reader is using visual cues but not meaning. Structure is debatable in this example.
40 Problem #6“Oh, no!” he said sadly.suddenlyMeaningStructureVisual
41 Yes. You are correctThe reader is using meaning up to this point. Please note that the phrase is also structurally sound. The reader is neglecting visual cues.
42 Yes. You are correctThe reader is using structure up to this point. Please note that the phrase also makes sense. The reader is neglecting visual cues.
43 Sorry. Incorrect Choice. The reader is using some visual clues but is not attending to all the letters. Please try again.
44 Problem #7 “I may be as thin as a stick… R many tine/tiny Meaning StructureVisual
45 Yes. You are correctThe reader is using visual cues but not meaning or structure.
46 Sorry. Incorrect Choice. If you read up to the point of error, the phrase does not make sense. Please try again.
47 Sorry. Incorrect Choice. If you read up to the point of error, the phrase is not structurally sound. Please try again.
48 Help MichelleFor the next activity you are being asked to assume the role of Michelle’s teacher. Michelle is a second grade student who is working hard to improve her reading skills, however, during the last marking period she has not made substantial improvement. Your job is to review her running record to help pinpoint the cueing system she is neglecting and thereby helping to determine a focus for her instruction.
49 InstructionsGo to the following website to print out Michelle’s running record.
50 Instructions Continued Notice the letters M S V on the right hand side of the paper. These letters stand for Meaning, Structure, and Visual.On an actual running record the user records the cueing systems that the reader is using to decode an unknown word.The student may be using one or more cueing systems to decode.The cueing systems being used are recorded by circling the appropriate letter: M S or V
51 Instructions Continued Remember that any error marked with SC is not considered an error. The student has self-corrected themselves therefore it is not analyzed as an error.While listening to Michelle read, it is your task to analyze the cueing systems that she is using to try to decode unknown words.Often the reader uses more than one cueing system at a time. Good luck!
52 Tiger’s Whirlwind Day “But Dad !” said Karla, “You know Tiger is not a tiger at all. He’sreally a scaredy cat. Please let mego out and find him. I can’t let himstay out in this storm!”outHas
53 St- SC“Stay right here!” Dad said firmly.“It’s not safe for you to go out!We’ll have to wait for the storm topass. Cats are pretty good at takingcare of themselves.” “But I have togo!” insisted Karla.probly goneinstead
54 n- SCShe looked in Dad’s eyes and knewhe meant what he said. Karla couldfeel the tears begin to well up in hereyes. She felt awful. The houseseemed very empty without Tiger.“Come sit here with us,” said Mom.tors beginning- SCunfulRem-pa-ty
55 You SC“We can sing some songs or tellstories until the storm lets up.” Iwish the storm would go away NOW!”said Karla in an angry voice. “And Idon’t feel like telling any stories.”watchedengorydidn’t
56 “Come on. Come sit down,” Dad said. “I’m sure Tiger will find a placeto hide.”
57 Check Yourself Please go to the following link to check your analysis. Please take a few moments to review your analysis. If an analysis does not match the form take some time to consider why your analysis might differ.
58 Review the AnalysisNote how many errors were made throughout the entire running record.Tally how many times each of the cueing systems was neglected.Decide which cueing system will be your main focus of instruction for Michelle.
59 Check Yourself There were 12 total errors or miscues. Out of 12 errors Michelle neglected to use visual cues 8 times.She also neglected to use meaning and structure 4 times.Since most of Michelle’s errors occurred because she neglected visual cues, the visual cueing system would be the main instructional focus.
60 Additional Information Please remember that this is only one piece of information to use in directing instruction. We should always consider additional information as well.A running record can also help pinpoint a student’s reading level and self-correction rate.Also our professional experience and knowledge of a child are invaluable pieces of the puzzle.
61 Final SurveyPlease take a few moments of your time to complete the closing survey found atThis survey will help me improve the effectiveness of this instructional module.Follow the link to the survey, then make and save a copy of the survey to fill in.Please me an attached copy of your survey toWell done. Thank you for your time. I hope you’ve found this experience to be helpful. Please take a few more moments of your valuable time to complete the closing survey. It will help me improve the module for future use.